Skip to main content

Full text of "Bulletin"

See other formats




Bulletin 75„ 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
BUREAU OF MINES 

JOSEPH A. HOLMES, Director 




ULES AND REGULATIONS FOR 
METAL MINES 



BY 



W. R. INGALLS, JAMES DOUGLAS, J. R. FINLAY, 
J. PARKE CHANNING 

AND 

JOHN HAYS HAMMOND 







WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1915 



X 




Bulletin 75 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
BUREAU OF MINES 

JOSEPH A. HOLMES, Director 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR 
METAL MINES 



BY 



W. R. INGALLS, JAMES DOUGLAS, J. R. FINLAY, 
J. PARKE CHANNING 

AND 

JOHN HAYS HAMMOND 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1915 



The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the provisions of its organic act — to 
disseminate information concerning investigations made — prints a limited free edition 
of each of its publications. 

When this edition is exhausted copies may be obtained at cost price only through 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 
who is the authorized agent of the Federal Government for the sale of all publications. 

The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau of Mines. His is 
an entirely separate office and he should be addressed: 

Superintendent op Documents, 

Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D. C. 

The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the giving of 
more than one copy of a publication to one person. Additional copies must be pur- 
chased from the Superintendent of Documents. The price of this bulletin is 35 cents. 



First edition. August, 1915. 






CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. History of the committee and its investigations, by W. R. Ingalls. 1 

Cha])ter II. General report by the committee 7 

Chapter III. Draft for a law, by the committee 13 

Section 1. Definition of terms 13 

Section 2. Office of inspector of mines 15 

Section 3. Deputy inspector of mines 16 

Section 4. Restrictions upon inspectors 16 

Section 5. Payment of salary and expenses 17 

Section 6. Legal expenses of inspectors 17 

Section 7. Office and records of inspector of mines 18 

Section 8. Reports to inspector of mines 18 

Section 9. Designation for service of notices 19 

Section 10. Secrecy of records 20 

Section 1 1 . Duties of inspectors — Inspection — Powers 21 

Section 12. Dangerous mines — Duties of insi)ectors 22 

Section 13. Refusing inspection — Penalty 23 

Section 14 . Records of inspection 23 

Section 15. Complaints to inspectors 23 

Section 16. Accidents 24 

Section 17. Loss of life 25 

Section 18. Inspector to forward papers to prosecuting officer in certain 

cases '■^ 

Section 19. Statistical reports of mine inspector 26 

Section 20. Removal of inspectors 26 

Section 21 . Superintendent to be appointed 27 

Section 22. Mine foreman to be appointed 28 

Section 23. Care of injured 29 

Section 24. Mine maps 30 

Section 25. Failure to make map — Remedy 30 

Section 26. Inflammable material 31 

Section 27. Storage of explosives 35 

Section 28. Marking of explosives, detonators, and fuses 39 

Section 29. Blasting 39 

Section 30. Hoisting engineer 42 

Section 31. Hoisting 42 

Section 32. Safeguards against overwinding 44 

Section 33. Duties of hoisting engineer 45 

Section 34. Hoisting ropes 46 

Section 35. Cages for hoisting men 51 

Section 36. Boiler inspection. Compressed-air tanks 51 

Section 37. Guard rails 53 

Section 38. Women and children in mines— Employment prohibited 53 

Section 39. Two openings to surface 53 

Section40. Openings through other mines 56 

nx 



[V CONTENTS. 

f'hapter III. Draft for a law — Continued. Page. 

Section 4 1 . Provisions affecting mines having only one outlet 56 

Section 42. Protection of outlets against fire 57 

Section 43. Ladderways and ladders 57 

Section 44, Ventilation 58 

Section 45. Sanitation — Dry closota, drinking water, change houaes, etc.. 58 

Section 4G. Roof inspection 59 

Section 47. Safety pillara 60 

Section 48. Intoxicating liquor prohibited in mines 61 

Section 49. General rules 61 

General safety precautions 61 

Foremen's duties 62 

Candles 62 

Fire-fighting holmeta ' 62 

Cages ; 63 

Hoisting while sinking shaft 63 

Deepening shaft — protection 64 

Whims 64 

Crossheads -64 

Signals 64 

Punishment for interference with signals 64 

Signal codes 65 

Cleaning of manways 65 

Fire protection 65 

Timbering 65 

Fencing disused workings 65 

Penalty for destroying fences and coverings 66 

Lighting 66 

Places of refuge 66 

Protection against water 66 

Ladders and laddorways 67 

Enforcement of rules 35 to 42 68 

Sumps 69 

Stopes 69 

Winzes or raises 69 

Shaft protection 69 

Oiling cage safety catches 70 

Explosives 70 

Fuses 71 

Report of personal accidents 71 

General rules 71 

Section 50. Electrical installation 72 

Definitions 73 

Grounding 74 

Voltiigc 74 

Ground detectors 74 

Switchboards 75 

Danger signals 75 

Precautions against shock 75 

Fire buckets 75 

Emergency lights 75 

Plan of tloctric aystcm 75 

Report of dof wtivo Hvstom 75 

Notice of Installation yg 



CONTENTS. V 

Chapter III. Draft for a law — Continued. rage. 
Section 50. Electrical installation — Continued. 

Underground stations and transformer rooms 76 

Switchboards 76 

Protection of terminals 76 

Transformer rooms 7G 

Circuits entering or leaving transformers 76 

Transmission lines and cables 76 

High-voltage wires 7G 

Support of cables and wires 77 

Overhead lines above ground 77 

Cables buried on surface 77 

Protection of circuits leading underground 77 

Branch circuits 77 

Grounded circuits 77 

Lighting circuits 77 

Underground trolley 78 

Protection of trolley wires 78 

Location of wires 78 

Power wires and cables in shafts 78 

Cables in main roads 78 

Protection of cables during blasting 78 

Cables entering fittings 78 

Joints in conductors ' 78 

Joints in cables 79 

Fuses, circuit breakers, and switches 79 

Stationary motors 79 

Protection 79 

Electric lighting 79 

Lamp sockets 79 

Flexible lamp cord 79 

Incandescent lamps 79 

Separate circuits for hoists 80 

Section 51. Care of electrical equipment, and practices 80 

Section 52. Penalties 80 

Section 53. Copy of act to be posted 82 

Section 54. Repeal of inconsistent laws 82 

Section 55. When act shall take effect 82 

Chapter IV. Synopsis of proposed law, by L. O. Kellogg 83 

Section 1 . Definition of terms 83 

Section 2. Office of inspector of mines 83 

Section 3. Deputy inspector of mines 83 

Section 4. Restrictions upon inspectors 83 

Section 5. Payment of salary and expenses 83 

Section 6. Legal expenses of inspectors 83 

Section 7. Office and records of inspector of mines 83 

Section 8. Reports to inspector of mines 84 

Section 9. Designation for ser\'ice of notices 84 

Section 10. Secrecy of records 84 

Section 11. Duties of inspectors — Inspection — Powers 84 

Section 12. Dangerous mines — Duties of inspectors 84 

Section 13. Refusing inspection^Penalty . . 84 

Section 14. Records of inspection 84 

Section 15. Complaints to inspectors 84 



VI CONTENTS. 

Chapter IV. Synopsis of proposed law — Continued. rng«. 

Secrion 16. Accidents 84 

Section 17. Loss of Life 85 

Section IS. Inspector to forward papers to prosecuting officer in certain 

cases 85 

Section 19. Statistical reports of mine inspector 85 

Section 20. Removal of inspectors 85 

Section 21. Superintendent to be appointed.- 85 

Section 22. Mine foreman to bo appointed 85 

Section 23. Care of injured 85 

Section 24. Mine maps 86 

Section 25. P'ailure to make map — Remedy 86 

Section 26. Inflammable material 86 

Section 27. Storage of explosives 86 

Section 28. Marking of explosives, detonators, and fuses 87 

Section 29. Blasting 87 

Section 30. Hoisting engineer 87 

Section 31. Hoisting 87 

Section 32. Safeguards against overwinding 88 

Section 33. Duties of hoisting engineer 88 

Section 34. Hoisting ropes 88 

Section 35. Cages for hoisting men 88 

Section 36. Boiler inspection. Compressed-air tanks 89 

Section 37. Guard rails 89 

Section 38. Women and children in mines — Employment prohibited 89 

Section 39. Two openings to surface 89 

Section 40. Openings throiigli other mines 89 

Section 41. Provisions affecting mines haA-ing only one outlet 89 

Section 42. Protection of outlets against fire 90 

Section 43. Ladders and ladderwaj^s 90 

Section 44. Ventilation 90 

Section 45. Sanitation, dry closets, drinking water, change houses, etc 90 

Section 46. Roof inspection 90 

SecTtion 47. Safety pillars : 90 

Section 48. Intoxicating liquors prohibited in mines 90 

Section 49. General rules 90 

Section 50. Electrical installation 93 

Section 51. Care of electrical equipment and practices 95 

Section 52. Penalties 95 

Section 53. Copy of act to be posted 95 

Section 54. Repeal of inconsistent laws 95 

Section 55. When act shall take effect 95 

Chapter V. Discussion of certain matters of practice by the committee 06 

Steam-shovel mining 06 

Accidents in open-pit mining i)7 

Slides of bank 07 

Blasting OS 

The shovel 09 

Falls of persona 100 

Locomotives and ore trains 10) 

Conclusion 101 

Prevention of underground fires 101 

Fire doors 101 

Sprinklers 1 03 



CONTENTS. Vn 

Chapter V. Discussion of certain matters of practice by the committee — Con. Page. 

Surface caves 104 

Relative hazards of the caving system 105 

Mine ventilation 107 

Use of gasoline underground 108 

Handling men with inclined sldps 109 

Hoisting ropes 110 

General statement 110 

Safety factor Ill 

Permissible hoisting speed 113 

Permissible acceleration of hoisting speed 113 

Diameter of sheave 113 

Inclination of shaft 114 

Ropes not used for man-hoisting 115 

Permissible deterioration of rope in use 115 

Rope fastenings 120 

Directions for making a socket joint with zinc 121 

Difficulty of specifying for clamp fastenings 122 

Renewing fastenings 122 

Other considerations 122 

Rules for use of ropes 124 

Signals ."■ 125 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws, by C. B. Dutton 129 

Arizona 130 

Section 1. Application of act 130 

Sections 2, 3, 4, 5. Inspector 130 

Sections 6, 7. Deputy inspectors 130 

Section 8. Reports 130 

Section 10. Duties of inspector 130 

Section 11. Dangerous mines 130 

Section 12. Complaint 131 

Section 15. Record of inspection 131 

Section 17. First-aid requirements 131 

Section 18. Mme map 131 

Section 19. Explosives 131 

Section 20. Fire protection 132 

Section 21. Two exits to surface 132 

Section 22. Hoisting machinery 132 

General hoisting provisions 132 

Section 23. Two outlets to the surface 133 

Section 24. Ventilation 134 

Section 25. Lights 134 

Section 26. Protection against the inrush of water 134 

Section 28. Intoxicating liquors 134 

Section 29. Visitors 134 

Section 30. Washroom 134 

Section 31 . Prohibited practices 134 

Section 32. Danger signals 135 

Section 33. Fire helmets 135 

Section 34. Signal apparatus 135 

Section 35. Trolley wires 135 

Sections 36, 37. Signal code 135 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws — Continued. Page. 

Ciiliforuia 135 

Sections 1,2,3, 4. Mine exits 135 

Signal code 136 

Rules governiag signals 136 

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4. Fencing abandoned shafts 136 

Section 1. Explosives 136 

Section 2. Storage of explosives .- 136 

Section 3. Miigazines 137 

Section 10. Record of explosives 137 

Section 11. Storage of explosives underground 137 

Sections 1, 2. Telephone system 137 

Colorado - - - 137 

Sections 4259, 4261. State bureau of mines — Commissioner of mines. . 137 

Section 4262. Mining districts — Inspectors 137 

Section 4273. Salaries 138 

Section 4264. Deputy inspectors 138 

Section 4267. Inspection of mines. Restrictions on inspectors 138 

Section 4269. Inspection 138 

Section 4270. Notice of defects 138 

Section 4271. Penalty for divulging results of inspection 138 

Section 4272. Enforcement of inspection orders 138 

Section 4277. Storage of oils 138 

Section 4278. Cager 138 

Section 4280. Explosives 139 

Section 4282. Tamping bar 139 

Section 4283. Removal of old timbers 139 

Section 4284. Hoisting engineer 139 

Section 4285. Hoisting apparatus 139 

Section 4286. Mine signals 139 

Section 4287. Fire protection 139 

Section 4288. Riding with tools prohibited 139 

Section 4289. False signals 139 

Section 4290. Ladderways • 139 

Section 4291. Emergency exits 140 

Section 4292. Tunnels 140 

Section 4293. Chain ladders 140 

Section 4294. Shaft collars, safety clutches, shaft doors 140 

Section 4295. Guardrails 140 

Section 4296. Pillars 140 

Sections 4207, 4298. Abandoned shafts to be covered 140 

Section 4300. Misrepresentation of facts 140 

Section 4301. Visitors 141 

Section 4302. Number of men permitted to ride in bucket 141 

Section 4304. Enforcement of act 141 

Section 4.306. Jurisdiction 141 

Idaho 141 

Section 199. Inspector 141 

Section 200. Disqualification 141 

Section 201. Duties of inspector 141 

Section 202. Examination of mines 141 

Section 204. Complaints to inspector 141 

Section 206. Deputy inspector 141 

Section 208. Duties of deputies 141 



CONTENTS. IX 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws — Continued. 

Idaho — Continued. Page. 

Sections 1276-1277. Inclosm'e of reservoirs and dumps 142 

Sections 1555, 1556, 1557. Explosives 142 

Section 27. Storage of explosives 142 

Section 28. Tamping bars 142 

Section 29. Storage of oils 142 

Operation and equipment of mines : 142 

Sections 2, 3. Fii-e protection 142 

Section 4. Two exits to siu'face 142 

Section 5. Laddenvay 142 

Section 6. Emergency exit 143 

Section 7. Buildings at main entrance 143 

Section 8. Protection of shaft collar and mine openings 143 

Section 9. Cage or bucket 143 

Sections 10, 11. Gallows frames 143 

Section 12.. Indicators 143 

Section 13. Use of electricity 143 

Section 14. Shaft signal 143 

Sections 15, 16. Signal code 143 

Sections 17, IS, 19, 20. Cager 144 

Section 21. Riding on the bail 144 

Sections 22, 23, 24, 25. Hoisting engineer 144 

Section 26. Intoxicated persons 144 

Michigan 144 

Sections 1, 3, 4, 5. Inspector 144 

Section 6. Deputy inspector 145 

Sections 7, 11. Salary of inspector and deputies 145 

Section 8. Duties of inspector 145 

Section 9. Liability of operator 145 

Section 10. Assistance to inspector in making examinations 145 

Section 12. Complaint to inspector 145 

Sections 1, 2, 3. Power and machine drills 145 

Minnesota 145 

Sections 1, 2, 6, 13. Inspectors 145 

Section 3. Duties of inspectors 146 

Section 4. Employer's liability 146 

Section 5. Inspection of mines and machinery 146 

Section 7. Demand for inspection 146 

Section 9. Timber 146 

Section 10. Removal of fences, etc 146 

Missouri 146 

Section 8464. State bureau of mines established 146 

Sections 8465, 8466. Report 146 

Sections 8439, 8440. Lunch hour 147 

Sections 8441, 8442. Mine maps 147 

Section 8455. Bore holes 147 

Section 8456. Signaling apparatus. Safety cage 147 

Section 8457. Hoisting engines. Hoisting p^o^•isions 147 

Section 84C7. Inspection 147 

Section 84G7-A. Complaint 147 

Section 8469. Ventilation 148 

Section 8471. Employer's liability 148 

Section 8472. Prohibited practices 148 



X CONTENTS. 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws — Continued. 

Missouri — Continued. rage. 

Section 8-473. Timbers 148 

Sections J , 2, 3, 4, 5. Explosives 148 

Inspector to post statements. Condition of mines. Number of 

men to ride in cage. Speed 149 

Montana 149 

Section 1710. Application 149 

Section 1711. Inspector 149 

Section 1712. Deputy ins])ector 149 

Sections 17i'3, 1716. Duties of inspector 149 

Sections 1714, 17J5. Complaint 149 

Section 1722. Safety cage 149 

Sections 1724, 1725. Signal code : 150 

Sections 1734, 1 735. Hoisting engineer 150 

Section 8635. Mine shaft in city 150 

Section 8536. Safety cage 150 

Section 8537. Stoping near shaft 150 

Sections 8538, 8540. Speed of running cage 150 

Sections 8541 , 8542. Escapement shafts 150 

Section 8545. Sale of exjjlosives 151 

Section 8546. Storage of explosives in mines 151 

Section 1 . Vent ihition 1 51 

Section 2. Toilet facilities , 151 

Section 3. Protection of undergi-ound openings 151 

Nevada 151 

Section 4209. Application 151 

Sections 4 198, 4199, 4200, 4210, 4239. Inspector 151 

Section 420(5. Deputy inspector 151 

Section 4201. Duties of inspector 151 

Section 4202. Dangerous mines 152 

Section 4203. Records 152 

Section 4204. Complaint 152 

Section 4205. Noncompliance with notice 152 

Section 4211. Explosives 152 

Section 4212. Tamping bars 152 

Section 4213. Dead timber 152 

Section 4214. Indicator 152 

Section 4215. Riding on loaded cage 152 

Section 4216. Ladder compartment 152 

Section 4217. Fimergeucy exits 152 

Section 4218. Signboards 153 

Section 42 19. Gasoline 153 

Section 4220. Chain ladders 153 

Section 4221 . Guardrails 153 

Section 4222. Cages 153 

Section 6799. Cage 153 

Section 4223. Pillars 153 

Section 4224. Building over shaft 153 

Section 4225. Buildings at mouth of tunnel 153 

Sections 4226, 4227. Hoisting ropes 154 

Section 4228. Boilers 154 

Sections 4229, 4233, 4234, 4235. Hoisting provisiong 154 

Section 4236. Signal Code 154 



CONTENTS. XI 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws — Continued. 

Nevada — Continued. Pa?(?. 

Section 4230. Wages 154 

Section 4231. Ventilation 154 

Section 4237. Smoke helmets 154 

Section 6797. Shafting 254 

Section 1. Protection of shafts 1 55 

Sections 2, 3, 4, 6. Violations 155 

Sections 3898, 3899, 3900, 3901, 3902, 3903, 3904. Stationary and hoisting 

engineer : . , 155 

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4. Passageways between contiguous mines 155 

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Machine drills 155 

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Dust sprinklers 155 

Sections 1, 2, 3. Miners must speak and read English 155 

New York 156 

Section 119. Industrial board — Regulations 156 

Section 120. Commissioner of labor 156 

Section 121. Outlet of mines 156 

Section 122. Ventilation — Timbering 156 

Section 123. Storage of explosives and inflammable material 156 

Section 124. Machinery insjDection 156 

Section 125. Explosives 157 

Section 126. Accidents 157 

Section 127. Notice of dangerous condition 157 

Section 128. Traveling way 157 

Section 129. Notice of opening new mine 157 

Section 130. Notice of abandonment 157 

Section 131. Employment of women and children 157 

Section 132. Headhouse; washroom 157 

Section 134. Blasts 157 

Section 135. Enforcement of article 157 

Section 136. Admission of inspector 158 

Rules and regulations prescribed under sections 120 and 125 158 

Sections 1-8. Dynamite 159 

Rules for employees 160 

Oregon 160 

Sections 2139, 2149. Sale of liquor 160 

Sections 5152, 5153, 5154, 5155. Signal code 160 

Rules governing signals IGO 

South Dakota Ifil 

Section 146. Application of act 101 

Sections 136-139, 149-152. Inspector IGi 

Sections 140, 142. Duties of inspector 161 

Section 141. Complaint 161 

Sections 1, 2. Ladderways IGl 

Sections 1, 2, 3. Signal code 161 

Station signals 161 

Rules governing signals 161 

Utah 161 

Sections 1538, 1539, 1540. Fencing of shafts 161 

Section 1540 X. Fire protection 163 

Section 1540 X-1. Safety cages 162 

Section 1540 X-2. Storage of powder 162 

Sections 1540 X-3; 1540 X-4. First-aid supplies 162 



Xn CONTEXTS. 

Chapter VI. Digest of State metal-mine inspection laws — Continued. page. 

Washington I(j2 

Section 75. Shafts to be fenced 162 

Section 89. Uoisting cage *ltj2 

Wyoming 1G2 

Sections 3843, 208, 215, 21G. Inspector 162 

Section 3484. Admission to mines 162 

Section 3485. Dixngerous mines 162 

Suction 3486. ^^'illful misrepresentation of conditions. 162 

Sections 2964, 2966. Explosives 163 

Section 2965. -Powder magazine 163 

Section 2967. Salo of explosives 163 

Section 2968. Stof ago of explosives 163 

Section 2969. Storage of oils 163 

Section 2970. .Tamping bar 163 

Section 5890. Intoxicating liquors 163 

Sections 3489, 3490. Mine signals 163 

Rules governing signals 163 

Section 3491. Uoisting engineer 163 

Section 3492. Visitors 163 

Chapter VII. Organization of existing State mine-inspection systems, by L. O. 

Kellogg 164 

Arizona 165 

Colorado 165 

Idaho 166 

^Michigan 166 

Minnesota 167 

Missouri 167 

Montana 168 

Nevada 168 

New York 168 

South Dakota 168 

Tennessee 169 

Number of inspectoi-s 169 

Methods of selecting imspectors 169 

Salaries of inspectors 170 

Frequency of inspection 170 

Tabulated summary of results of inquiry 171 

Chapter VIII. Statistical data on fatal and nonfatal accidents, by C. B. Duttox 174 

Accident statistics of various countries 174 

Comparative death rates in coal and metal mines 176 

Source of statistics 178 

Fatality rate in the United States 178 

Fatality rates in British North America 180 

Fatality rates in Great Britain and British colonies 181 

Fatality rates in European countries 181 

Injun,- rates in the metal mines of the world 182 

Classification by causes 203 

Causes of mine accidents 203 

Contributing causes 203 

Responsibility for mine accidents 210 

Responsibility of operator and superintendent 210 

Effect of labor conditions 212 

Responsibility of miner 212 

Cooperation necessarj- 214 

Causes and distribution of accidents 215 



CONTENTS. XIII 

Page. 
Chapter IX. Inspection systems maintained by mining companies, by L. O. 

Kellogg 246 

Inspection at Beaver Consolidated mines 247 

Efficiency of system 250 

Inspection at mines of Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co 250 

Inspection at the Treadwell group 252 

Efficiency of committee system 253 

Reports by employees 253 

Chapter X. Chronology of recent important accidents, by W. R. Ixgalls and 

L. O. Kellogg 254 

Chapter XI. Some unusual and historic accidents, by W. R. Ingalls and L. O. 

Kellogg 257 

Mine fires 257 

London mine, November 29, 1909 257 

Giroux shaft, August 23, 1911 259 

Belmont mine, February 23, 1911 259 

North Lyell mine, October 12, 1912 260 

High Ore-Modoc mine, January 14, 1911 262 

Hartford mine, May 5, 1911 263 

Explosives accidents 264 

Alaska-Mexican mine, March 2, 1910 264 

Diamond shaft, March 3, 1909 264 

Keating mine, January 18, 1911 265 

Copper Flat mine, July 7, 1912 266 

Imperial mine, January 3, 1913 266 

Hoisting accidents 267 

Richard mine, June 7, 1910 267 

Butte and Superior mine, September 3, 1911 267 

Leonard mine, April 23, 1913 268 

Bunker Hill and Sullivan mine, September 6, 1912 269 

North Lake mine, October 17, 1912 269 

Falls of ground 270 

Norman mine, ^March 11, 1911 270 

Buffalo-Suscjuehanna mine, August 19, 1911 271 

Goldfield Consolidated mine, September 25, 1909 271 

Miami mine, April 17, 1914 272 

Norrie mine, May 13, 1912 272 

M. & B. mine, April 22, 1909 '. 272 

Dinger mine, May 6, 1912 273 

Alpha shaft, December 4, 1907 273 

Drowning and asphyxiation 274 

Wharton shaft, October 19, 1911 274 

Daly West mine, September 4, 1911 275 

Hird shaft, August 10, 1912 -. 275 

Santa Gertrudis mine, April 14, 1910 276 

Chapter XII. Comments on a recent report of a British royal commission on 

metalliferous mines and quarries, by W. R. Ingalls 277 

Character and scope of the commission 277 

Miscellaneous features 277 

Summary of commission's recommendations 280 

Publications on mine accidents and methods of mining 284 

Index 287 



ILLUSTRATION, 



Page. 
Figure 1. Tlolative precentages of causcK of 5,0GG deaths occurring in the metal 

mines of the United States for the period 1894-1911 216 



TABLES. 



Page. 
Table 1. Hoisting-rope safety factors for various depth.=! of shafts 112 

2. Permissible hoisting speeds when specified safety factors are used.. . 113 

3. Permissible rates of acceleration for certain hoisting speeds and 

safety factors 113 

4. Tests of hoisting rope with cut wires 117 

5. Time interA'al permissible between resocketings for ropes of various 

expected terms of ser\dce 122 

6. Number of men employed, deaths, and death rate per 1.000 men em- 

ployed in and about the principal metal and nonmetal (except 
coal) mines of the world for the period 1894-1911. inclusive 184 

7. Comparative death rates per 1.000 men employed in and about the 

metal and coal mines of the United States, 1894-1911 184 

8. Nimiber of men killed in and about the metal and nonmetal (except 

coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911 185 

9. Number of men killed per 1,000 employed in and about the metal and 

nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911. . . . 187 

10. Number of men employed and number of men killed per 1.000 em- 

ployed in and about all metal and miscellaneous mineral (except 
coal) mines of the United States for the calendar year 1911 189 

11. Number of men killed in and about the metal and nonmetal (except 

coal) mines of British North America, 1894-1911 190 

12. Number of men killed per 1,000 employed in and about the metal 

and nonmetal (except coal) mines of British North America, 
1894-1911 191 

13. Number of men killed in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of Great Britain and certain British 
colonies, 1894-1911 192 

14. Number of men killed per 1,000 employed in and about the principal 

metal and noiunetal (except coal) mines of Great Britain and 
certain British colonies, 1894-1911 194 

15. Number of men killed in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of various foreign countries, 1894-1911. 196 

16. Number of men kiUed per 1,000 employed in and about the principal 

metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of various foreign coun- 
tries, 1894-1911 197 

17. Number of men injured in and about the metal and nonmetal (except 

coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911 198 

XIV 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page. 
Table 18. Number of men injured per 1,000 employed in and about the metal 

and nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911. 199 

19. Number of men injured in and about the metal and nonmetal (excejit 

coal) mines of British North America, 1894-1911 200 

20. Number of men injured per 1,000 employed in and about the metal 

and nonmetal (except coal) mines of British North America, 1894- 

1911 200 

21. Number of men injured in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of Great Britain, British colonies, and 
other foreign countries, 1894-1911 201 

22. Number of men injured per 1,000 employed in and about the princi- 

pal metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of Great Britain, 
British colonies, and other foreign countries, 1894-1911 202 

23. Number of men employed in and about the metal and nonmetal 

(except coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911 203 

24. Number of men employed in and about the metal and nonmetal 

(except coal) mines of British North America, 1894-1911 204 

25. Number of men employed in and about the principal metal and 

nonmetal (except coal) mines of Great Britain and certain British 
colonies, 1894-1911 205 

26. Number of men employed in and about the principal metal and 

nonmetal (except coal) mines of various foreign countries, 1894- 

1911 207 

27. Principal causes of deaths and injuries in and about the metal and 

nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States and certain 
foreign countries, 1894-1911, percentages of total 217 

28. Number of men killed in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of the United States and various foreign 
countries, 1894-1911, with fatalities classified according to cause. . 218 

29. Percentage of number of men killed in and about the principal metal 

and nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States and foreign 
countries, 1894-1911, with fatalities classified according to cause. 220 

30. Number of men killed in and about the metal and nonmetal (except 

coal) mines of the United States, 1894—1911, with fatalities classi- 
fied according to cause 222 

31. Percentage of number of men killed in and about the principal 

metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States, 
1894-1911, with fatalities classified according to cause 226 

32. Number of men killed in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of British North America and Aus- 
tralasia, 1894-1911, with fatalities classified according to cause. .. 230 

33. Percentage of number of men killed in and about the principal metal 

and nonmetal (except coal) mines of British North America and 
Australasia, 1894-1911, with the fatalities classified according to 
cause 232 

34. Number of men injured in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of the United States and certain foreign 
countries, 1894-1911, with the fatalities 234 

35. Percentage of number of men injured in and about the principal 

metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States and 
certain foreign countries, 1894-1911, with injuries classified ac- 
cording to cause 236 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Table :30. Number of men injured in and about the principal metal and non- 
metal (except coal) mines of the United States, 1894-1911, with 
injuries classified according to cause 238 

37. Percentage of number of men injured in and about the principal 

metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of the United States, 
1894-1911, with injuries classified according to cause 240 

38. Number of men injured in and about the principal metal and non- 

metal (except coal) mines of Kritish North America and other 
foreign countries, 1894-1911, with injuries classified according to 
cause 242 

39. Percentage of number of men injured in and about the principal 

metal and nonmetal (except coal) mines of British North America 
and other foreign countries, 1894-1911, with injuries classified 
according to cause 244 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



By W. R. Ingalls, James Douglas, J. R, Fixlay, J. Parke Ciiax- 
KING, and John Hays Hammond. 



CHAPTER I. 



HISTORY OF THE COMMITTEE AND ITS 
INVESTIGATIONS. 



By W. It. Ingalls, Chairman. 

The committee making this report, consisting of Walter Renton 
Ingalls (chairman), J. Parke Channing, James Douglas, James R. 
Finlay, and John Hays Hammond, was originally appointed at a 
meeting of the American Mining Congress at Denver, Colo., in No- 
vember, 1906. The object of this appointment was the drafting of a 
modern law governing quarrying and metalliferous mining which 
could be recommended to the several States for adoption, in the 
hope that the passage of such a uniform law by the mining States 
would tend to lower the number of fatal and serious accidents. 

The first step of the committee (the personnel of Avhich has re- 
mained unchanged from the beginning) Avas to procure copies of 
existing laws from the officials of the several States of the Union. 
With the assistance of the Engineering and Mining Journal, copies 
of the laAvs of Great Britain, the Transvaal, Xew South Wales, 
Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, 
and certain European countries were also obtained. The replies 
to the inquiries made at that time developed the fact that a number 
of States in which mining was carried on had no laws at all. Other 
States were found to have elaborate provisions regulating coal min- 
ing, but none applying to metalliferous mining. Still other States 
were found to have miscellaneous and unrelated provisions passed 
at odd times, seemingly as the result of the occurrence of some dis- 
aster or other. 

Colorado, Missouri, Montana, and New York were found to be 
the only States that had enacted mining laws of broad scope appli- 
cable to other than coal mines. The folloAving States were found to 
have laws applying to collieries only: Alabama, Illinois, Iowa, 
16559°— Bull. 75—15 2 



2 RULES AND KEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and "West Virginia. California, Ari- 
zona, Idaho, Kans^is, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, Xew. ]Mexico, 
North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washing- 
ton, and Wyoming were found to have statutes pertaining to metal- 
liferous mining, but with few and incomplete safety provisions. 
Connecticut, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Xew Hampshire, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, and Virginia were-found to liave no laws upon the 
subject, notwithstanding the fact that underground mining is, or has 
been, conducted i^i all of these States. 

Believing that the publication of the laws of Colorado, Missouri, 
Montana, and XcAv'York would be of interest and value to those 
engaged in mining, and that the labors of the committee would be 
aided by criticisms of the existing general laws, the committee recom- 
mended to the American INIining Congress at its meeting held at 
Joplin, Mo., in November, 1907, that such laws be printed. This 
recommendation was adopted, and the committee w^as continued. 
At the request, however, of the officers of the American Mining Con- 
gress, and with the idea of obtaining the widest possible circulation 
and the fullest possible criticism, the first publication of such laws, 
in the form of a digest, was made in the Engineering and Mining 
Journal, a general invitation being extended to everA'one to criticize 
the laws both for omissions and for improper provisions. This 
digest was afterwards published by the American Mining Congi^ess 
in December, lOOS. 

After a careful sludgy of these laws, the next step of the com- 
mittee was to prepare a preliminary draft of a law, which was sub- 
mitted to the American ]Mining Congress at its 1909 meeting. This 
draft was a composite of the existing laws of the several States, 
of Great Britain, and the British colonies. The committee decided 
to exclude from consideration the laws of Germany, France, and 
other non-English-speaking countries, for the reason that a more 
minute degree of regulation existed there than would be approved 
by sentunent in this country, so that the inclusion of ])rovisions 
taken from such laws would operate to prevent the adoption of the 
proposed law by the mining States generally. 

This first draft was ])rinted in a limited edition by the American 
Mining Congress in Jidy, 1909, for the purpose of obtaining advice 
and criticism, which was invited by the committee. The draft was 
[Jso published in the Engineering and Mining Journal, which threw 
open its columns to all interested, Avith the idea of procuring a full 
discussion of the proposed law. The committee also took steps to 
place the draft in the hands of mine superintendents generally. In 
this way a great many siiggeslions and ideas were obtained that were 
of much \ alue. 



HISTORi' OF THE COMMITTEE AXD ITS INVESTIGATIONS. 3 

At the request of the chairman of the committee, Mr. Frederick 
L. Hoffman, statistician of the Prudential Insurance Co., of New- 
ark, X. J., summarized and re\dewed the avaihible statistics of 
fatalities in metalliferous mining in the United States. Mr. Hoff- 
man's report was published in the Engineering and Mining Journal 
of March 5, 1910. No such summary of fatal accidents in the United 
States had theretofore been compiled. The deficiencies of his report 
were frankly recognized by ISIr. Hoffman. He made the most out 
of the data available, but unfortunately, to the discredit of our min- 
ing industry, the available data were scanty. For only six States 
was it possible to procure statistics extending over a long series of 
years. The other States had not reported them. Consequently, the 
figures reached by Mr. Hoffman had to be regarded as merely indica- 
tive rather than absolute. 

Up to this time all the work of the committee had been done under 
the auspices of the American Mining Congress, but the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers and the Mining and Metallurgical 
Society of America having become interested in the work and having 
invited the committee to serve also as a committee of their respective 
organizations, the American Mining Congress, at its meeting in No- 
vember, 1909, authorized the committee to make a joint report to the 
three organizations. From this time on the committee acted on 
behalf of each of these organizations. 

On the basis of the criticisms and suggestions received concerning 
the preliminary draft, the committee next undertook the prepara- 
tion of another preliminary draft. In this Avork the committee in- 
vited and received the assistance of several members of the bar, espe- 
cially Dr. Hossiter W. Raymond, of New York; Mr. E. E. Ellin- 
wood, of Bisbee, Ariz. ; and Mr. Archibald Douglas, of New York. 
Particular acknowledgment is due Mr. Douglas for his valuable co- 
operation. He not only devoted a great deal of time to the matter, 
examining practically all of the reported decisions of the individual 
States construing their respective mining laws, but also drafted a 
law in accordance with the views of the committee. The work of the 
committee consisted chiefly in the consideration of the technical pro- 
visions of the law. Sessions were held at which mining men were 
invited to be present and Avere consulted regarding particular fea- 
tures of the proposed law. In addition, a number of experts were 
consulted from such companies as the E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
Powder Co. regarding explosives, and the John A. Roebling Sons 
Co. regarding wire ropes. 

Under date of September 1, 1910, the committee submitted its 
joint report to the three organizations, together with the second pre- 
liminary'^ draft. This was again published in the Engineering and 



4 EULES AND EEdULATIOXS FOR METAl, .MIXES. 

Mining Journal and i'liitlu'i- connuonts and criticisms invited. The 
draft was also pnblished b}^ the Mining and Metallurgical Societj^ 
of America in its Bulletin of October, 1910. The report was dis- 
cussed b}^ the mining-engineering papers, by the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, and by the Mming and Metallurgical Society 
of America. Particular acknowledgment is due the Mining and 
Metallurgical Society for the interest taken in the work and the 
many helpful criticisms received from its members. Each of the 
several sections of the society in Xew York, Philadelphia, and San 
Francisco took lip the draft, section by section, and discussed its 
provisions in detail.- Practically the entire sessions of the winter of 
1910-11 were devoted to a consideration of ■ the law, and each section 
Avas either approved as it stood or specific changes therein were rec- 
ommended. Tlie discussions at the various meetings were reported 
in subsequent bulletins of the society and were of great benefit to the 
committee in the revision of the draft. 

In 1913 the Colorado Scientific Society entered upon a similar con- 
sideration of the proposed law and ai')pointed a couunittee, consist- 
ing of Messrs. C. A. Chase, George E. Collins, Charles A^^ Comstock. 
Victor G. Hills, and Arthur J. Tloskin, to study and report concern- 
ing it. Mr. Tloskin acted as secretary. After two or three meetings 
Mr. Iloskin left Colorado for an indefinite period, and his place Avas 
filled b}' Mr. E. Lyman White, formerly State commissioner of 
mines, who thereaftei- acted as secretary. The report of this commit- 
tee was published by the society in July, 1913, in a book of 135 pages. 
The recommendations of the Colorado Scientific Society were im- 
portant as the expression of views of mining engineers and operators 
in a region Avhere there are many small mines and Avhere Aein mining 
is the predominant characteristic of the industry. The criticisms 
and recommendations of the Colorado Scientific Society were care- 
fully considered by the committee. 

The committee had always entertained the idea of preparing a 
final draft of a law, profiting b}" the comments made upon its earlier 
work, if time ^nd opportunity permitted. Consc(piently, when in 
April, 1911, Dr. Joseph A. Holmes, Director of the United States 
Bureau of Mines, invited the committee to serve as a committee of that 
bureau, which would undertake to provide the necessary clerical and 
other assistance and to attend to the publication of the report and final 
draft, the committee gladly availed itself of the invitation. It was 
realized that the labors of the committee would be considerably facili- 
tated by such an arrangement, that it would be able to extend its 
studies in waj^s beyond its own resources, and that the Bureau of ^Mines 
was in the best position to see that the report be properly brought to 
the attention of and distributed among miners and mine operators, for 
whose common benefit the work had first been undertaken. It was 



HISTORY OF THE COMMITTEE AXD ITS INVESTIGATIONS. 5 

furthermore considered to be appropriate that the concluding hibors 
of the committee should be performed under the auspices of that 
branch of the Federal Government that was created to promote 
and foster and to assist in solving the problems confronting the 
mining industry. 

Accordingly, the individual members of the committee received 
appointments as consulting engineers of the Bureau of ^Nlines in the 
summer of 1911. The work has been conducted since then as rapidly 
as the time at the disposal of the members of the committee would 
permit. 

In arriving at the final form of the proposed law many new pro- 
visions have been added, including a section dealing with electrical 
practices. Numerous sections and rules have been revised and re- 
u'ritten, either in whole or in part, and all the technical provisions 
have been reconsidered, one by one. In addition the committee has 
sought to avail itself of expert advice upon different features of the 
proposed law, and has requested and received the criticisms of 
recognized experts in their special fields. 

Particular acknowledgment is due to the following gentlemen who 
have from time to time rendered assistance to the committee: To Dr. 
E. W. Raymond, E. E. Ellinwood, Esq., and Archibald Douglas, 
Esq., who have given legal advice ; to Mr. J. F. Callbreath, secretary 
of the American Mining Congress, who cooperated with the commit- 
tee in all possible ways, especially in the early years of its work: to 
Col. B. W. Dunn and Capt. G. E. Carlton, of the bureau of explosives 
of the American Eailway Association, and Capt. F. H. Gunsolus, of 
the E. I. du Pont de Xemours Powder Co., who have advised respect- 
ing explosives and blasting; to ]Mr. Edwin I. Atlee, president of the 
Philadelphia Manufacturers' Mutual Fire Insurance Co., who advised 
respecting fire hazards: to Mr. Timothy W. Sprague and Mr. Charles 
Legrand, who advised respecting electrical rules and practice; to 
]\Ir. ^y. L. Saunders, of the Ingersoll-Rand Co.,- and Mr. Frank 
Richards, from whom assistance was obtained in drafting provi- 
sions and suggestions for the regulation of air compressors and 
receivers; to the A. Leschen & Sons Rope Co., the American Steel 
& Wire Co., the Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., the Hazard Manu- 
facturing Co., the John A. Roebling's Sons Co., the Macomber & 
Wh3"te Rope Co., the Waterbur}^ Co., and the "Williamsport "Wire 
Rope Co., who advised respecting wire ropes; to the George D. 
Whitcomb Co., the Milwaukee Locomotive Manufacturing Co., and 
many mining companies, from whom valuable technical information 
on the subject of gasoline locomotives and the handling of gasoline 
was obtained; to the Oliver Iron Mining Co., the Nevada Consoli- 
dated Copper Co., the Inland Steel Co., the Utah Copper Co., and 
the Chino Copper Co. for data on the safety precautions observed in 



6 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOB. METAL MINES. 

mining their open pits, as well as to a great number of other mining 
companies from whom much miscellaneous information was received; 
to Maj. Robert U. Patterson, Medical Corps, United States Army, in 
charge of the first-aid department of the American National Red 
Cross; to Trof. H. S. :Munroe, Mr. G. E. Collins, Mr. Gerald Sherman, 
Mr. James ISIacXaughton, Mr. F. W. Denton, ]\Ir. John Knox, jr., 
and Mr. C. W. Goodale, who were friendly and valuable critics and ad- 
visers regarding mining practice ; and to all those State mine inspec- 
tors, as well as .the county inspectors of Minnesota and Michigan, 
whose authority extends over metal mines, especially to Mr W. W. 
Jones, of New York, who offered several excellent suggestions and 
rendered help in various Avays. Special acknowledgment is also due 
to Dr. Joseph A. Holmes, Director, and Mr. Van. H. ^Manning, Assist- 
ant Director, of the Bureau of Mines, for their support of the com- 
mittee and extension to it of all the facilities at the command of the 
bureau, and to many members of the staff of the bureau, who actively 
cooperated with the committee, including Mr. George S. Rice, chief 
mining engineer; Mr. Clarence Hall, explosives expert, and Mr. H. 
H. Clark, electrical expert. 

Special acknowledgments are furthermore due to ^Ir. C. I). Dut- 
ton, of the Bureau of Mines, detailed by the director, and Mr. L. O. 
Kellogg, of the editorial staff of the Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal, who acted as personal assistants of the chairman of the com- 
mittee and performed services that are too varied and extensive to 
be enumerated here, but it will be noted that several of the chapters 
comprised in this report, prepared by them under the guidance of the 
committee, are especially credited to them. 

It will thus be seen that the labors of the committee have been 
participated in by a great many persons, who have each contributed 
something to the final form of the proi)osed uniform law. Starting 
with a composite of existing laws, the committee has, by successive 
stages, endeavored to work out a general law that would embody the 
best mining thought of the day, be in accord with approved modern 
mining practices, and yet at the same time be effective and practical 
in operation, and not merely a collection of rules and regulations to 
be disregarded or enforced at will. If it has succeeded in this en- 
deavor, its members will feel amply repaid for the time and thought 
devoted to the preparation of the proposed law. 



CHAPTEE TT. 
GENERAL REPORT BY THE COMMITTEE. 



In 1910, in a report upon the subject of our present investigations 
and recommendations made to tiie American Mining Congress, the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society of America, we made the following statement with 
reference to F. L. Hoffman's opinion that the deaths in metal mining 
in the United States probably average about 3.00 per 1,000 men em- 
ployed, as compared with 3.13 in coal mining : 

Bearing in mind the conditions tliat we have mentioned above and the fact 
that the statistics for coal mining ai"e far more complete than for metal mining, 
we surmise that the loss of life in metal mining is actually larger, proiwrtion- 
ately, than in coal mining. This emphasizes the iniiwrtance of a movement to 
remedy bad conditions. 

Since then the report of Mr. A. H. Fay, mining engineer, of the 
Bureau of Mines, upon metal-mine accidents in 1912 shows a fatality 
rate of 3.91 per 1,000 in metal mining as compared with a rate of 3.27 
in coal mining. The corresponding figures for 1911, the first year for 
which complete statistics were collected, were 4.19 and 3.73. In coal 
mining, however, there are fewer working days per year and conse- 
quently less exposure to risk. If the figures giAen be reduced to the 
300-day basis, becoming thus the rates for 300,000 man shifts worked, 
the metal mines show up rather more favorably. The correspond- 
ing figures are thus 4.09 and 4.36. 4.45 and 5.09. It is probable, on 
the other hand, that the statistics for coal mining are as yet more 
complete than those for metal mining, there being a tendency in 
reports on metal mining to specify too large a number of employees 
and to neglect to report fatalities at small and remote properties. 
The correction of these discrepancies would tend to increase the 
metal-mining fatality rate. 

In our former report, above referred to, we said : 

In the preparation of this draft the committee has had in mind the preparation 
of a law that will be effective, and not merely a code of rules and regulations 
of ^Yhich the enforcement will be largely optional. The committee has aimeil 
to fix responsibility upon oi^erator, superintendent, foreman, and miner, respe*.-- 
tivelj', and the failure on their part to comply with the terms of the law is to 
be punishable by suitable penalties. The enforcement of the law is charge;! 
primarily upon the inspector of mines, who is to be to all intents and purposes 
a policeman. 

The conditions of mining in the various parts of the United States are 
widely different. The basic laws of the several States also differ to more or 

7 



8 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

less extent. It has beeu beyond the ability of this committee to draft a law 
that it can say with assurance will be equitable under all conditions obtaining 
in mining in the United States, or will be in conformity with the basic laws 
of all the States. Consequently, the committee presents its present draft as a 
preliminary, and invites criticism for its assistance in preparing a final report. 

Although the duties of this committee were limited to quarrying and metal- 
liferous mining, the committee suggests that its draft for a law may advan- 
tageously be made to apply to all kinds of mining in those States that have no 
special colliery law. Coal mining and metal mining do not differ in principle 
to so great an extent as is popularly supposed. The fundamental rules for 
safety in metal mining apply also to coal mining, but the latter has dangers 
peculiar to itself which should be considered in special provisions in those 
States where coal mining is extensively carried on. 

In the opinion of the committee, the essential steps toward reducing the loss 
of life in metalliferous mining are (1) a comiirehonsive and efftK-tive law. and 
(2) an adequate system of mine inspection. The latter is the keystone of 
progress. Much can be accomplished by an adequate system of mine inspection, 
even if a comprehensive law be lacking; but no matter how thorough and effec- 
tive in theory a law may be, it will fail in its purpose unless provision be made 
for its sincere, impartial, and positive enforcement by an adequate system of 
competent mine inspection. 

To obtain such a system of niine inspec-tion the States must appropriate a good 
deal more money than any has yet done. Each State must have a mine in- 
spector, and he must be provided with a sufficient number of deputies to enable 
fi'equent insiiections of all operating mines to be made. One inspection of a 
mine in a year is not enough. The inspector and deputies must, moreover, be 
provided with proper funds for clerical work, traveling expenses, etc. So far 
as we are aware, the State of Colorado makes the largest appropriation for 
inspection of metal mines, its appropriation being $25,000 per year." Other im- 
portant mining States appropriate only $10,000. In the opinion of the com- 
mittee, such appropriations are utterly inadequate. For States possessing a 
mining industi'y of the importance of ihat in Colorado. Utah, Montana, Nevada, 
California, and, in fact, all of the States and Territories west of the Rocky 
Mountains, an annual appropriation of $50,000 to $100,000 per State is neces- 
sary. Such expenditures are thoroughly justified by the importance of the end 
to be gained. At the present time the number of i>ersous killed annually by 
accident in the metalliferous mines of the United States is probably in the 
neighborhood of 500, estimating upon the rate of 3.09 per 1.000, as determined 
by Mr. Hoffman. In many important foreign countries the death rate is less 
than 1.5 per 1,000. We operate in this country at a more intense rate than in 
many foreign countries, and perhaps our death rate per tonnage of ore pro- 
duced per man would not compare so unfavorably, and because of this more 
intenre operation it may be impossible for us to attain the low rates of some 
foreign countries. It must be borne in mind tliat it is not only underground, 
but also overground, that accidents are more numerous in this country than 
in Europe. There is a spirit of recklessness in this whole laud that leads peo- 
ple to take risks that the European population avoids. But certainly our min- 
ing practice is capable of great improvement with respect to the safety of the 
miners, and the magnitude of the amiual loss justifies a large State expendi- 
ture for the purpose of its reduction. 

" This flgure for Colorado was probably incorrect. The Colorado appropriation is bien- 
nial, and was .?:5.5,GOO for the years 101 :? and 1014, or .?17,S0O per year. The largest 
annual expenditure for inspection is found in Michigan, but the appropriations are made 
by the several mining counties. 



\ 



GENERAL EEPOKT BY THE COMMITTEE. 9 

Consequently, the committee emphasizes strongly that the reduction of loss 
of life in mining is dependent chiefly upon the money that the people of the 
resiiective States are willing to si)end for the enforcement of their, mining laws, 
and in such expenditures the committee urges great liberality. 

It is essential that mine inspection be impartial — absolutely free from all 
political, personal, and selfish interests, and, moreover, that it be competent. 
In its draft for a law the committee has incorporated, after very careful con- 
sideration, qualifications for mine inspectors which, in its opinion, will provide 
the essential conditions stated above. 

Upon all of the above points we continue to hold the same opinion 
as formerly expressed, and we adhere to the recommendations that 
we then made ; wherefore this reiteration will be sufficient in so far 
as those subjects are concerned. 

In the drafting of the revised code of mining rules accompanying 
our present report we have been assisted by the extensive discussion 
of our first report by the several societies to which it was addressed, 
especially b}^ the Mining and Metallurgical Society of America ; also 
by discussions by other societies and in the pages of the technical 
press. 

^\e have found that a great deal of interest and attention among 
mine operators has been awakened by our advocacy of improved 
means for promoting safety in mining. However, we are imder no 
illusion that ou.r recommendations will be immediately and gen- 
erally adopted. We consider our work to be especially of educa- 
tional character rather than anything else. It Avill be useful in three 
main waj's, we think, as follows : 

1. As a basis for State legislation. 

2. As a basis for private systems of inspection. 

3. As a collection of simple rules for the guidance of ever3'body 
engaged in mining. 

Since the publication of our first report several States have adopted 
new mining laws and amended their old ones. In this connection 
our code has served some purpose; for example, in the drafting of 
•the laws that now stand on the books of the States of Xevada and 
Arizona. "We do not expect that any State will at once adopt all of 
our recommendations, especially those that are essentially of legal 
character. AVe offer them as what we think ought to be and hope 
some day will be. 

Since our first publication, furthermore, most of the mining com- 
panies of consequence have adopted inspection systems or have at 
least framed codes of safety rules, which have been based to a large 
extent on our code, notably so in the case of the Cleveland-Clifl's 
Iron Co. This tendencv, in fact, has become one of the most im- 
portant phases in the national movement for " Safety First." This 
is the gratifying consummation that we had in mind. Unqnestion- 
aljly, also, the Avidespread adoption of State laws providing com- 



10 EULES AND EEGVLATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

pensation for iiijuieil Avorknieu has heli)ecl the safety luoveiuent by 
making accident prevention worth while. 

We consider. howcA'cr, that the chief usef uhiess of the code of rules 
that we have formulated will be to small operators, Avho frequently 
engage in unsafe practices without loiowing that they are unsafe or 
without thinking about the matter at all. There is a reasonable 
hope that our re})ort will be of educational vahie to all mining 
operators. 

The act that we have drafted may be regarded from two angles — 
fi'om the legal and from the technical. "With respect to the latter 
Ave have had in mind the conditions and practice of mining exist- 
ing and prevailing in the several parts of the United States. In our 
treatment of the matter from the legal standpoint, in which we have 
had the advice of good lawyers, we have refused to clothe the in- 
spector of mines with the optional powers that are given to him 
imder the laws of many of the British colonies, and, also, we have 
refused to convey to him the sweeping power that is given to health 
inspectors in some of our own States. A State may exercise great 
authority under its general police power. In the city of New York, 
for example, the department of health may peremptorily order a 
building vacated if the building be considered unsafe. The occu- 
pants if unjustly treated must look to the courts for redress. The 
same power could legall}'^ be conferred upon the inspector of mines. 
AVe do not, however, consider this power to be either necessary or 
desirable, being of the opinion that the same object may be attained 
in a different and preferable way. 

In our draft of a law we have formulated precise rules and re- 
(juirements, to which operators, superintendents, foremen, minei*s, 
and every one concerned must conform. The permissible speed in 
hcisting, the conditions under which ladderways must be installed, 
and the requirements regarding the storage of explosives, for example, 
are specifically stated. The inspector may neither grant an}' exemp- 
tion nor enforce any extra precautions by exercise of his judgment. 
Little is left to his judgment. It proved impracticable to exclude 
the inspector from the exercise of discretionary power in all cases, 
but in the main his duty, as we have prescribed it, is merely to 
enforce the law as he finds it. 

However, it is impossible in any law to specify respecting all of 
the dangerous conditions that ma}' exist in mining. The largest 
lumiber of fatal accidents occur from " falls of ground,"* which in the 
ierms of a legal writing can be guarded against only in a general 
Avay. Many dangerous conditions are totally incapable of specifica- 
tion. Thus, it is dangerous to stope too close to the surface whereon 
there may be buildings. At Goldfield, Xev., several years ago. a 
stope was allowed to approach too near the surface. The roof cavedj 



GEIiTEKAL EEPOKT BY THE COMMITTEE. 11 

a cyanide mill was undermined, and several men weve killed. Al- 
though this case exemplifies a well- recognized danger, it is impos- 
sible to say that approach to within any specific number of feet of 
the surface is dangerous and should be forbidden. What might be 
unsafe under certain conditions might be entirely devoid of danger 
under other conditions. Hoisting ma}^ be safely conducted at a 
ijigh rate of speed in certain well-timbered shafts that are perfect in 
their alignment, whereas in other shafts that are out of true a low 
rate of speed m^ay be exceeded only at great risk. Another shaft 
ma}' be in such dangerous condition because of defective timbering 
that it should not be used at all. 

In cases of this kind, our citations being merely examples, we have 
provided that the inspector of mines shall call the attention of oper- 
ators and superintendents to the dangerous conditions that exist, 
in his opinion, and request their correction. If the operator or 
superintendent refuse, it becomes the duty of the inspector not sum- 
marily to vacate the mine, but to apply to a court of proper jurisdic- 
tion for an injunction against the further operation of that mine. 
This provision gives the operators and superintendents an oppor- 
funit}' to be heard in their own behalf. Although this proposed 
procedure involves some delay, we do not believe that the latter will 
ever be sufficient to defeat the purpose. If dangerous conditions be 
at such a crisis that immediate action is necessary, the operator and 
superintendent will recognize them as well as the inspector. 

Xew methods of mining, the employment of new mechanical agents, 
etc., have introduced new hazards to life and limb. For example, 
there are now numerous fatalities resulting from men coming into 
contact with electric wires. The most prolific single cause of mining 
accidents is still, however, '• falls of roof," and this is the hardest 
thing to giuird against by Avritten rules. The only safeguards are 
good foremen, eternal vigilance, and common sense. In the exercise 
of the last the miner must participate as well as his superiors. 

There are some mining fatalities so unusual in their character 
that they can not be guarded against in the most perfect code of 
rules. Thus in a lead mine in southeastern Missouri a man in the 
bottom of the shaft was killed by a dog leaping over the collar of the 
shaft and falling upon him. In the same district a headframe was 
struck by lightning and a round of shots to be fired electricall}^ un- 
derground was exploded prematurely, killing a man. To such ex- 
traordinar}^ accidents may be added the case of the miner in Tennes- 
see who plugged and loaded a diamond-drill hole, ran l'2o feet to a 
supposed place of safety, but in fact opposite the other end of the 
hole, and was shot by his own plug as if from a gun. fortunately 
without any great injury to himself. 



12 EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES, 

The code of mining rules that has been finally drafted by the com- 
mittee is the coordination of the experiences, opinions, and sugges- 
tions of a great many men who have assisted the committee in an 
advisory capacity and as directly employed aids. The former have 
included many engineers actively engaged in practice, members of 
professional societies, and members of the bar; the latter have in- 
cluded members of the regular staff of the Bureau of Mines and of 
the personal staffs of members of the committee. The committee 
has sought to obtain many points of view and to summarize many 
experiences. The draft that has been prepared is not offered as the 
last word upon this subject. There are many phases of this subject 
with which the committee has been unable to deal thoroughly. Thus 
the committee confesses its inability to formulate at the present time 
adequate rules covering the important subject of ventilation of mines. 
Similarly there are many practices in open-cut mining, by steam 
shovels, etc., regarding Athich the committee has felt unable to for- 
mulate rules. AYe feel, however, that the rules so far as prescribed 
ma}" advantageously be applied to open mining Mhetl,ier it be simple 
quarr^-ing or the extraction of metalliferous mineral, as well as to 
underground mining. 

"Walter Rentox Ingalls, 

Chairman. 
J. Parke Ctianning. 
James Douglas. 
James E. I'inlav. 
JoHx Hays Hammond. 



CHAPTER III. 
DRAFT FOR A LAW. 



By The Committee. 



The committee's draft for a law, reconimended to the several min- 
ing States for their adoption, together with the committee's ex- 
planatory notes, is as follows : 

.\N ACT Relating to mines and mining and to regulate mining and quarrying 
operations, to provide for the appointment, removal, and compensation of 
mine inspectors, the appointment of superintendents and mine foremen, and 
the prescribing of their duties, to provide for the inspection of mines and 
quarries with a view to improving health conditions and increasing safety 
among miners and persons engaged in mining industries, defining words and 
terms used in the act and in connection with mines and mining operations, 
providing rules for the government of mines and mining operations, and 
providing penalties for any violations of the provisions of the act and pen- 
alties for violations of any duties imposed by oflicers under the authority of 
the act, and repealing all laws in conflict herewith. 

SECTION 1. 
Definition of Terms. 

Application. — This act shall apply to all mines ia the State of 

producing miuei'als within the meaning of that term, as hereinafter defined, 
and employing an average of 10 or more men. 

Short title. — This act may be cited as the mines-inspection act. 

Singular and plural numbers. — For the purposes of this act the singular num- 
ber when used in reference to persons, acts, objects, and things of whatsoever 
kind and description shall, whenever the context will permit, be taken and held 
to import and include the plural number, and the plural number shall similarly 
be taken and held to import and include the singular. 

Mine. — The term "mine" when used in this act shall include quarries, pi-os- 
pect openings, pits, banks, and open-cut workings employing an average of 10 or 
more men, and shall embrace any and all parts of the property of such " miae" 
and mining plant, on the surface or underground, that contribute directly or 
indirectly to the mining or handling of minerals. Provided, that when a group 
of workings in proximity to one another and under one management are admin- 
istered as distinct units each working shall be considered a separate mine. 

Mineral. — The term " mineral " when used in this act shall mean whatever is 
recognized by the standard authorities as mineral, whether metalliferous or 
uonmetalliferous, but shall not be held to embrace or include coal, lignite, gas, 
oil, or any substances when extracted in solution or in the molten state through 
bore holes. 

Operator. — The term "operator" when used in this act shall mean the i>ersou, 
firm, or bodj' corporate in immediate possession of any mine and its accessories 

13 



14 KULES -VXD riEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

ns owiu'i" or le.sset' tberoi)f, iiud ;is sueh responssililu for the coiiilitiiin jiiul iiian- 
ageineiit thereof. 

tiiipcrintcinlott. — The term "superintendent" when used hi this net sliall 
lueaa the person having the inunediate supervision of the mine. 

Mine foreman. — The term " mine foreman " wlien use<t in tliis act shall mean a 
person who at any one time is charged with the general direction of the under- 
ground work. 

Inspector and deputy. — The term " inj^pector " when used in this act shall 
signify the State inspector of mines, aud the terms •' deputy " and " deputy in- 
spector " when used in this act shall mean a State deputy inspector of mines. 

Excavation.s or workings. — The words "excavation-;'" and "workings" when 
used in this act shall signify any or all parts of a mine excavated or being 
excavated, including shafts, raises, tuniu'ls, entries, galleries, open cuts, and all 
working places, whether abandoned or in use. 

Xiiniber of men. — Whenever the expressions "number of men" or "average 
number of men" employed in a mine are used in this act as defining or consti- 
tuting classes of mines to which this act. or any specific section, clause, provi- 
sion, or rule thereof, does or does not apply, such expressions shall be construed 
to mean the average number of men employed during the previous year, as 
shown by the returns to the mine inspector or by the books or pay roll of the 
mine, or by all of such means, and such average number shall be determined 
by dividing the total iiuml)er of man shifts by the number of days the mine 
was worked during such iieriod. 

Explosive. — The term "explosive" or "explosives" as used in this act shall 
be held to mean and to include any chemical compound or any mechanical mixture 
that contains any oxidizing and combustible units or other ingredients in such 
proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by con- 
cussion, by percussion, or by detonation of any pjirt of the compound or mixture 
may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant 
gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous 
objects or of destroying life and limb. 

Person. — The term " per.son " when usetl in this act shall be held to mean and 
include a firm or body corporate as well as natural persons. 

Underground. — The term "underground" as used in this act shall be held 
to mean "within the limits of" any mine working or excavation and shall not 
exclude such workings or excavations as may not be i-overed over by rock or 
earth. 

Employees. — The terms "employees" and "men employed" shall be held to 
mean all men receiving compensation from the operator, directly or indirectly, 
for labor or services performed in connection with the mine and shall include 
contractors, leasers, lessees, tributers, or anyone else similarly employed. 

This act is intended to apply to all mines and quarries, regardless 
of the mineral substance produced, with the exception of collieries, 
gas and oil wells, and sulphur and salt extraction ])lants, in which 
the material is dissolved underground and ]ium]icd out through bore 
holes. The term " lignite "' is intended to include peat. The question 
of oil shales is left in abeyance, as there are no oil shales worked at 
the present time in the United States, so far as the committee has 
knowledge. The definitions contained in this section do not include 
all the terms contained in the act, l)ut only those of a general char- 
acter, which arc essential to a proper construction of the act as a 
whole. 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 15 

The minimum of 10 employees necessary to bring a property within 
the jorovisions of this act is selected arbitrarily and may have to be 
changed to suit the conditions in individual States; but the com- 
mittee believes that some such minimum is desirable. To inspect 
properl}^ all prospects and small detached properties is almost impos- 
sible, and any such property escaping inspection tends to bring tin- 
law into disrepute. Furthermore, many extremely small-scale work- 
ings are developed by two or a few partners, who pay due attention 
to their own safety and may be assumed to be their own masters. 

SECTION 2. 
Offki: of Inspector of Mines. 

The office of inspector of mines for the State of is hereby created. 

The governor of the State, by and witli tlie advice and cou.sent of the senate, 
shall appoint such inspector of mines. The inspector of mines shall be at least 
30 years of age, a citizen of the United States, a resident of this State for at 
least one year previous to his appointment, and shall have been practically 
engaged in metalliferous mining, and shall have had at least 10 years' ex- 
perience in underground mining in the United States of America : Provided, 
that one year's service as a deputy inspector of mines shall count as two years' 
experience in underground mining in determining his qualifications for said 
office. The inspector of mines (but not the deputy inspectors) shall have been 
for at lecist five years in charge as superintendent or forenuin of a mine or 
mines in the United States of America employing 00 or more men underground 
to be qualified for such office. He shall receive as full compensation for his 

services a salary of dollars per annum. He shall hold his office 

for a term of four years (the first term beginning January — , 19 — ), unless 
sooner removed by the governor, or until his successor is ap])ointed and has 
qualified; and in case of vacancy by death, removal, resignation, or otherwise 
the governor, by appointment as above provided, shall within six weeks fill 
such office for the remainder of any such term of four years. 

The committee has intentionally set a high standard for the in- 
spector of mines. If this proposed code when enacted into law is to 
accomplish the results expected and hoped of it, its executive en- 
forcement and administration must be in the hands of a competent 
person. Such person must be free from influence and alliances that 
would handicap his usefulness or interfere with the discharge of his 
duties in any way. In addition, the tenure of office must be of suffi- 
cient length and the salar}^ such as to make it possible for the State 
to obtain the services of a man of wide experience and demonstrated 
executive ability. 

The committee regards the election of mine inspectors as highly 
detrimental to efficient mine inspection and deems it essential that 
the selection of such men be removed from the field of practical 
politics. The inspector should be selected and appointed because of 
his qualifications and equipment for the position and not because of 
his vote-getting ability. 



16 RULES A^S^D REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

The selection of mine inspector as a result of competitive examina- 
tion is also considered objectionable. It does not surround the office 
Avith any additional safeguards, and is open to criticism on the 
ground that it fails wholly to take into consideration the personality 

of the individual. 

SECTION 3. 

Deputy Inspector of Mixes. 

The office of deputy inspectoi* of mines is hereby oreal«>d. Tlie inspector of 
mines is hereby a/Uthorizecl and directed forthwith upon the entering of the 

duties of his office to appoint deputy inspectors, who shall each receive a 

salary payable at the rate of $ per annum while holding such office. All 

deputy inspectors appointed under the provisions of this section shall be sub- 
ject at any time to removal by the inspector. The inspector shall also appoint 
hereafter such additional deputies as the legislature may provide, who shall be 
in all ways subject to the provisions of this section. In case of vacancy in the 
office of any deputy inspector caused by death, removal, or otherwise, the in- 
si^ector of mines shall forthwith fill such vacancy. The qualifications of all 
deputy inspectors shall be the same as those required in the case of the In- 
spector of mines, as set forth in section 2 of this act; except, however, that 
such deputy inspectors shall be at least 25 years of age, and shall have been for 
two years in charge as superintendent or foreman of a mine, or mines, in the 
United States of America employing at least 25 men underground. AH deputy 
inspectors shall perform duties as required by this act, and shall be under the 
direct control and direction of the inspector of mines. In the absence or disa- 
bility of the inspector of mines, any deputy designated by him shall act with 
like authority as the inspector of mines. In the case of a vacancy in the office 
of the inspector of mines, the deputy longest in office present shall act as such 
inspector until such vacancy has been filled, but in no event for a period longer 
than six weeks. 

Each State will, of course, decide for itself as to the number of 
deputies to be appointed, the decision depending on the number of 
mines within the State subject to inspection, and the territory to be 
covered. The salary of the deputies should be commensurate with the 
salary of the inspector, and the qualifications of a similar high stand- 
ard. In this connection the committee calls attention to its prelim- 
inary report regarding the grossly inadequate appropriations for in- 
spection purposes in the metal-mining States. It is essential that the 
inspector have the power to select and remove his assistants, in order 
that he may suiTound himself with an effective organization. 

SECTION 4. 

Restricttoxs T'pon Inspectors. 

No person shall be qualified to hold the office of inspector or deputy inspector 
while an employee, director, or officer of any mining, metallurgical, or quarrying 
company, or while directly or indirectly connected with any mining, metallurgi- 
cal, or quarrying company or copartnership operating in this State, either as 
]iai-tner or in any other cai»acity, or while engaged in private practice as a con- 
.sultiug engineer. The inspector and each deputy shall devote his entire time 



DKAFT FOR A LAW. 17 

to tlie duties of bis respective office, aud it shall be unlawful for the inspector 

or auy deputj' to be otherwise employed by the State of or to act directly 

or Indirectly for or on behalf of any candidate for public office or for any political 
partj', or receive compensation, either directly or indirectly, from any candidate 
for public office or from any political party in the State during the term of such 
inspector or deputy inspector. Failure to observe the provisions of this section 
shall render the inspector liable to immediate removal from office by the gover- 
nor without further cause shown, and such failure shall render auy deputy 
inspector liable to immediate removal by the inspector of mines without further 
cause shown, and the governor and inspector of mines are hereby authorized and 
empowered to make removals in such cases. 

SECTION 5. 
Payment of Salary and Expenses. 

All responsible aud necessary exi>enses actually incurred by the insjieotor and 
bj' any deputy in the performance of his duties for traveling expenses, clerk 
hire, postage, stationery, printing, and disbursements incidental and reasonable 
to the office of inspector or of deputy insi>ector shall be paid by the State treas- 
urer upon the warrant of the comiitroller « issued upon proper vouchers therefox*, 
when approved by the inspector of mines, but such expenses, together with the 
salaries of the inspector and his deputies, shall not be incurred in excess of ap- 
propriations by the legislature. The salaries of the insi^ector of mines and of all 
deputy inspectors shall be paid as the salaries of other State officers are paid. 

SECTION 6. 
Legal Expenses of Inspectors. 

The inspector may employ counsel to represent him or any deputy, or to 
assist in the jirosecutiou of actions or proceedings brought under the provisions 
of this act. 

In addition to the exi^enses allowed to the inspector, as set forth in section 5 
of this act, he shall be allowed all necessary expenses and reasonable counsel 
fees actually incurred in enforcing the several provisions of this act in the 
respective courts of this State, and the same shall be paid by the State treas- 
urer on warrants drawn by the comptroller « after auditing the same; all such 
claims and exi)ense accounts shall be presented and passed by the inspector and 
approved by the court before which such proceedings were instituted. In the 
event of any costs being finally taxed against the State in any suit in which 
the State, on the relation of the inspector, is either plaintiff or defendant the 
same shall be approved by the court, and audited and paid in like manner as 
such legal expenses are authorized to be paid as aforesaid. 

To avoid delay in the prosecution of purely minor offenses arising 
under this proposed act this section contemplates that the inspector 
may of his own initiative institute appropriate proceedings and 
engage such legal assistance as maj^ be necessary, to avoid congesting 
the offices of local prosecuting officers with these minor cases which 
can be speedily disposed of by the court. In many instances the 

" Each State will substitute tlie title of Ihe proper official according to its own system. 
1G5WJ°— Bull. 75—15 3 



18 RULES AXD KEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES, 

inspector or deputy, after filing the complaint or infonnation with 
the proper court, will himself prosecute — that is, pre-ent liis evi- 
dence — as is customary in the case of police officers appearing against 
transgressors of municipal ordinajices; such cases will rarely require 
legal assistance. 

SECTION 7. 
On-icK AM) IlKcouns of Inspi:«tok of MiNiis. 

The iusi>ector of luiues shall be provideil wllh a properly furnished office 

iu llie stiilehouse in — , iu which he shall keep a record of all mines in 

the State, a record of all- mines examined either by the inspector or his deputies, 
showhig the dates of such examinations, the condition iu which the mines so 
examined were found, with particular reference to the safety, A-eutilation, and 
sanitary conditions of each mine so examined, the manner and method of 
workinj?. all vit)latious of the provisions of this act found, if any, the action 
taken thereon, and the result of such action, together with recommendations 
made in the case of each mine examined by the insi>ector or any deputy; and 
any other data or information pertaining to his »)tlice and aciiuired during the 
carrying out of this act. For the i>urpose of aiding the insi>ector in comiiiling 
such data it shall be the duty of each deputy to transmit from time to time, 
or upon request from the insi)ector, a complete record of all mine examinations 
made by such deputy, and an itemized statement of his work as such deputy 
iu such form and covering such detail as the inspector shall in his opinion 
deem necessary. 

All documents, plans, books, memoranda, notes, and other material pertaining 

to the office of the inspector of mines, or of any deputy inspector, shall be the 

property of the State, and shall be delivered by the said inspector, or by such 

deputy insi>ectors, to their successors iu office. The insi>ector may at any time 

call for all or any papers, documents. i)lans, books, memoranda, notes, or other 

material in the hands of any deputy, who shall deliver same to said insjiector 

upon call. 

SECTION 8. 

Repokts to Inspkciok ok Mixes. 

It is hereby made the duty of the oiferator of each and every mine within 
the State coming within the provisions of this act to forward to the insi)ector 
at his office, not later than the 20th day of January iu each year, a detailed 
report in writing, on a form prescribed by the inspector, showing the character 
of the mine, tonnage of product during the previous year ended December 31, 
the average number of men therein employed during the year, the number of 
days the mine was worked, the number and natui-e of fatal and all other 
accidents during the year, and such other information relative to the workings, 
equipment, ventilation, sanitation, means of ingress and egress?, shafts, sup- 
ports, safety devices, storage of explosives, and means taken to protect lives 
and insiu'e sjifet.v of men in relation to any of the requirements of this act 
as the insi)ector may from time to time require. All such reports shall be 
filed iu and become part of the records of the office of the inspector of mines. 
Blank forms for such reports shall be furnished by the State: 

ProrUlcd, lioircrcr. That iu the case of any mine being operated for less than 
one year prior to December .31 in any year, the operator iu such event shall 
forward a reix)rt. in like manner, covering the period during which said mine 
was operated : and 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 19 

Provided further, That in the event of the s;ile ov lease of auy iiiiue during 
any year prior to Deeeuiher 31. theu and iu that eveut it shall he the duty of 
the owner or operator so sellius. leasing, or tui'uiug over such mine to a suc- 
ceediiig operator to supply to such succeeding operator a like report, as required 
in this section, covering the i)eriod of such former operations within said year; 
and it shall then and in that event become the duty of such succeeding operator 
to forward such reix>rt so turned over, together with SJiid succeeding operator's 
report, for the period of s;ud succeeding oi>erator*s opei'ations. to the inspector 
of mines as aforesaid not l.-iter than the 20th day of January in each year. 

In all cases, occurring in or about any mine, c"" tires, api>earance of dangerous 
gas. breakage of ropes or other gear by which men are hoisted or lowered, 
overwinding while men are being hoisted, unexpected inrush of water from old 
workings, threatened crushing of mine workings, or any other accident, occur- 
rence, or change of conditions tending to increase the hazards of mining, whether 
or not personal injury results, a report tliereof. signed by the operator or su- 
perintendent, shall immediately be sent in writing to the inspector. 

A failure, neglect, or refusal to make such reports or to give such information 
as is specified in this section, uiKjn demand made in writing by the inspector, 
or by any of his deputy inspectors, shall constitute a misdemeanor and every 
such operator or superintendent so failing, neglecting, or refusing after written 
demand made as aforesaid shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on 
conviction shall be fined for each offense not less than $50 or more than $200; 
and each separate failure, neglect, or refusal after demand, as aforesaid, shall 
constitute a separate offense. 

If a State is divided into inspection districts, or if an inspector is 
assigned regularly to a certain number of mines by the chief inspector, 
it will, of course, be desirable that the deputy be apprised at the 
earliest possible date of any tmusiial accurrence in and about a mine, 
in order that he may examine into the same on his next inspection trip. 
Tn such a case the chief insj^ector may. by regulation, provide that 
such reports shall be submitted to him tlu'ough a particular deputy. 
This arrangement will obviate the delay incident to the forwarding 
of such report to the office of the chief inspector and the communica- 
tion of the substance of the report to the deputy by his superior. 

SECTION 9. 
Designation yon Skrvice of Notices. 

Every operator of any mine within the provisions of this act shall, within 
60 days after the passage of this act, file or cause to be filed in the office of the 
inspector of mines a designation, duly verified by such operator, appointing a 
person on whom all notices, warnings, or processes refiuired to be served under 
the provisions of this act may be served, and giving the oQice. place of em- 
ployment, or place of business of such person, which must be within the State 
and within 10 miles of the principal place of business of the operator : 

Provided, hoiccver. That the inspector of mines upon formal application of au 
ojiei-ator is authorized to waive such 10-mile requirement when, iu his judgment, 
the object and purpose of tliis section may best be attained by ixn-mitting a 
person to be designated whose office, place of employment, or place of business 
is more than 10 miles distant from the principal place of business of the 
operator. 



20 PULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

Such desi 1:11a t ion shall be accompauied by the written ooiisent of the person 
80 designated, and shall contiune in force until revoked by the death or removal 
of the i>erson so designated, or until revoked by an instrument in writing desig- 
nating in like manner some other person upon whom such notices or processes 
may be served, or until the filing in such office of a written revocation of said 
consent executed by the person so designated. If the person so designated dies, 
or removes beyond 10 miles of the place of business of such operator, or files a 
revocation of his consent, the operator shall-within 30 days thereafter designate 
in like manner some other person upon whom such notices or processes may be 
serveil within this State. 

Services on sucli designated person of notices, warnings, or processes shall, in 
all cases arising under tliis act, be deemed service on the operator represented : 

rroviilcd further. Tliat nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent 
the said operator in person, or by its officers or agents, if sjiid oi)erator be a 
corporation, or any employee of such operator, from being so designated, and 
that the designation of such person as herein contemplated shall not prevent 
the service of proper or legal process on the owner or operator of a mine, or 
on the proper officers and agents of a corporation owning or operating a mine. 

A failure on the part of any operator to carry out the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall be deemed a violation of this act. 

This section is largely ba.sed on the requirements of the corporation 
hiws of the State of Xew York. It is manifest that tlie inspector can 
not be required to travel all over the State in order to serve a notice 
required to be served by this proposed act. The requirement of this 
section that the agent for the service of notices must be within 10 
miles of the principal place of business of the operator is made neces- 
sary by the fact that many mines are operated by corporations, which 
may have their principal place of business many miles distant from 
the mine, but within the State. In some cases it may be advanta- 
geous and desirable to permit the designation of a person outside of 
the 10-mile zone, and the inspector is given discretion to this end. 

SECTION 10. 

SeCRKCY of ItKCORDS. 

The insiiector, or any deputy inspector, or any person employed by such in- 
sjiector or deputy inspector, or any person having access to the papers filed in 
the office of said inspector, or in the office of any deputy inspector, shall not 
make public or reveal to any person or persons, either orally or in writing, all 
or any part of the contents of any report, complaint, or document filed in the 
office of the inspector of mines of this State or in the office of any of his deputy 
inspectors, or reveal or make iniblic to any person or persons any knowledge or 
information in regard to the safety or physical or financial condition of any 
mine, mining rights, prospect, or mining company or concern obtained by the 
aforesaid inspector or any deputy inspector or employees while in the exercise 
of his or their official duties. Nothing herein contained, however, shall be con- 
strued to prevent any inspector or deputy inspector, or any clerk or employee 
of such inspector or deputy inspector, from making official reports to the gov- 
ernor or legislature of this Slate, to the inspector of mines, or to any deputy 
insi^ector, or from giving evidence in any court of justice in this State In dis- 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 21 

charge of liis officiul duty, or from iiiforiuiDg the operator or superinteiiileut of 
a mine iu regard to his findiugs respecting his particular mine. 

Any violation of any of the provisions of this section by an inspector of mines, 
or any deputy inspector of mines, or any employee or clerk, shall constitute a 
misdemeanor and shall he punished, upon conviction, by a fine of not more than 
$000 or by imprisonment for not exceeding one year, or both; and any such 
officer or employee, so convicted, shall be dismissed from his office or employ- 
ment. 

SECTION 11. 
Duties of Inspectors — Inspection — Powers. 

It shall be the duty of the inspector of mines, in person or by deputy, to visit 
at least once every three months every mine in the State employing 30 or more 
men underground, and every other mine at least once every year and oftener if, 
in his opinion, the safety of the men employed within the mine so requires; and 
to inspect and examine into the operation, workings, timbering, safety appli- 
ances, machinery, sanitation, ventilation, means of ingress and egress, and 
means taken to protect the lives and insure the safety of the miners, together 
with the cause of accidents and accidental death therein ; and, iu general, to 
iusiiect and ascertain what means are taken to comply with the provisions of 
this act. For the puiiwse of making such inspection and ascertaining facts in 
connection with such examination, the inspector or his deputy shall have full 
power and authority at all hours to enter and examine any part of any mine or 
ruining plant within this State, or any part of the workings thereof. All 
operators and their employees shall render to the inspector or his deputy such 
assistance as may be necessary to enable the inspector or his deputy to make 
such examination. 

For the purpose of ascertaining facts in connection with any inspection, 
inquiry, or examination, the said inspector, or any deputy, shall have full power 
to compel the attendance of witnesses bj- subpoena, to take depositions on the 
service of proper or usual notice to the mine owner or operator as required in 
the taking of depositions, to administer oaths, and to examine, cross-examine, 
and take such testimony as may be deemed necessary for the information of 
the inspector or liis deputies. 

The refusal by any person to obey a subpoena issued by the inspector or by 
any deputy inspector, or the willful hindrance or obstruction by any person of 
the inspector or any of his deputies iu the performance of any of his or any of 
their duties under this act, shall constitute a misdemeanor and shall be pun- 
ished as hereinafter provided. 

Any witness appearing before the insi^ector or before any of his deputies, 
in response to a subpoena so issued, who shall knowingly and willfully testify 
falsely to any material matter shall be deemed guilty of perjury aud. upon con- 
viction as by law provided, shall be punished for perjury. 

Any legislative declaration as to the frequency with which mines 
must be inspected and as to the division of mines into classes for 
such purpose must be arbitrary in character. It is obvious that small 
mines may be just as dangerous as mines employing a large number 
of men, but all mines in a mining State, like Colorado for example, 
can not be visited three or more times a year without a large force of 
deputies. It has therefore seemed best to the committee to draw the 
line as is done in tliis section. Any State, if it so desire, may provide 
for more frequent inspection. 



22 lULES -VXD RE(;U1.ATI0NS FOR METAL MINES, 

Daxukkous Minks — Ditik.s of Inspectoks. 

Whenever tbe inspector sball find Jiny mine or part of any mine in an unsafe 
condition hy reason of any violation of any of tbe rules or i»rovisions of this 
act. or in a condition dangerous or detrinieutal to tbe life or bealtb of those eni- 
ployetl therein for tbe same reason or by reason of defects in timbering or 
other means of support, in mining, iu ventilation, or in sanitation, it shall be 
tbe duty of the inspector at once to serve or cause to be served a noti<'e in 
writing on the operjitor or superintendent of such mine or on the person desig- 
nated by such operator for service in accordance with section 9 of this act, and 
such notice shall set forth iu detail tlie nature and extent of the defects that 
render the mine or part of tlie mine unsafe, dangerous, or detrimental to the life 
or health of those .employeil therein, together with the point or place in the 
mine or in tbe workings of the mine where such defects exist, and such notice 
shall require su<-b necessary changes to be made in such mine or part of the 
mine without delay and within a specified time, in the discretion of the inspector, 
as shall make the same conform to tlie iirovisions of this act. 

If it apiiear from a reexamination of the mine by tbe inspector or a deputy 
insi)ector that such necessary changes have not been made within the time 
specified in such notice, and that the mine or part of the mine is still in a 
condition dangerous to life or health, and iu the opinion of the inspector it is 
necessary for the safety of the life or health of the employees in such mine or 
part of the mine that the same be vacated, it sliall be the duty of the inspector 
forthwith to institute an action for an injunction in any court of comiK-tent 
jurisdiction, iu the name of the State, ou the relation of the inspector, to restrain 
the operation and working of said mine or part of sjiid mine, and the entrance 
of employees therein for purposes other than to remedy the defects complained 
of until the provisions of this law are complied witli. and tbe said mine or part 
of said mine is made safe for tlie employees tlierein : and tbe plaintiff in such 
action, without l)ond, and upon ex parte afiidavits made by the inspector or a 
deputy inspector showing in detail the nature and extent of the defects that, 
in such aflBant's opinion, render the mine or part of tlie mine unsafe or detri- 
mental to the life or health of those employed therein, and stating that such 
mine, or part of tlie mine, is, in tlie opinion of tlie affiant, in a condition dan- 
gerous to life or health, may. pending the trial of said action, procure a tem- 
porary injunction from any court or judge in vacation if in tbe opinion of the 
court or the judge the facts warrant the granting of such temporary injunction, 
enjoining the operation and working of said mine, or part of said mi:ie. and 
the entrance of employees tlierein. except for the purpose of remedying the 
defects complained of, until the further order of the court. 

Prfrvidcd, hoiccicr, that the defendants in such actions .shall have tbe same 
opportunity to be heard upon motion to vacate such temporary injunctions as 
defendants have in any actions brought in this State in which temporary in- 
junctive relief may be granted. 

Tn an act of this kind it is exceedingly difficult to anticipate all 
(lanrrci's that may arise in the course of mining:; and. moroovor. cer- 
tain dangers tliat can be anticipated can not arbitrarily be prescribed 
against. Such, for example, are the dangers arising in mining by 
the caving system. Moreover, what may be safe in certain circum- 
stances may be quite unsafe in others. Such contingencies might be 
met by conferring discretionary power on the inspector of mines, 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 23 

who might even be authorized to coiui)el the suspension of opera- 
tions in a mine that in his opinion is in a graveh^ dangerous condition. 
Under the police power inherent in sovereign States very broad 
power can be given an inspector, if it be so desired. This question 
each State must decide for itself. The committee has not seen fit, 
however, to recommend any such exercise of power and has preferred 
to provide for the alternative remedy of a temporary injunction, 
which may be speedily obtained upon an ex parte showing but gives 
the operator an opportunity to be heard before the injunction is made 
permanent. This arrangement is deemed to be more equitable for 
the operator and to furnish equal safeguards to the miner. 

SECTION 1:5. 

Refusing Inspection — rsNALTY. 

If the operator of any mine within the State shall fail or refuse to permit, or 
shall impede such msi)ection as is provided in sections 11 and 12 of this 
act, the inspector or deputy may file his atiidavit setting forth such refusal 
before the judge of the court in the county hi which said mine is situ- 
ated, or at the option of the inspector, in the county in which is situated the 
general office of the corporation owning or operating the mine, either during 
the term of the court or during vacation, and obtain an order directed to such 
operator so refusing as aforesaid, commanding him to permit and furnish all 
necessary facilities for the entering, examination, or inspection of such mine or 
to be adjudged to stand in contempt of court and be punishetl accordingly. 

SECTION 14. 
Records of Inspection. 

It shall be the duty of the inspector or any deputy, after every inspection of 
any mine or parts of any mine as provided in this act, to enter forthwith in a 
book to be kept at the mine and designated as the " record of inspection " the 
parts of the mine so inspected, the nature of such inspection, and every illegal 
defect observed in the state and condition of the mine, machinery, and appli- 
jiuces; but nothing contained in or omitted from such entry shall limit or affect 
the duty and obligation of the owner or operator of such mine under this act. 
Such " record of inspection " shall he open at all reasonable times to the exami- 
nation of the inspector or any of his deputies, or to the examination of any per- 
sons employed in the mine. 

Provided, hoivever, that such records shall not be in lieu of, or a substitute 
for, the notice required to be served by section 12 of this act. 

SECTION 15. 

Complaints to Inspectors. 

Whenever the inspector receives a complaint in writing, signed by .3 or more 
persons employetl in a mine, if less than 25 persons are emiiloyed therein, or by 
5 or more persons employed in a mine, if more than 25 and less than 100 persons 
are employed therein, or by 10 or more persons employed in a mine, if more than 
100 persons are employed therein, setting forth that the mine in which they are 
working is being opex'ated contrary to law and is in any respect dangerous to 
the health and lives of those employed therein, the inspector shall in person 



24 BULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

or by deputy exauiiue such mine as soon as possible. The names of tbe persons 
making such comi'laint shall be kept secret by the inspector, unless permission 
to disclose them be expressly si'^mted by the persons makinjr the complaint. 

Provided, however, that, such complaint shall, iu all cases, set forth the alleged 
violation of law observed, the nature of the danger existing at the mine, and 
the time when such violation or danger was first observed. If on inspection 
the inspector find the conditions, in his opinion, dangerous to the health and 
lives of those employed therein, by reason 'Of any violation of any of the pro- 
visions and rules of this act, he shall serve, or cause to be served, a notice 
setting forth fully the facts upon which his opinion is based, as provided in 
section 12 of this act. 

It shall be ths duty of the inspector or any deputy to forward every such 
original complaint so received to the office of the inspector of mines, where it 
shall bo indexed and tiled among the oflicial pai>ors of the inspector of mines. 

The committee recognizes that miners are prone to complain on 
insufKcient grounds and has endeavored to guard against this by 
requiring the complaint to specify the nature of the danger and the 
time when the violation of the law or danger was first observed, and 
by requiring the complaint to be signed by a number of persons, 
gaged according to the total number of men employed. On the other 
hand, if the mine be really in a dangerous condition from one cause 
or another, it should be made reasonably easy for those cognizant 
of the danger to bring the danger effectually to the notice of the 
inspector or his deputy. 

SECTION 10. 

ACCIDKNTS. 

Whenever a serious accident occurs in or about any mine, notice thereof shall 
be given iiromptly by telephone or telegraph, followed by a notice in writing, 
to the inspector by the sui)erintendeut or other person having immediate charge 
of the work at the time of the accident. The words " serious accident '" shall 
be construetl to mean, for the purposes of this act, accidents resulting in such 
injuries as. in the opinion of an accre<lited physician, may result in the injured 
person being incapacitated from work for at least 14 days. Upon receiving 
such notice the inspector or a deputy shall, if feasible and if tlie nature of the 
accident shows it to be necessary, proceed to the scene of the accident with 
all convenient speed and investigate fully the cause of the accident, and, 
within 20 days thereafter, shall file the result of such investigation as a report 
in the office of the inspector. "Whenever the inspector or a deputy can not 
proceed as above to the scene of the accident, the person in charge of the 
mine shall be so informed by the inspector, and such person in charge shall 
obtain sworn statements of those who witnessed the accident, or if no one 
was present at the time of such accident he shall obtain the sworn statement 
of those first arriving upon the scene. Such .statements shall give, as far as 
possible, the details of the accident, the facts leading up to it, and its probable 
cause; such sworn statements shall immediately thereafter be sent to the 
inspector, who shall file the same in his office as public records. 

To define properly a '' serious *' accident is somewhat difficult. 
About the only feasible method of diti'erentiating "serious" from 
" minor " accidents is on the basis of the length of the period of dis- 



DKAFT FOE A LAW. - 25 

ablement. The committee lias made the divicUng line 14 days. This 
is a figure commonly so taken in reporting mine accidents, and cor- 
responds with the length of time elapsing before an. injured em- 
ployee receives compensaticm, according to most of the compensation 
laws of which the committee has knowledge. 

SECTION 17. 

Loss OF Life. 

Whenever loss of life occurs from accident in or about a mine, and when 
death results from personal injury, the superintendent or other person having 
immediate charge of the work at the time of the accident shall give notice to 
the inspector promptly by telephone or telegraph, followed by notice in writing, 
after knowledge of death comes. Whenever possible, the inspector or a deputy 
shall be present at a coroner's inquest held over the remains of a person killed 
in or about a mine. An inquest held by the coroner upon the body of a person 

so killed shall be adjourned by tlie coi-oner for not more than days at 

the request of the inspector. If the inspector or any of his deputies be not 
present at such inquest, the coroner in such case shall give written notification 
of such adjourned inquest and the time and place of holding the same at least 
five days previous thereto, to the inspector or to his deputy intending to be 
present. Due notice of an intended inquest to be held by the coroner shall be 
given by the coroner to the inspector, and at such inquest the inspector and any 
deputy inspector shall have the right to examine and cross-examine witnesses, 
and such examination shall be part of the records of such inquest. If, at any 
inquest held over the body or bodies of persons whose death was caused by an 
accident in or about the mine, the inspector or any deputy be not present, and 
it be found from the evidence given at the inquest that the accident was caused 
by neglect or by any defect in or about the mine, or because the mine was- 
operated contrary to the provisions of tliis act, the coroner shall send notice in 
writing to said inspector of such reported neglect or default ; and the said 
inspector shall immediately take steps to have an investigation made of the 
same. The coroner before whom such an inquest is held shall promptly file 
with the inspector of mines a copy of the testunony taken thereat and a copy of 
the verdict rendered by the coroner's jury. 

SECTION IS. 
Inspector to Forward Papers to rKosixT'Tixu Officer in Certain Cases. 

Whenever, in the opinion of the inspector of mines, a serious or fatal acci- 
dent in or about any mine in this State shall have been caused by failure on 
the part of the operator or any employee of such mine, or by any other person, 
or by any of them, to observe the provisions of this act, it shall be the duty of 
such inspector to cause a copy of the report of such accident, or a copy of the 
testimony taken at the coroner's inquest, together with the verdict of the coro- 
ner's jury, and all papers in his hands relating thereto, to be forwarded to the 
prosecuting officer of the county in which the accident or loss of life occurred, 
together with a statement of the inspector showing in what particular or par- 
ticulars he believes the law to have been violated, and if upon the receipt thereof 
the pro.secuting officer of the said county deems the facts to make a prima facie 
cause of action against any party, he shall present such evidence to the grand 
jury and take such further steps for the criminal prosecution of such operators, 
emploj'ees, or other person as may seem advisable. 



26 EULES AND REGCI.ATIONS FOK METAL MINES. 

This section conteniphite.s a prosecution in the case of either a 
serious or a fatal accident caused by neglect or failure to observe the 
provisions of the act. Of course, before a prosecution can be initi- 
ated it will be necessary to obtain evidence indicating at least a vio- 
lation of the law, and it has seemed to the committee that if a suffi- 
cient showing of disregard for the law can not be made to justify a 
grand jury in returning a true bill, the operator sh(udd not be com- 
l)elled to stand the expense and trouble incident to a trial. For this 
reason the provisi9n in some of the Australian laws making the oc- 
currence of a serious or fatal accident prima facie evidence of neglect 
or violation of the law has been disapproved. 

f^EC'TIOX 10. 
Statisticai. Rii'okts or Mink Ixspkctor. 

It shall lio tlu> duty of tlie inspei-titr of mines within three months after 
Jannary 1 in each year to make a reiH)rt direeteil to the irovernor and lejiisla- 
tnre of this State, glvinR a statistical summary and rei)ort of the worlv of the 
inspector and deputy insp(X'tors of mines during the pi-evious year entled I>e- 
cember 31. Such reixn-t shall contain a statement showing; the number of men 
employed in each mine in the State, stating separately the number of men 
employed above ground and iindergroimd, the number and nature of fatal and 
serious accidents occurring in each mine, the number of inspections made, com- 
plaints filed, inquests attended, mines ordered to be vacated, violations found, 
and any other information deemed important and relevant by the inspector of 
mines, together with such recommendations :is, in the judgment of the inspector 
of mines, are necessary or desirable to the carrying out of this act and to insure 
the health and safety of the workmen employed within the mines, sub.ject to 
the provisions of this act. Copie.> of such report shall be i)ublished and dis- 
tributed by and at the exi>euse of the State ;is ;i public document. 

SECTIOX 2o. 

RirMOVAI. of- INSPKCTORS. 

Fpou receipt of a petition, signe<l by at least 100 miners or 10 oiierators. 
or by 3 ojierators each employing 100 men underground, setting fortli that the 
insi>ector or any deputy neglects his duties as prescribe*! in this act, or that he 
is incompetent and unqualilied for the oftice of inspector or deputy, as the c-ase 
may be. under this act. or guilty of malfeasance in office, or guilty of any unlaw- 
ful act tending to the injury of miners or the operators of mines, it shall be 

the duty of the court of of the county wherein such insi>ector or deputy 

iusi^ector resides to issue a citation iu the name of the State to the said in- 
spector or said deputy inspector to api>ear upon not le.ss than 15 days' notice, 
' on a day fixed, before said court, and the court shall then proceed to inquire 
i into and investig.ite the allegations of the petitioners. If the court shall find 
I that said insi>e(^-tor or deputy inspector so petitioned against is neglectful of his 
duties as prescribed in this act, or that he is n4)t qualifietl under the provisions 
of this act for such office, or that lie is ineomi)etent to jterform the duties of his 
office, or that he is guilty of malfeasance in office, the court so finding any or 
all of such facts shall certify the facts so found to the governor of the State, in 
the case of such finding against an insjiector. and to the in«i>ector of mines, in 



DEAFT FOE A LAW, 27 

the ease of sucli fincliug agaiust a deputy inspector, aud the governor or in- 
spector, as the case may be, shall declare the office of inspector or of such 
deputy inspector vacant, aud steps shall forthwith then be taken to apiX)int a 
properly qualified person to fill such vacant office of inspector or deputy in- 
spector, as the case may be, for the remainder of the unfilled term of the 
lemoved official. 

The cost of said investigation shall be borne by the removed inspector or 
deputy inspector, but if the allegations in the petition are not sustained, the 
costs sliall be paid by the petitioners. 

In drafting this section it "U'ns the intent of the committee that 
an inspector or deputy should be subjected to the indignity of a trial 
only when serious and palpable ground for complaint should exist. 
If the inspector or any deputy is grossly incompetent, or is guilty of 
malfeasance, or is neglectful of his duties, such fact or facts should 
be sufficiently a matter of common knowledge to enable the requisite 
number of signatures to be obtained to a petition. It will always be 
I^ossible for a less nimiber of miners or operators, or both, to petition 
the governor directly or to file with him individual complaints, but 
in view of this section the governor would be justified, except, per- 
haps, in the case of charges of peculiar gravity, in declining to act 
thereon unless such petition or .complaint assumed the proportions 
contemplated by this section. The number of miners' or operators' 
signatures required must be arbitrarily chosen. Probably each State 
would select figures to suit its conditions existing; thus the require- 
ments in Wisconsin are entirely different from those in the neigh- 
boring State of Minnesota. 

SECTION 21. 
Superintendent to be Appointed. 

The operator of every mine shall appoint a man who shall be personally in 
charge of the mine and the performance of the work done therein who shall be 
designated as the "superintendent": Provided, hnwcrrr. That nothing herein 
contained shall prevent the owner or operator of any mine from personally 
filling the office of superintendent. 

The sui^erintendeut of every mine shall inspect or cause some comi^tent 
person or persons appointed by him to insiiect all mining appliances, boilers, 
engines, magazines, shafts, shaft houses, underground workings, roofs, pillars, 
timbers, explosives, bell ropes, speaking tubes, telephones, tracks, ladders, dry 
closets, and all parts and appliances of said mine in actual use. and any such 
person or persons appointed by the said superintendent shall at once report any 
defects thei'ein to the superintendent. It shall he the duty of the sui>erintendent 
upon ascertaining such defects to take innnediate steps to remedy the same so 
as to make the same comply with the provisions of this act. and he shall forth- 
with notify the operator of said mine of the existence of such defects. It shall 
be the duty of the superintendent to appoint a competent man to have full 
charge, under the direction of .said superintendent, of every magazine containing 
explosives situated on such mining proiierty. and to make such other appoint- 
ments and perform such other duties as are provided by this act tc- be perfoniied 
by such superintendent. 



28 KULES a:sd kegulations foe metal mixes. 

SECTION 212. 
Mine Fokkmax to i;i: ArruiXTEo. 

The suporimeiulent of every mine shall appoint a man who shall be person- 
all.\ in chaifre of the development of the nmlerjirouncl worliings of the mine 
and personally direct the wi)rk of the men employed underground therein, 
who shall be designated as the " mine foreman " : Provided, hoicevcr. That noth- 
ing herein contained shall be construed to jn-event the superintendent of any 
mine from also filling the position of mine foreman. No person shall be ap- 
pointed to the position of mine foreman who shall not be at least 21 years of 
age. and shall not have had at least two years of practical experience as an 
underground miner in metalliferous mines, and shall not be able readily to read 
and write the English language. The failure of a superintendent to make such 
apiiointment of mine foreman, or the neglect or failure of a sui>erintendent to 
appoint another in hlS place, in the event of said mine foreman vacating or 
k)sing his position from any cause, shall constitute a misdemeanor, and shall 
be punished as hereinafter provided. Such appointment shall be made in writ- 
ing, and it shall be the duty of such superintendent to keep posted notice of such 
appointment or ret\ppointmeut. immeiliately after the same shall have been 
made, in at least two consi)icuous places about said mine, and notices of such 
apiRuntment or auy reappointment shall be mailed immediately thereafter to the 
inspector of mines. 

The mine foreman shall attend personally to his duties in the mine as pro- 
vided in this act, and shall see that the regulations provided herein for insuring 
the safety of all men employed in such mine are carried out; he shall imme- 
diately report to the superintendent of the mine or, in the absence of the super- 
intendent, to the mine operator any violations or infringements of this act ob- 
served by him Avitliin the mine, and .shall take immediate steps to remedy the 
same. He shall warn all employees of danger to life or limb observed by him 
within the mine, and iM?rmit no person to work in an unsafe place, unless for 
the purpose of making it safe or when work in such a place is necessary and 
unavoidable; and shall supervise the miners in the performance of their work. 

It shall be the duty of the mine foreman to see that the number and identity 
of the men going underground on every shift is established and that all such 
men return to the surface at the end of their shift. 

The third paragraph m this section is regarded as a highly neces- 
sary provision. It is designed to serAe two useful purposes, namely, 
to prevent the i>ossihility of a man's being injured and left in some 
remote working place for a long period of time, and in the case of 
serious accidents, sucli as fire or flood or caving. Avhicli involve the 
whole mine, to make it easier to ascertain when all the men have 
been rescued. 

Working in unsafe places in a mine can not be entirely prohibited, 
for such work is frequently necessary and unavoidable. In such 
cases a competent mine foreman can be trusted to .see that all practi- 
cable precautions are taken, and in that event accidents will rarely 
happen, as men cognizant of the danger will be both amenable to 
discipline and as careful as circumstances will permit. 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 29 

SECTION 23. 

Care of Ixjuked. 

It shall be tlie duty of operators, superiutendeuts, or anyone in charge of 
any mine to keep at such place about the mine as may be designated by the 
inspector a stretcher, a woolen blanket, and a waterproof blanket in good con- 
dition for use in carrying any person who may be injured at the mine. Where 
more than 100 persons are employed, two stretchers, two woolen blankets, and 
two waterproof blankets shall be kept. At all mines an adequate suiu'ly of 
materials shall be kept readily accessible for tlie treatment of anyone injured 
and shall include the following in suitable quantity: First-aid outfits consisting 
of one extra -long gauze bandage with compress sewed in its center, one tri- 
angular bandage with methods of application printed thereon, two safety pins, 
and one card of instructions; large first-aid dressings for woimds; packages 
of sterilized gauze; assorted bandages; United States Army tourniquet; car- 
bolated vaseline or boric acid ointment ; packages of picric acid gauze ; wooden 
or wire-gauze splints; packages of absorbent cotton; safety pins; shears; 
tweezers; aromatic spirits of ammonia; paper cups; first-aid book of instruc- 
tions; soap; basins; towels. Furthermore, in all mines where 100 or more 
men are employed a first-aid corps shall be organized, consisting of the fore- 
man or foremen, shift bosses, timekeepers, or other employees designated bj' 
the superintendent ; and it shall be the duty of the operator or suiierintendent 
of the mine to cause the organization of such employees and to procure the 
services of a competent person to instruct the members of such first-aid corps 
from time to time, not less than once in every three months, in the proper han- 
dling and treatment of injured persons before the arrival of a phj-sician. 

For mines employing over 1.000 men the services of a resident 
physician are most desirable, and the committee strongly recom- 
mends that such be employed. It seems, however, too onerous a pro- 
vision to be embodied in law. 

This section was submitted to Maj. Ro'bert U. Patterson, of the 
American National Red Cross, and is based somewhat on his sug- 
gestions. Certain comments of Maj. Patterson's are pertinent, as 
follows : 

First aid is " what to do imtil the doctor comes " or " what to do in order to 
get the patient to the doctor in the best condition to be benefited by his i^ro- 
fessional skill." In other words, what it is proper for a layman to do to the 
injured person and what is not proper for him to do. Those practicing first 
aid have no business to invade the province of the physician. * * * For 
the purposes of first aid one needs : Sterile dressings, the means to stoi) hem- 
orrhage, materials for temporary splinting or immobilizing broken bones, 
some suitable form of stimulant with which to treat shock, facilities for re- 
moving foreign bodies from the eye, mouth, nose, etc., bandages and pins to 
hold dressings in place, and something to use in the treatment of burns. A 
reference book is also useful ; and if not precluded by cost, soap, basin, and 
towels can be included, simply for the use of those rendering first aid them- 
selves, but certainly not for the patient. It should be clearly understoo<I that 
the wounds of patients will not be washed, as this is not within the province 
of true first-aid treatment. 

Maj. Patterson further recommends that each miner carry a small 
first-aid outfit of bandages and pins, as is done by soldiers of the 



30 EULES AND UEOUI-ATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Iv0£2;-ular Army. This is an excellent siifrjrostion. Init is perhaps bet- 
ter left to the discretion of the operator than euibodied in law. 

The set of first-aid supplies is put up hy the first-aid department 
of the Amei-ican National Eed Cross especially for railroad, indus- 
trial, and niinino; Avork. suitable quantities of the several materials 
being packed in a heavy tin case and sold at a reasonable i)rice. 

SECTION 24. 

Mine Maps. 

The oper.-itor of eveuy uiine shall niiikt* or maintain, or canse to be made or 
maintained by a competent mining engineer or surveyor, a clear and accurate 
map or maps, with sections, if necessary, showing clearly all the workings of 
such mine. At least otice in everj' six months, or oftener. if necessary, the op- 
erator or superintendent of each mine shall cause to be showni clearly and 
accurately on the map or maps of such mine all the excavations made therein 
during the time elapsed since such excavations were last shown on such map 
or maps, and all parts of said mine that shall have been worked out or aban- 
doned during said elapsed period of time shall be c'early indicated, on said 
map or maps, and all underground workings shall be surveyed and mai>ped be- 
fore they are allowed to become inaccessil)le. Such mai»s shall at all times be 
open to tlie examination of the inspector of mines or any of his deputies. In 
the event of the closing of a mine under conditions that will result in its 
workings becoming inaccessible the maps herein specified, or certified copies of 
them, shall be filed with the inspector of mines. 

The object of this section is to require mine maps to be both 
accurate and intelligible, and to be kept reasonably up to date. It 
has not seemed advisable to recjuire that a copy of all mine maps, 
together with all subse(iuent changes and corrections, shall be filed 
in the office of the inspector of mines, as it is not perceived that any 
great good Avould be accomplished thereby. The provision requiring 
that such maps shall be open at all times to the examination of the 
inspector or deputy is regarded as sufficient for the purposes of the 
act. However, in the event of abandonment of a mine, a condition 
that woidd probal)ly render the maps inaccessible to the inspector, 
it is required that the maps, or copies of them, sliall l)e filed with h.im. 

SECTION -J.-,. 

Fau.i:ri: to Maick Map — Kimidv. 

■Whenever any operator of any mine shall neglect or refuse to make such map 
of the workings of any such mine for a periiHl of three montlis after the receipt 
of written notice s(> to do liy the inspector or l»y any deput.v. or shall fail to add 
or cause to be added to such map at least once in every six mouths representa- 
tion of all excavations made within said period, then and in either of such 
events, the insi»ector is hereb.v authorized to cause a correct survey and map 
of such mine to be made at the expense of the oiierator thereof, the cost of 
which shall be rec-overable at law from said operator as other debts are recov- 
erable by law. The amount advauceil by the inspec-tor for making any map as 
provided in this sec'tion shall be considered as part of the expense of his otlice 
and shall be paid as such. 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 31 

SECriOX 2G. 

INFLAMMAIJI i: ^IaTERIAL. 

It shall be tlie duty of the operator of every mine in which oils and other 
dangerously inflammable materials are used, to store such materials, or cause 
them to be stored, iu a covered building kept solely for such storage, which 
building shall be at least 100 feet from any other building, shaft, tunnel, or 
other mine opening, and at least 300 feet from any powder magazine: Provided, 
That gasoline, naphtha, distilhite, and fuel oils may be stored in a tank or tanks 
buried in the ground, which tank or tanks shall be provided with i)roper vents, 
and shall be placed at least 50 feet from any building, shaft, tunnel, or other 
mine opening, and at least 300 feet from any powder magazine: And provided 
further, That lubricating oils may be stored in a well-constructed, covered build- 
ing, which shall be at least 30 feet from any building, shaft, tunnel, or other 
mine opening, and at least 300 feet from any iK)wder magazine. No tank 
shall be installed from which liiiuid fuel is to be conducted by gravity to the 
point of combustion, unless there be installed between such tank and such 
point of combustion a simple and reliable cut-off valve which shall be capable 
of being reached and closed within 30 seconds from any point within the build- 
ing in which such i)oint of combustion is situated. 

The man in charge of such building or tank or tanks, who shall be the super- 
intendent or a person expressly designated by him, shall permit only sufficient 
oil or other inflammable material to be takea from such building or tank or 
tanks to meet the requirements of one day. If any oil or gasoline stoi'age be 
so situated that leakage would permit the oil or gasoline to flow within the 
above-specified distances, means to prevent such flow must be provided. 

Illuminating oil shall not be .stored in the underground workings of any 
mine, except .such quantity as is sufficient to meet the estimated requirements 
of the mine during the succeeding 24 hours. No more than G gallons of any 
one kind of lubricating oil shall be stored underground on any one level at 
any one time. No oil, candles, explosives, timber, or other combustible mate- 
rials shall be stored at all in shaft stations or within 50 feet thereof. 

Gasoline shall not be stored underground: Provided, however. That a tank 
containing gasoline and connected to the engine or other apparatus in which it 
is being used shall not be construed as a storage tank. No engine or other 
api)aratus shall be filled with gasoline while underground. 

Waste timber or old timber shall not be piled and permitted to decay iu sta- 
tions, drifts, crosscuts, or other open workings in the mine, but shall be re- 
moved from the mine as soon as practicable: Provided, however, That in 
stopes or other workings old timber may be buried in the filling material and 
permitted to remain in the mine. Empty boxes, wooden chips, paper, and com- 
bustible rubbish of all kinds shall be removed from every working place under- 
ground at least once in every 24 hours. 

Timber storage sheds or any inflammable structure shall not be placed or 
permitted to remain within 75 feet of the shaft house or hoisting-engine house: 
Provided, however, That wooden headframes for hoisting and lowering may be 
erected and operated. 

All inflammable material that may be stoi'ed iu any existing house or 
structure erected over any shaft, tunnel, or other mine opening shall be innue- 
diately removed, and such inflanunable material shall not be stored within 
30 feet of the exterior walls of such house or structure now existing, or that 
may hereafter be built. 

All oily waste and waste of any kind used in and about underground 
machinery shall be deposited in metal receptacles. 



32 EULES AND EEGL'LATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Calcium carbido shall be stored ou the surface only in detached, waterproof, 
dry, and well-ventilated buildings, and shall lie contained in the original metal 
packages not exceeding 100 pounds each. All such packages but one in such 
storage place shall remain sealed except that a new package may be opened 
when in the onlj' other oiien package there remains less tlian 1 pound of cal- 
cium carbide. No calcium carbide shall be stored underground. 

The storage of oils, gasoline, etc., in steel tanks buried in the 
ground, -which is now general practice, has advantages that should 
recommend it to mine operators, as the oil is protected from freezing ; 
in case of leakage the ground around the tank will prevent the oil 
from escaping, and in case of fire the inflammable material is entirely 
protected. In addition such storage has the. recommendation of being 
the method most favored by the insurance companies. Mr. Edwin I. 
Atlee, president and treasurer of the Philadelphia Manufacturers' 
^lutual Fire Insurance Co., states that the requirements of his com- 
panj^ on this subject are as follows: 

The recommendations that we make in relation to oils, gasoline, etc., in 
connection with plants insured by us are governed somewhat by the yard spaces 
with which we have to contend. As to the storage of lubricating oils, we do 
not look upon them as hazardous, and it is the usual custom to store them in 
well-constructed buildings outside and 25 to 50 feet away from main buildings. 

In the case of gasoline, fuel oils, naphtha, etc., we invariably require such 
materials to be buried in the ground, with proper vents, and not nearer than 
50 feet to any building. Of course, if the yard space permits, we naturally 
require a greater distance. In no circumstances do we allow this class of oils 
to be stored above ground, and we will not permit Installations in which such 
oils are conducted by gravity to the point of combustion. 

On the provision that no oil be conducted by gravity from a stor- 
age tank to the point of combustion. J. R. Finlay has commented to 
the effect that if such a regulation had been in force at the Gold- 
field Consolidated at the time that he was general manager of that 
property, a $150,000 fire Avoiild have been aA'oided. Although this 
particular fire occasioned no loss of life, so fortunate an outcome 
could not in general be expected. 

The provision governing the use of gasoline underground permits 
the employment of the plumber's blow torch, the gasoline locomotive, 
and also the stationary gasoline engine if modified as to its tanks. 
The tanks of the latter two, however, must be filled above ground. 
Most makes of Amei-ican gasoline locomotives are designed to permit 
this. The use of such locomotives is a relatively new thing in Ameri- 
can mining practice. Some discussion regarding their safety appears 
in Chapter V. The committee considers the actual storage of gaso- 
line undergroiuid in any quantity to be highh' dangerous and there- 
fore prohibits it altogether. 

It is desirable that no lubricating or other oil be allowed to come 
into contact with timber at all. as oil-soaked timber is much more 
liable to burn. In the lubrication of cars especially the lubricant is 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 33 

likely to be carelessly handled and spilled. Although finding it im- 
practicable to embody its belief in an equitable provision in the law, 
the connnittee thinks that such lubricating should be carried on only 
in a rock drift or similar working. 

Additional rules designed to reduce the danger of fire in and 
about mines appear in subsequent sections of this act. The terrible 
danger of underground fires is not perhaps fully appreciated, but 
the fearful calamity in the North Mount Lyell mine in Tasmania in 
1912, when 42 men were killed, drew emphatic attention to it. The 
historic fires in the Anaconda, Calumet & Hecla, and Homestake 
mines are in the minds of all. These were especially destructive of 
property. The Anaconda fire is still burning and the expectation is 
that it will continue to burn for many years, or until all the combusti- 
ble matter in the bulkheaded " fire stopes '' has been exhausted. 
During 1911 the following fires, involving loss of life, happened in 
mines of the United States : 

Details of fatal underground fires in mines in the United States in 1911. 

Jauuai-y 14, 1911, uuderground fire in the workings between tlie Modoc and 
the Butte-Ballaklava mines, Butte, Mont. ; 2 men smothered. 

February 23, 1911, fire in Belmont mine, Tonopah, Nev. ; resulted in death 
of 17 men. 

May 5, 1911, 7 men killed by fire in Hartford mine of Republic Iron & Steel 
Co. at Negaunee, Mich. 

August 23, 1911, fire in new shaft of Giroux Consolidated Mines Co., Kim- 
berly, Nev. ; resulted in 7 deaths. 

The above list would be greatly extended if the fires resulting only 
in damage to property were added. AVe are now speaking solely of 
underground fires. Surface fires would constitute a further and long 
addition, and these may be as dangerous to the men underground as 
a fire originating in a stope or shaft station. Thus, in 1909, a fire 
destroyed the shaft crusher house of the London mine of the Ten- 
nessee Copper Co. Burning timber fell down the shaft and cut off 
the egress of the miners, who made their escape through another 
outlet of the mine, demonstrating emphatically the soundness of the 
legal requirem.ent that a mine should be provided with more than 
one outlet. 

The causes of mine fires are numerous. In the presence of exces- 
sively dry timber fire may be started by some trifling accident or piece 
of careles.sness, and may spread with surprising rapidity. Burning 
candles left in stopes on the departure of a shift are a danger. Recog- 
nizing this, the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. has a corps of inspect- 
ors, "fire bugs" in the vernacular, to go through the stopes after the 
miners have gone. In the case of the Homestake fire, a piece of 
smoldering fuse has been designated as the cause. In metal mines, 

16559°— Bull. 75—15 4 



34 RULES AND EEGULATI0X3 FOR METAL MIXES. 

blasting is a risk of minor importance, the conditions in this respect 
being difi'erent from those of a coal mine. We know of no autlientic 
case where the flame of a bhist has been responsible for setting tim- 
bers on fire. The short circuiting and overheating of electric wires is 
a connnon accident by which mine tires are started. On June 11, 11)12, 
the pump room of the AVard shaft at Virginia City, Nev., was endan- 
gered bv a fire caused by the short circuiting and exi)loding of an oil 
switch on one of the pumps. In this case no fatalities occurred and 
no great damage was done. In most cases mine fires are attributed to 
"causes unknown," which may be paraphrased as " nndetermined 
carelessness." 

The safeguards against underground fires are. in the main, those 
that should be taken against fire anywhere— namely, etenuil vigilance 
and the exercise of common sense. Under the latter head come the 
clearing away of combustible rubbish and the avoidance of careless- 
ness with matches, candles, and lamps. Experience has abundantly 
proved that a shaft should not be covered by any building at all, but 
where the severity of the climate creates the necessity for such it 
should be of incombustible construction, and combustible material 
should be kept out of it. The shaft itself, being the main communica- 
tion with the mine, and being timbered as a rule, should be made as 
nearly fireproof as possible. Fortunately, many shafts are wet. 
When they are not they may advisably be equipped with a sprinkling 
system such as is installed in most of the modern factories of New 
England. This precaution may be especially advisable in the case of 
dry shafts in which creosoted timber is used. The cost of such an 
installation is moderate, and certain of the mining companies in the 
Lake Superior iron country have already adopted it. Although such 
an equipment is advisable, the committee has not considered its speci- 
fication necessary except in one specific case (see sec. 39). This 
subject is further discussed in Chapter V. 

The provisions for the removal of old timber from underground 
ai-e intended to reduce the fire hazard to the lowest practicable mini- 
mum. Timber stowed away and well covered with gob or filling 
would not add greatlv to the fire hazard compared with timber cov- 
ered in place, as when a square-set stope is filled ; and removal of the 
latter is. of course, impracticable. Such covered timber, however, 
will burn. This was found to be the case at the Mount Morgan 
mine, Queensland, where hardwood timber took fire and burned in 
filling material, as noted in the Engineering and Mining Journal of 
May 9, 1914. At the Copper Queen mine, in Arizona, also, all or 
almost all of the several fires occurring in recent years ciginated 
and continued burning for some time in filled stopes. 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 35 

SECTION 27. 
Storage of Explosives. 

The term " magazine " as used in this section shall be held to mean and 
iuclnde any building or other structure or place in which explosives are stored 
or kept, whether above or below ground. 

Sufficient explosives may be stored within a mine to meet the estimated re- 
quirements of such mine during the succeeding 24 hours, and an additional 24 
hours' supply of explosives may be taken within the mine for the purpose of 
thawing the same in accordance with the provisions of rules 54 to 61 of section 
49 of this act, but in no event shall any greater supply of explosives be taken 
into or stored in the mine than is required to meet the estimated requirements 
of the mine during the succeeding 48 hours. 

No explosive shall be kept at any place within a mine where its accidental dis- 
charge would cut off the escape of miners working th'erein. 

All explosives within the mine shall be kept in stout, tight boxes with hinged 
lids, from which the explosives shall be removed only as required for imme- 
diate use. It shall be unlawful to keep such boxes containing explosives near 
any track or electric conductors or in any yianway, or to permit any grains or 
particles of such explosives to be or remain on the outside or about the con- 
tainers in which such explosives are held. Black blasting powtler and high 
explosives shall not be kept in the same box. 

Not more than 7.5 pounds of explosives shall be kept in any one level at any 
one time, except that such explosives may be stored in an underground maga- 
zine, from which supplies retiuired for immediate use shall be distributed to the 
various working places by an authorized and competent person or persons. Such 
underground magazine may consist of a separate drift or chamber, the walls 
of which shall be of fireproof material or of wood covered with sheet iron. The 
entrance to such underground magazine shall be kept securely locketl, except 
when it has to be entered by the person or persons in charge thereof. 

All explosives, except detonators, in excess of the temporary supply authorized 
to be taken into or stored in the mine shall be stored in a magazine above- 
ground, which shall be placed not less than 300 feet distant from any shaft, 
adit, or other mine entrance, boiler, engine house, habitation, public highway, 
or public railway : Provided, however. That in cases where the location of any 
mining property makes it impossible to comply with the provisions of this sec- 
tion the inspector may grant permission in writing to the operator of such 
mining property to place such magazine in some other place on such property, if, 
in the opinion of the said inspector, such location be not dangerous to the 
safety of the mine employees or the public. 

Every magazine aboveground shall be firepnjof and waterproof and shall be 
constructed of bullet-proof material. It shall be provided with mounds of earth, 
which shall be free from stones over 1 Inch in diameter, ;uid shall be 
not less than 2 feet thick, on such side or sides as are in line with any shaft, 
adit, or other mine entrance, boiler, engine house, habitation, public highway, 
or public railway, and which are not protec-ted by natural features of the ground, 
and such mound of earth or intervening natural feature, or both, shall be of 
sufficient height so that a line drawn from the top of any wall of the magazine 
to any part of the shaft, adit, mine entrance, or structure to be protected, or 
to a point not loss than 10 feet above the center of such public highway or 
public railway, shall pass through such mound of earth or intervening natural 
ol)ject. The floors of all such magazines shall be laid with sound boards, free 
from knots, tongued and grooved, and not to exceed 3 inches in width. All 
nails in the interior of the magazine shall be countersunk. The ground around 
such magazines shall be kept free from rubbish, dead grass, shrubbery, or other 



36 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL ZMIXES. 

encuuibrancos, aud no person sliall be allowed to loiter about such place. AH 
electric wires in any magazine shall be inclosed in metal conduit and shall not 
l)e brought within 10 feet of the explosives stored therein. 

No matches or Are of any kind shall at any time be permitted iu any magazine. 
Proi^idcd, hoircrcr, That candles or oil or gas lamps may be used for the pur- 
pose of illumination if properly inclosed. Magazines shall be ventilated, and the 
openings for ventilation shall be so screened that sparks of fire may not enter 
therein. Magazines shall at all times be kept clean and dry. and free from grit. 
Before any alterations are made to any part theret)f all explosives shall be 
carefully removed and the magazine thoroughly washed out. All tools and in- 
struments used in making repairs shall be of wood, copper, brass, or other soft 
metal or materia.l. In no case shall nails or screws be driven into a magazine 
or into material that has once formed a part of a magazine, and all wooden 
parts discarded shall be bui'ned in a safe place inimeiliately. 

All detonators shall be stored aboveground in a suitable magazine or maga- 
zines, properly protected against molestation : Prorided, That a sufficient supply 
for the needs of the mine during 48 hours may be stored underground as here- 
inbefore stated. No detonator shall be stored within 100 feet of other explo- 
sives underground or within 300 feet of other explosives aboveground. No 
detonator shall be taken into any magazine containing other explosives. No 
fuses shall be capped with detonators in any magazine or in any other place 
where detonators or other explosives are stored, but special benches shall be 
provided at least 50 feet from such storage places, where all fuses shall be 
capped. Cap crimpers shall be furnished in sufficient quantity to avoid the 
necessity of crimping in any other way. No detonator shall be transported 
with other explosives except when made into a primer with such other explo- 
sive. All primers shall be exploded within 10 hours after making. Not more 
than 1.000 detonators shall be kept underground in any one level at any time. 

Fuse shall not be stored underground for a longer period than 72 hours. 

When supplies of explosives or fuse are removed from a magazine those that 
have been longest iu the magazine shall be taken first. Packages of explosives 
shall be removed to a safe distance from the magazine before being opened, and 
no such packages shall be opened with any metallic instrument. 

Any failure on the part of the operator of any mine coming within the pro- 
visions of this act to carry out and enforce any or all of the requirements of this 
section shall constitute a misdemeanor and shall be punished as hereinafter 
provided. 

It ^vollld be desirable to prohibit absolutely the storage of explo- 
sives Avithin the mine, but this prohibition- "v\-ould -work a great hard- 
ship in many mining regions, and therefore the committee has sought 
to limit the quantity of powder or explosives that may be brought 
in and .stored, and to limit the qiiantit}^ that may be accumulated at 
any one place, and so to surround the .storage of such explosives 
underground with safety requirements as to reduce the danger of 
accident to the minimum. The impracticability of requiring a cen- 
tral thawing house for explosives on the surface of the ground is 
discussed briefly in the remarks on rule 54: of .section 49, and it is 
consequently necessary to permit one day's supply of explosives to be 
brouglit into the mine and to be thawing there while another is being 
used. Owing to the fact that caps may explode from a slight sliock, 
a due regard for safety requires that they should not be stored in the 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 37 

same magazine with other explosives but should be both stored and 
carried separately. Ever}^ effort should be made to prevent the caps 
and powder coming together until the very last moment. 

The most suitable method of illuminating a magazine is by incan- 
descent lamps with reflectors, set at some distance from the explo- 
sives. To require this, however, would Avork a hardship on mines 
that have no electric-light service. The portable electric lamp is 
equally safe, but is not j^et sufiiciently Avell developed to be practi- 
cable. The portable acetylene lamp is the most dangerous device for 
this purpose; the simple candle is a close second. The large acety- 
lene lamp set some distance from the explosives is not very unsafe, 
but is not wholly reliable. For these reasons the committee has not 
cared to specify the mode of lighting magazines, nor to prohibit 
candles or oil and gas lamps if properly inclosed. It strongly recom- 
mends, however, that electric lighting be used. 

The danger due to the presence of a powder magazine results from 
its faulty construction fully as much as in its improper location. 
The walls of such a building, therefore, should be constructed of light 
material and should be fireproof, waterproof, and bullet-proof. The 
Bureau of Mines, after considerable experimenting, has found that 
a bullet-proof magazine for storing explosives may be constructed 
with lean cement mortar, in the proportion of one part cement to six 
parts coarse sand, the walls containing a G-inch thickness of such 
material, and the door and roof a 3-inch thickness. It was found 
that the greatest penetration of bullets, either metal-patched or 
soft-nose, when fired from a distance of 55 feet from a Springfield 
0.30-caliber, or from a Winchester 0.401-caliber, was 3 inches. The 
tAvo most favorable characteristics of this material are resistance 
to penetration of bullets and the ease with which the material Avill 
disintegrate when subjected to the force of an explosion. The same 
consideration, ease of disintegration, led to the requirement that the 
sides of a magazine in line with a shaft, etc., should be provided 
Avith mounds of earth rather than barricades of heaA-y timber, which 
might well be an additional source of danger. 

Although the principle that the distance at which explosiA^es may 
be stored from buildings, higliAvays, etc., shall depend upon the 
quantity of explosives to be stored is a desirable one generally, it is 
not always possible of application to mining properties, Avhere in 
many instances the entire Avidth of the property may not exceed 
300 feet. It is therefore necessary to lodge some degree of discretion 
in the inspector, although otherAvise making the requirement exact. 

A quantity and distance table for the storage of explosives, which 
has been submitted by Col. B. W. Dunn, chief inspector of the Bureau 
for the Safe Transportation of ExplosiAes and Other Dangerous 
Articles, folloAvs . 



38 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

QiKUifiti/ intd distiDicc Utblc. 



1. 

Quantity that may be lawfully kept or stored from 
nearest building, highway, or railroad. 


2. 

Distance 
fioin near- 
est build- 
ing. 


3. 

Distance 
£iom near- 
est rail- 
road. 


4. 

Distance 
from near- 
est high- 
way. 


Blasting caps. 


Other explosives. 


Number 
over. 


Number not 
over. 


Pounds 
over. 


Pounds not 
over. 


1,000 
5,W»0 
10, 000 
20, 000 
25,000 
50, 000 

ion, 000 

150,000 

200. 000 

250, 000 

300, 000 

350, 000 

400, tX)0 

450, 000 

b'M. tK)0 

750. 000 

1, 000, 000 

1,500,000 

2,000,000 


5.000 

10, 000 ■ 

20, 000 

25, 000 

50,000 

100, 000 

150, 000 

200, (X)0 

250, (K)0 

300, 000 

350, 000 

400, 000 

450, 000 

500. 000 

750, 000 

1,000,000 

1,500,000 

2, 000, (X)0 

2,500,000 






Feet. 

30 

60 

120 

200 

240 

360 

520 

640 

720 

800 

860 

920 

980 

1,020 

1,060 

1,200 

1,300 

1,420 

1,50(» 

1,560 

1,610 

1 . 660 

1, 700 

1,740 

1,780 

2,110 

2,410 

2,680 

2,920 

3,130 

3,310 

3,460 

3,5,80 

3,670 

4.190 

4.670 

5. 110 


Feet. 

20 

40 

70 

120 

140 

220 

310 

380 

430 

480 

520 

550 

590 

610 

640 

720 

780 

,850 

900 

940 

970 

1,(X)0 

1,020 

1,040 

1,070 

1,270 

1,450 

1,610 

1,750 

1,840 

1,990 

2, 080 

2, 150 

2, 2fH) 

2,510 

2,800 

3,070 


Feet. 

15 

30 

50 

SO 

100 

140 

200 

260 

290 

320 

340 

360 

3S0 

40O 

420 

480 

520 

570 

6:0 

620 

640 

660 

680 

7(X) 

710 

• ,S40 

960 

1.070 

1.170 

1,250 

1,330 

1,380 

1,430 

1,470 

1,680 

1,870 

2.040 












50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
5(X) 
600 
700 

m) 

900 
l.fKHl 
1,500 
2, (MX) 

3,m)o 

4,000 
5,000 
6,000 

7,000 

8, iH)0 

9,0' 10 

10,000 

20,<KI0 

30.000 

40. 0<K) 

50,000 

60,000 

70. (KM) 

80, (H)0 

90, O'K) 

100,000 

200. 000 

300, 000 

400, Of)0 

500,000 


50 

100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

700 

800 

900 

1,000 

1,500 

2,000 

3,(K)0 

4,000 

5, (WO 

6,000 

7,(K)0 

8, 000 

9, 000 

10,000 

20, (V)0 

30, 000 

40, 000 

50,000 

60,000 

70, 000 

SO, 000 

90,0(X) 

100, 000 

200, 000 

300, 000 

400, COO 











































































This section has been subject to criticism on the gTonnd th;it in 
roui>-fi country, such as is found in many we;stern States, the danijer 
from snow slides is so great that underground storage becomes safer 
than storage in a surface magazine. The situation of a mine in a 
well-settled town has a similar effect. In such cases underground 
storage might.be advisable, the preference being given to a magazine 
in some detached Avorking, such as an abandoned adit or tininel, of 
sufficient depth so that the explosion of the contents would not affect 
the surface, and so located and ccmstructed that the fumes and gas 
fi(»m the explosion of the contents of the magazine may escape read- 
ily into the open air and not reach any part of the mine where men 
may be at work. 

The committee appreciates that the |irovisions of thi-^ section are 
minute and severe, but deems it advi<al)k' to j^resent an ideal method 
for the storage of explosives without .supposing that it will be pos- 
sible to enact into law the section in its entirety. 



DKAFT FOR A LAW. 39 

SECTION 28. 

Marking of Explosives. Detonators, and Fuses. 

It shall be unlawful for the operator or superintendent of any mine to permit 
the use within such mine of any explosive, or any blasting caps or detonators, 
or fuse, unless there shall be plainly printed or marked, in the English lan- 
guage, on every original package containing explosives the name and place of 
business of the manufacturer of such explosive, the date of its manufacture, 
and its strength ; and on every original package containing such fuse the name 
and place of business of the manufacturer of such fuse, the date of its manu- 
facture, and its rate of burning; and on every original package containing blast- 
ing caps or detonators the name and place of business of the manufacturer of 
such blasting caps or detonators and the date of their manufacture. 

SECTION 29. 
Blasting. 

Bosses or shot firers shall be in immediate charge of and responsible for 
blasting within the mine. It shall be unlawful to use anything but wooden 
tamping rods, with no metal parts, in tamping explosives or tamping material 
in the bore holes, and it shall be the duty of the bosses or shot firers to see 
that no iron or steel tools are used for tamping. Detonators of not less strength 
than No. 6, containing 1 gram of fulminating composition, shall be used in 
firing blasts. It shall be the duty of the mine foreman to fix the time of all 
blasting and firing. Bosses or shot firers and miners about to fire shots shall 
cause warnings to be given in every direction, and all entrances to the place 
or places where charges are to be fired shall be guarded, so far as possible, by 
men; otherwise by signs, which shall be such as will not fail to attract the 
attention of anj-body passing. 

The number of explosions in every blast, except in case of simultaneous firing 
or blasts in stopes, shall be counted by the man firing the same, and if the total 
number of explosions is less than the number of charges fired a report of the 
discrepancy shall be made as the superintendent shall direct. When a blast has 
been fired and it is not certain that all the charges have exploded, no person 
shall enter the place where such charges were placed within 30 minutes after 
the explosion. 

Wherever possible, a charge that has failed to explode shall be exploded by 
inserting a new primer in the hole on the old charge and detonating such 
primer. When tight tamping** has been used, or when for any other reason a 
new primer can not be inserted, no attempt shall be made to extract the explo- 
sive, but a new hole shall be drilled, which shall not be nearer to the original 
hole than 2 feet, and shall be pointed at such an angle as to eliminate all danger 
of its meeting or coming closer to the old hole than 2 feet, and such new hole 
shall be chargetl with a fresh charge of explosives and then detonate<l. 

When electricity is used to fire shots, it shall be unlawful for any person 
knowingly to enter the vicinity of the place where such shots have been fired 
until the cable from the source of electrical energy to the face of the blast 
shall have been disconnected. It shall be the duty of the boss or shot firer to 
see that all such cables are disconnected immediately after such firing and to 
examine or direct the examination of such place where shots have been fired 
before any men are permitted to work therein. All miners shall immediately 
report to the proper authority the finding of any loose wires under or in the 

"In the pul>lioations of tho Burpau of Mines the word 'i stemming" denotes the material 
used to contiue a charse of explosive in a blast hole; the woi'd "tamping" denotes the 
act of pressing or ramming this material in place. 



40 RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

rock loosened by such firiug, auil in such event the mine foreman or, in his 
absence, the shift boss or other properly constituted authority, shall at once 
order work to cease until such wires shall have been traced to their terminals. 

It shall be unlawful to use electricity from any grounded circuit for firing 
shots. It shall be the duty of the boss or shot firer to see that special precau- 
tions are taken against the shot-firing cables or wires coming into contact with 
the lighting, power, or other circuits, or with any metal pipe lines. All portable 
devices for generating or supplying electricity for shot firing shall, when in the 
mine, be in charge of a boss or shot firer. Xo person other than a boss or shot 
firer shall connect tlje firing machine or battery to the shot-firing leads, and 
such connection shall not be made until all other steps preparatory to the firing 
of a shot shall have been completed. The primary or secondary batteries used 
foV shot firing shall be provided with a suitable case, in v.-hich all contacts shall 
be made or broken, except that the binding post for making connections to the 
firing leads may be outside. These binding posts shall be completely covered 
with insulating material of a permanent character, such as hard rubber, fiber, 
etc., except at the points where the firing leads make connections with the bind- 
ing posts. Such batteries shall be provided with a detachable plug or key 
without which the detonating circuit can not be closed, or provideil with one or 
more safety contact buttons that are well countersunk or protectetl by a non- 
conducting housing. The plug or key shall be detached when not actually in 
use for firing a shot, and shall not, under any circumstances, pass from the 
custody of the boss or shot firer. 

Electricity from light or power circuits shall not be used for firing shots in a 
mine, except where the electrical connections to such light or power circuits 
are made within an inclosed switch room, which shall be kept securely locked 
and shall be accessible only to the authorized boss or shot firer. 

No blast shall be fired under circumstances likely to injure any person. 

In drafting this section the committee has had the benefit of the 
criticism and advice of the experts of the Bureau of ]\Iines and of 
the advice and suggestions of Mr. F. H. Gunsohis, manager of the 
technical division of the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., of 
Wihnington. DeL Although the committee has availed itself largely 
of the criticism and advice so given, it alone is responsible for the 
section in its present form. 

It has been recommended by explosives experts that no one be 
allowed to enter a working place where a misfire has occurred until 
the folloAving day. it being stated that such a rule is now in force in 
some of the mines in the anthracite coal field. Although the commit- 
tee is perfectly ready to agree to the superior safety of this recom- 
mendation, it is not willing to prescribe such a provision in this sec- 
tion because of the great impediment to mining operations that would 
result. The length of time (30 minutes) that is fixed by the section 
should be sufficient with good fuses, but a greater length of time 
may be adopted by operators, with a corresponding diuiinution of the 
liability to accident. 

Loose wires may sometimes be found in the muck which are only 
electric fuse wires blown out by, the blast, but a due regard for safety 
requires that the rule be laid down broadly. 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 41 

The committee considered including in tlie law a requirement that 
there should always be two men present when a blast was to be set 
off hj cap and fuse, but decided that this provision was too sweeping 
and would be unfair to many properties. It strongly recommends 
the practice, however, as an excellent safety precaution. 

The committee has adopted the requirement that blasting caps or 
electric fuses of not less strength than No. 6 be used in firing blasts 
of explosives, to conform to the recommendations of the Bureau of 
Mines with reference to the use of permissible explosives, and in 
accordance with the advice of Mr. Gunsolus. 

Although in late years the improvements made in gelatin or am- 
monia explosives have made them safer to handle, the improvements 
have likewise made them less liable to detonation from shock. It 
follows, therefore, that as a rule the stronger the detonator used the 
better the execution will be. Detonators of No. 7 and Xo. 8 strengths 
are being used to-day with these explosives to a great extent, and the 
committee feels that the superior safety and better results attained 
justify the prohibition of the use of detonators of less strength than 
Xo. Q. 

The question of handling misfires is a difficult one. Drilling new 
holes is not always a safe expedient and is not always effective in 
exploding the misfire. Where there has been no tamping the charge 
is best shot over with a new primer, and although the committee does 
not care to recommend the nonuse of stemming, it appears from fur- 
ther experiments of the Bureau of Mines that, with the higher ex- 
plosives, tamping is of less importance than at one time supposed. 

Electric blasting in shafts is rapidly coming into favor and is to 
be recommended as regards safety. However, the unfamiliarity of 
many miners with that system, and some uncertainty as regards the 
delay-action detonators, without which the system is impracticable, 
renders the committee unwilling to make it mandatory. 

A point on which practice differs in various mines is that of the 
preparation of fuses. At some properties the capping of the fuses 
is delegated to certain men; in others each miner prepares his own. 
The choice between the two methods may hinge on the quality of 
the labor available. If the intelligence of the miners as a whole is 
high, they may be trusted to cap their own fuses; otherwise, it is 
preferable to delegate this work to one or more competent men. The 
committee, in fact, would recommend this practice for all properties 
of a size sufficient to prevent its being a burden, say. those employing 
over 100 men. The proper performance of this operation should cut 
doAvn the number of misfires and also reduce the lial>ility to accident 
in handling. 



42 EULES AND KEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTION liO. 

Hoisting Eniiineei!. 

It shall be the duty of every superiiiteudeut uf every miue havuig a hoisting 
engine to appoint and designate one or more men. .who shall be able to speak 
and read the English language readily, to be known as hoisting engineers. At 
all shafts where men are hoisted or lowered such hoisting engineers shall be not 
less than 21 years of age. and at shafts where men are not so hoisted or lowered 
they shall be not less than IS years of age. It shall be the duty of every super- 
intendent to appouit as hoisting engineers men who are familiar with the 
details and working of a hoisting engine, and except in case of emergency to 
permit no one other than such duly appointed hoistiiig engineers to run such 
engine or hoisting machinery ; except that, by and with the consent of the 
superintendent, specified apprentices may be taught the operation of the hoisting 
engine at such times and under such restrictions as the suijerintendent may de- 
termine to be free of risk to life and limb. Any superintendent failing to make 
such appointment of hoisting engineer, or knowingly apiwinting any hoisting 
engineer not qualified as above, shall be guilty of a violation of this act. 

In large mines the superintendent might, in practice, delegate the 
appointing power to the master mechanic. Although .such action is 
permissible, it would not operate to relieve the .superintendent of the 
responsibility for the appointment that this section places upon him. 

SECTION :n. 
Hoisting. 

The superintendent of the miue shall establi-sh for each shaft I'ates of sjieed 
for the cages, skips, buckets, or other conveyances that shall not be exceeded 
in the hoisting or lowering of men. and he shall post a notice of such limitation 
in a conspicuous i)lace near each hoisting engine: Provided. That the speed so 
permitted shall not be greater than 500 feet per minute in the case of shafts 
of less than 500 feet in depth, and not greater th:m SOO feet per minute in the 
case of shafts between 500 and 1,000 feet in depth, and in shafts of more than 
1,000 feet in depth not more than one-half the si)eed normally employed in 
hoisting material : Provided further. That in the case of inclined shafts the 
classification herein made sh;ill be determined by the measurement on their 
sloiie. 

The superintendent of the miue shall determine the maxinunn number of 
men that in his judgment may safely ride on each cage. skip, bucket, or other 
conveyance u.sed in the mine under his supervision and shall post in a con- 
spicuous place near each shaft a notice stating the maxinunn number of per- 
sons so permitted to ride and forbidding the carrying of any greater number. 
At the beginning of each shift the mine foreman or shift boss, or some other 
responsible per.son appointed by the superintendent, shall be stationed on the 
loading platform at the top of the shaft and shall prevent any greater number 
of men than that jiermitted by order of the superintendent to enter upon or 
into any cage. skip, bucket, or other conveyance arid shall remain at this sta- 
tion until the last man about to de.scend the shaft shall have entered the cage, 
skip, bucket, or other conveyance. And at the end of the shift the man in 
charge of work on each level of the mine from which men are to be hoisted 
shall post himself in the station of the shaft at that level and shall ju'event any 
greater number of men than the niaximuiu iicrniittod by the si-iierintondent of 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 43 

I he mine to euter upon or into ;;uy Ciige, ^kip, bucket, or other conveyance 
and shall remain in this station until the last man to ascend shall have entered 
upon or into the cage, skip, bucket, or other com-eyance. 

In every mine operated on two or more levels in which ICK) or more men are 
employed underground and in which the men are hoisted or lowered by cage 
or other conveyance except a bucket, such cage or other conveyance shall be 
operated under the charge of a person appointed as condiictor, and no person 
other than this conductor shall give any signal for the movement of the cage 
or other conveyance. 

At every mine in which 100 or more men are employed underground, when- 
ever men are being lowered or hoisted at the beginning or end of a shift, there 
fehall be with the hoisting engineer an extra man competent to operate the 
engine in an emergency. 

In hoisting or lowering men with a buclcet the speed, except in the ca.se of 
apprehended danger, shall not exceed 200 fe«_t per minute when the bucket is 
within 100 feet of the surface, or 500 feet per minute in any other part of the 
shaft. 

The superintendent of the mine shall be responsible for tlie enforcement of 
the provisions of this section. 

The committee deems it necessary to discriminate among mines 
according to the depth of shafts operated. It is necessary to hoist 
and lower more rapidly in dee]i than in shallow shafts, and the equip- 
ment of the former is usually of a character to permit the increased 
speed without involving any unreasonable hazard. With depths of 
over 1,000 feet still more leeway must be given, and in such cases it 
has appeared unwise to fix any arbitrary rate of speed per minute. 
The committee inquired of 22 of the largest metal-mining companies 
of *'he United States respecting their practice. These companies 
reported for about ISO shafts, ranging in depth from 300 to 5,000 feet, 
a rough calculation of the number of men employed in them being 
about 53,000. One of these companies hoists men at 1,800 feet per 
minute, one at 1,500 to 1,700 feet, two at 1.200 feet, one at 1,100 
feet, and two at 1,000 feet. With a single exception the shafts nre in 
excess of 1,000 feet in depth. The practice reported by the remaining 
15 companies indicates that the limits named by the committee are 
reasonable. In any case the safe speed of hoisting and lowering is 
determined, among other things, by the condition of the shaft. The 
committee simply fixes limits that must not be exceeded, and requires 
the mine superintendent in every case to name and post a definite 
rate to which the hoisting engineer is bound in a subsequent section. 
The committee recommends, however, that a speed of 800 feet per 
minute in hoisting and lowering men be not exceeded. 

The other provisions of this section conform to the practice at the 
largest and best managed mines of the United States, and in the main 
are generally followed. The practice of having a second man as a 
"stand-by"' of the hoisting engineer is general in the Lake Superior 
copper-mining region, but also obtains elsewhere. Its purpose is 



44 RULES AND EEOULATIOX!^ FOR METAL MIXES. 

obviously to provide control for the enirine in event of the siuUlen 
disability of the enijineer. The requirement is not onerous upon the 
operator, because there is usually some person, some oiler, or other 
assistant about the engine-room who can be assigned temporarily for 
this dut}'. 

The connnittee has limited the requirement of such a second hoist- 
ing man and also the reciuirement of ' a cage conductor (cage tender, 
cage rider, eager, etc.) to the mines employing 100 or more men 
underground. This number has been fixed by the committee in a 
purely arbitrary vfay and is simph^ to carry out its idea of discrimi- 
nation between large and small mines. 

SECTION 32. 
Rafi:guards Ac.aixst Ovkrwixdixc. 

The sheave carrying tlio lioistiuc rope shall bo jilacod upon a headframe so 
desigrnod as to resist a pull iu the direction of the hoisting engine greater than 
the brealviug stress of the hoisting roi^e employed. The headfranie shall be of 
sufficient height to allow room for a set of automatic safety chairs, and also 
for a Humble hook in connection with the hoisting rope or some equally practi- 
cable device for releasing the hoisting rope in case of overwinding. 

The operator of a mine employing more than 100 men underground shall 
install upon the headfranie both a rope-releasing device and a set of automatic 
chairs to hold the cage. skip, or man car in case the hoisting rope is broken 
or released through overwinding. Such safety chairs shall be placed at such 
distance below the releasing device as will equal 3 feet more than the height 
from the bottom of the cage, skip, or man car to the clevis at its top. Imme- 
diately below the sheave a strong stop shall be put in to prevent the cage, 
skip, or man car from being drawn over the sheave. 

The operator of a mine employing more than 100 men underground shall 
install in every .shaft in which men are hoisteil by cage, skip, or man car, a 
de\iee v.-hich shall give a warning signal iu the engine-room whenever the cage 
or skip in ascending reaches a ix)int 100 feet below the collar of the shaft. 
This device shall be independent of the usual indicator or any other device 
directly connected with the hoisting engine. 

Providrtl. haircvcr. That the rope releasing device and the w.irning signal 
requiretl by the terms of this section neeil not be installed if the hoisting 
engine be equipped with a device that will automatically stoii the engine if the 
c;ige. skii>, or man car passes a certain point, and lU'ovided further, that 
such automatic stopping device be kept constantly in good working order. 

This section, except its first paragraph, is limited to mines employ- 
ing 100 or more men underground, and to those that employ cages, 
skips, or man cars. The extension of its provisions to all mines would 
b? too sweeping, in the opinion of the committee, but conformity to 
its provisions in all cases is recommended; also, so far as practicable, 
in the case of mines where the hoisting is done by means of bucket. 
The connnittee intends in the terms of the first paragraph to include 
all mines. 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 45 

SECTION 33. 
Duties of Hoisting Engineer. 

Tlie folluwiug rules shall be observed by every hoisting eugiueer employed 
tvithin this State: 

Ride 1. — It shall be the duty of every hoisting engineer to keep a careful 
watch over his engine and over all machinery under his charge. 

Rule 2. — He shall at all times be in immediate charge of his engine, and 
shall not at any time delegate any of his duties to any other person, except 
to apprentices duly designated as provided in this act ; provided, however, that 
nothing herein containetl shall be construed to prevent any hoisting engineer 
from delegating to or sharing his duties with any other duly appointed hoisting 
engineer, or turning over the engine and machinery in his charge to any other 
such engineer at the end of his shift. 

Rule 3. — He shall familiarize himself with and use all signal codes for hoist- 
ing and lowering as directed to be used in this act. 

Rule .'i. — He shall not ruh his engine unless the same is pi-operly provided 
with brakes, indicators, and distance marks on hoisting ropes or cables, as pro- 
vided in this act. 

Rule 5. — It shall be the duty of the hoisting engineer to exclude every person 
from his engine-room, excepting any person or persons whose duties require 
their presence therein, and visitors authorized by the superintendent of the 
mine. 

Rule 6. — He shall hold no conversation with anyone while his engine is in 
DJotion, or while attending to signals. 

Rule 7. — He shall run his engine with extreme caution whenever men are 
being hoisted or lowered. 

Rule S. — He shall not hoist men out of, or lower men into, any mine or shaft 
at a speed greater than the rate posted in the engine-room by the superintend- 
ent of the mine. 

Rule 9. — He shall inspect all hoisting machinery and safety appliances con- 
nected therewith, and all ropes and hoisting apparatus, when and as directed 
by the mine superintendent, and shall report to him any defects found therein. 

Rule 10. — After any stoppage of hoisting for repairs or for any other imr- 
pose exceeding in duration one hour, he shall run a bucket, skip, cage, or 
otlHU' conveyance, on which no men shall ride, up and down the working pai't 
of the shaft at least once, and shall not permit the bucket, skip, cage, or other 
conveyance to be used for hoisting or lowering men until the hoisting machin- 
ery and shaft shall have been found to be in safe condition. 

Rule 11. — He shall do no hoisting in any compartment of a shaft while repairs 
are being made in the said hoisting compartment, except such hoisting as may- 
be necessary to make such repairs. 

Rule 12. — He shall land the bucket, skip, cage, or other conveyance either at 
tlie top or at the bottom of the shaft before turning over the charge of the 
engine to liis relief at cliange of shift, or at any otlier time. 

Rule 73.— Upon receiving the blasting signal the engineer shall answer by 
raising the bucket, skip, cage, or other conveyance a few feet and letting it 
back slowly : and then upon receiving the signal of one bell he shall lioist the 
men away from the blast. 

Rule 1.'). — He shall familiarize himself with and carry out the requiroineiits 
of rules S. 9. 10. 11. 12, IS, and 19 of section 49 of this act. 

Rule 15. — Any hoisting engineer or any person having in charge the hoisting 
machinery connected with the mine who shall wilfully violate any of the provi- 



46 EULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

sions of lliis seotiou, or any of the rules contained therein, or who shall wiifuU; 
violate any of the provisions of rules 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18. or 19 of sec-tion 49 o: 
this act shall, upon conviction, be deemed snilty of a violation of this act am 
shall be liable to punishment accordingly. 

Rule 16. — The sui>erintendent shall post a copy of this section and a copy o 
section 31 in a conspicuous place on the door of the engine house. 

These rules conform to the practice among the best conductec 
mines of the United States. The committee calls special attention t( 
rule 13. Fatalities resulting from failure of the hoisting engine t< 
work after the fuses of a blast have been lighted and the signal t( 
hoist has been given are freqtient. 

SECTION 34. ' 
noiSTixG Ropes. 

It sliall be unlawful to use in any mine any rope or 'cable for hoLsting or lowerinj 
either men or material, v.'hen such hoisting or lowering is done by any means othe 
than human or animal pov.er, unless such rope or cable shall be composed of meta 
wires, with a factor of safety determined as hereinafter set forth; Provided, however 
That such metal wires may be laid around a hemp center. 

The factor of safety of all such ropes or cables when newly installed in shafts lea 
than 3,000 feet deep sliall in no case be less than six, and shall be calculated by dividinj 
the breaking strength of the rope, as given in the manufactiirers' published tables, b} 
the sum of the maxiinimi load to be hoisted, plus the total weight of the rope in th( 
shaft when fully let out. 

It shall be unlaAvfiil to use any rope or cable for the raising or lowering of men whei 
its factor of safety, based on its existing strength and dead load, shall have fallei 
below 4.5. 

It shall be unlawful to use any rope or cable of the so-called G by 19 standard con 
struction for the raising or lowering of men, either when the number of broken wires ii 
one lay of said rope exceeds six, or when the wires on the crown of the stnuids are won 
down to le.s3 than 65 per cent of their original diameter, or when the superfii ial inspec 
tion provided for in this section shows marked signs of corrosion: Provided, hotrevcr 
That when such broken wires are n>duced by wear more than 30 per cent in cross sec 
tion, the number of breaks in any lay of the rope shall not exceed three. 

The superintendent of a mine shall keep a record of every hoisting rope used at th< 
mine or mines in his charge, noting the length and cross-sectional dimensions of th< 
rope, the construction of the rope, the kind of core, the number of strands, the construe 
tion of the strands, the number of wiros per strand, the class of steel of which the wir« 
are made, the breaking stress of such steel, the breaking load of the rope, the name anc 
address of the maker, the date of manufacture, the date of purchase, the date when pu 
in use, the desigjiation of the shaft and compartment in which the rope is used, th( 
dates of resocketing, reclipping, reclair.ping, rec-upping, and short 'uing, the length o 
rope cut off at each such operation, the dates of reversing ends, and the date when dia 
carded. A copy of this record shall be filed with the inspector of mines. 

It shall be imlawful to use any lioisting rope after three years from the time of ib 
first ijKstallment, irrespective of whether use of the rope in the interval has been con 
tinuous or intermittent, imless a piece be cut off from the socket end of said rope anc 
subjected to an actual breaking test in the laboratory of a responsible rope manufac 
turer or a testijig laboratorj- of recognized standing and shall be found thrs to be abov« 
the mininniin limit of strength as prescribed in this section. 

Every hoisting rope whereof the hook for <ounecting with the s' ip, ca ,e. l>ucket 
or other com eyan( e is made by means of a l)abbitted or zinc-lilled socket, must Ix 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 47 

resocketed at frequent intervals, at least 6 feet of the rope being cut off, and every 
roi)e whereof the connection l)e made ))y clamps or clips must l)e reclamped or re- 
clipped with the same frequency as herein specified for sockets, at least 6 feet of 
the rope being cut off at each time: Provided, That if the expected rope life, based 
on previous experience, be less than 10 mouths the resocketing must be done every 
month, And -provided further, That if the expected life be between 10 and 15 months, 
the resocketing must be done every 2 months; if between 15 and 21 months, the 
resocketing must be done every 3 months; if between 21 and 24 months, the 
resocketing must be done every 3^ months, and if over 24 months, the resocketing 
must be done eA-er>' 4 months. 

When a new hoisting rope is installed, it must he run for at least 10 trips under full 
load Ijefore it is used for lowering or hoisting men and after each resocketing, recUpping, 
reclamping, or recapping, every rope shall be similarly run for at least four trips lieforo 
it is used for lowering or hoisting men. 

All ropes shall lie superhcially inspected once in every 24 hours ])y some competent 
person designated for that purpose by the superintendent. It shall be the duty of the 
superintendent to cause an examination to be made whenever a rope is resocketed, 
reclamped, or reclipped, by cutting off from the lower end of such rope a section not 
less than G feet iu length and ha\ing such section carefully examined both exteriorly 
and interiorly for corrosion and l»reaks. If upon any inspection such hoisting rope or 
cal lie shall be found to be 1>elow the requirements set forth in this section, it shall l>e 
disused for such pur]X)se forthwith, and any operator or superintendent using or per- 
mitting the use of such hoisting rope or cable for the purpose of hoisting or lowering 
men thereafter shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall l^e punished as 
hereinafter provided. 

E^'ery rope used for hoisting or lowering men or materials shall he securely fastened 
to its drum or reel and when in use shall never be fully unwound; at least one full 
turn shall remain always on the drum or reel. The end of the rope attached to the 
conveyance in the shaft shall either ])e securely fastened within a tapered socket or 
else it shall be bound around an OA-al thiml)le and then fastened to itself hy such 
number of clips or clamps as will develop at least 80 per cent of the strength of the 
rope and the rope connection shall be maintained at least at that point of efficiency. 

Every hoisting rope shall be treated with oil or some suitable rope compound at 
least once every month. Such compound shall l;e chemically neutral and shall le 
of such consistency as to penetrate the strand and not merely co\ er the surface of the 
rope: 

Provided, That the terms of this section shall not apply to the hoisting and lowering 
of men in shafts over 3,000 feet deep: Provided further, That the terms of this section 
shall not apply to the hoisting or lowering of water or other material in shafts used 
exclusively for that purpose and whereof no compartment is used for the hoisting or 
lowering of men. If any shaft exempted by this proviso has a com])artment for 
pipes or any other purpose than hoisting, and repairs or the attention of men be re- 
quired in such compai'tment, hoisting throuL,h the shaft must Ije suspended while 
the men are in it. 

The depth of incline shafts sliall be taken as the vertical depth measured from the 
shaft collar. 

This section has been drafted as an attempt to generahze a multi- 
plicity of complex factors without entering upon details that would 
necessarily be confusing, and indeed would be beyond the under- 
standing of any but the expert. 

A hoisting rope is subject to different strains during every wind. 
The committee has thouirht to allow for the maximum strains bv 



48 RULES AND KEGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES, 

specifyinfi: a lii,<j:li factor of safety, namely, six, to be computed in a 
specified Avay. 

In using the maximum safety factor of 6 and the minimum of 
4.5 the committee offers these figures tentatively and emphatically 
urges reference to and consideration of the discussion of this subject 
in Chapter V. The figures adopted by the committee are lower 
than those recommended by the wire-rope manufacturers, (especially 
witli respect to shafts of less depth than 1,000 feet. The committee 
feels sure therefore that the figures that it recommends tentatively 
as the minimum impose no hardship whatsoever on mining opera- 
tors. If there be any hardship it is for the cases of shafts 2,000 to 
3,000 feet in depth. In order to assure itself respecting this, the 
committee communicated with the mining company that operates 
more sliafts of that deptli than any other, and found that that 
company has been in the habit of using factors in excess of those 
named by the committee. This information tended to remove doubt 
on that side of the question. On the other side of the question the 
committee is doubtful whether it has not let off too easily those 
miners who are operating shafts less than 1,000 feet in depth. Let 
it be reiterated that the respective figures of 6 and 4.5 are adopted 
tentatively and in the light of tlie considerations mentioned. And 
let it be emphasized that mining operators in their own interest are 
advised to conform to the specifications of the rope manufacturera 
as stated in Chapter Y of this report. 

With every wind a rope suffers some deterioration of strength. 
AVlien this deterioration is such that the factor of safety, computed 
as specified, falls below 4.5 the rope must be condemned. This allows 
a loss of 25 per cent in strength as compared with what is required 
of the original rope. The committee puts a specific figure, 4.5, 
rather than a relative one, inasmuch as many mines make original 
installations of ropes having a safety factor of more than six. 

There is no way of determining the actual strength of a rope except 
by cutting oft' a piece and breaking it with a measurmg machine. 
Some enlightened mine managers cause this to be done in present 
practice. The enactment of the law that the committee proposes 
may lead to an extension of this commendable attention, but it is 
not to -be expected that the majority of mine operators wiU take 
the trouble. However, inattention will be at their peril. If an 
accident should occur from rope breakage and it should be found 
by the inspector that the rope was below the permissible strength 
the operator would, on the face of things, be responsible for the 
accident. 

Tlie deterioration in the strength of a ro])e occurs in a variety of 
ways, for instance, repeated bending of the wires, wear of the wires, 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 49 

and corrosion of the wires, but all of these find a final expression in 
broken wires. The rope commonly used for hoisting has 6 strands 
of 19 wires each, of which 12 are outside wires, 72 outside wires in 
all. These 72 come to the surface in every complete turn in the 
rope's construction, or in every "lay," as it is called technically. 
If in any lay there be six broken wires, it is required that the rope 
be condemned. The precise relation between the number of broken 
wires and the degree of wear of the wires to the strength of the rope 
has not been determined by any authority and perhaps is incapable 
of precise expression, but the committee, aided by the opinion of 
rope experts, conceives that a rope of the ordinary type exhibiting six 
broken wires would have lost approximately the strength that is 
permissible by this section. 

Therefore a rope must be discarded either if it has fallen below a 
factor of safety of 4.5 or if it exhibit six broken wires in a single 
lay, but these are not alternatives that relieve the operator. If a 
rope be tested and be found to be below 4.5, even if it shows no 
broken wires, it must be retired anyhow. 

There is not specified any minimum diameter of sheave, drum, or 
roller over which a given rope may be run, although such specifica- 
tion may usefuUy be made as a guide to good practice and for that 
purpose some rules are given in the discussion of this subject in 
Chapter V. From the standpoint of safety, however, such a provision 
is unnecessary, the effects of bad practice and misuse being auto- 
matically taken care of in this section. If a rope be run over sheaves 
that are too small or if it be improperly supported in an inchne 
shaft, its strength will diminish just so much the sooner, and so will 
broken wires appear. 

Rope experts are unanimous in the opinion that tlie severest 
strain on a rope is at or near the point where the hook or shackle 
is fixed to the rope, and that for this reason every rope should have 
a piece cut off from that end and be resocketed, reclamped, or 
reclipped at least every four months; but ropes put to a service so 
severe that their reasonably expected life is less than two years 
ought to be adjusted at the connection end more frequently. This 
process is of further advantage in changing every so often three 
other points of special deterioration, namely, the two points where 
the rope leaves the sheave and the point where it leaves the drum 
when the shaft conveyance is stationary in its most common position, 
usually at the shaft collar. Every time the rope is resocketed these 
three points, as well as the corresponding points at angle sheaves, 
are advanced a certain distance, that is, a new series of points in the 
rope is brought subject to maximum deterioration. Hence the 
provisions stated. 

16.550°— Bull. 75—15 5 



50 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

Ill this connection the followmg provision from tlie report of the 
Transvaal Commission is of interest:" 

82. The portions of a rope that should be most carefully examined will generally 
be known to the mechanical engineer from his experience with preceding ropes 
and the knowledge of why and where they deteriorated most. With respect to external 
wear the plates in the rope that should be especiallj^ watched ai-e those where con- 
tact with the pit-head sheaves or heavy guide'puUeys occurs atacceleration or retarda- 
tion periods of' the hoist. These places are also likely to suffer more than any others 
from internal wear, except perhaps that portion of the rope near the skip or cage, 
which, although generally subjected to no rubbing wear, yet is exposed to the cor- 
rosive effects as well as to the bending and shock stresses. In addition to these posi- 
tions attention must also be directed to that part of the rope which lies between the 
drum and the sheave when the load is at the bottom of the shaft, as also to those parta 
of the rope which come in contact with the flanges of the drum. 

The enforced retirement of a rope after a certain period of service is a 
debatable point. Some mining companies have a rule to discard a rope 
after two and one-half years of use, others after three 3'ears, irrespective 
of what the appearance of the rope may be. On the other hand ropes 
are loiown in many cases to have given good service for more than 
three years. The committee has met the differences of opinion 
by not prescribing any time limit, but making compulsory a breaking 
test of a rope that has been in use for three years if any further use 
of that rope be contemplated. 

There are a few very deep mines in the United States, especially the 
copper mines of Lake Superior, wherein it is a mechanical impossi- 
bility to comply with the terms of tliis section, especially as to factor 
of safety. The committee has consequently exempted from the 
terms of this section all m.mes deeper than 3,000 feet instead of 
attempting to complicate the section by special provisions. Mines 
that have to hoist from deptlis greater than 3,000 feet must neces- 
sarily be equipped with such heavy, powerful machinery, requiring 
constant and expert attention that their operators are bound to 
have proper hoisting equipment and to take proper care of it, and 
out of self-interest are sure to do that better than any law can 
refjuire them to. 

The committee has also exempted from this section all shafts used 
exclusively for the hoisting or lowering of water or material, and by 
exclusively is meant a shaft and not merely a compartment of a 
shaft. If an operator cares to risk the ph3"sical damage resulting 
from a rope breakage we see no reason why he shoidd not do so, 
providing all possibiUty of hurting any man be eliminated. 

a Rei)ort of the TransN-aal Counnission on the use of the winding ropes, safety catches, and ax)pliaaces 
ii) mine shafts. 



DRAFT FOK A LAW. 51 

SECTION 35. 
Cages fob Hoisting Men. 

It shall be unlawful for the operator of any mine to peiiuit tlie hoisting or 
lowering of men through a vertical shaft deeper than 300 feet unless an iron- 
bonneted safety cage be used for the hoisting and lowering of such men, but 
this provision shall not apply to shafts in process of sinking. 

It shall be the duty of the operator to have all cages in which men are hoisted 
and lowered, used in such shafts over 300 feet deep, constructed as follows: 
The bonnet shall be of two steel plates three-sixteenths of an Inch in thickness, 
sloping toward each side, and so arranged that they may be readily pushed 
upward to afford egress to persons therein, and such bonnet shall cover the top 
of the cage in such manner as to protect persons on the cage from objects fall- 
ing in the shaft. The cage shall be provided with sheet iron or steel side casing 
not less than one-eighth of an inch thick, or with a netting composed of wire 
not less than one-eighth of an inch In diameter and not less than 3^ feet in 
height, and with gates of not less than 32 feet in height and made of the same 
material as the side casing, either hung on huiges or working in slides, or with 
a bar in lieu of a gate, such bar being not less than 8J nor more than 4 feet above 
the cage bottom. Provided, hoicever, That nothing herein shall be construed as 
requiring the use of such gates or bars on cages when men are not being 
hoisted or lowered thereon, or when the number of men thereon does not exceed 
50 per cent of the maximum capacity of the cage, determined as provided in 
section 31. Every cage shall have overhead bars of such arrangement as to 
give every man on the cage an easy and secure handhold. Every cage shall be 
provided with a safety catch of sufficient strength to hold the cage or skip 
with its maximum load at any point in the shaft in the event that the hoisting 
cable should break. 

The failure of the operator of any mine to comply with the provisions of this 
section within 90 days after its passage shall constitute a misdemeanor and shall 
be punished as hereinafter provided. 

SECTION 36. 

BoiLEB Inspection. Compkessed-Aib Tanks. 

All boilers used for generating steam in and about mines shall be kept in 
good order, and the operator or superintendent shall have them examined and 
inspected by a qualified person, not a regular employee of said operator, as often 
as once in six months, and oftener if the inspector or his deputy shall deem it 
necessary. Provided that inspection by any boiler-insurance company in good 
standing shall be considered equivalent to an examination by such qualified 
outside person. The result of such examination, under oath of the person 
making such examination, shall be certified in writing by the operator to the 
inspector within 30 days thereafter. It shall be the duty of the operator to pro- 
vide each boiler with a safety valve of sufficient area for the steam to escape, 
and with weights or springs properly adjusted and with a steam gage and water 
gages; and another steam gage shall be attached to the .steam pipe in the engine 
house. All steam gages shall be placed in such jMJSition that the engineer or 
fireman can readily examine them and see what pressure is carried. All steam 
gages shall be kept in good order, and shall be tested and adjusted as often as 
once in every six months and their condition reported to the inspector in the 
same manner as the report of the boiler insi)ection. 



52 RULES AXD REGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

livery roceivor. tank, or otbcr receptacle, except transmission pipe, used for 
storing compressed air at a greater gage pressure than 40 pounds per square 
liK-li, wliicli has a capacity exceeding cubic feet, shall be capable of with- 
standing a gage pressure 50 per cent greater thau that uoriually allowed by 
the safety valve to exist in such receptacle. Every such receptacle shall be 
inspected with the same frequency and in the same manner as herein provided 
for the insi)ec-tion of boilers. Every such receptacle shall be blown out at least 
once in every 24 hours, so as to remove all jtccumulations of. grease, oil, or other 
material likely to cause an explosion. In no such receptacle shall the tempera- 
ture be allowed to rise above 250° F. 

It shall be the duty of the operator to carry out the provisions of this sec- 
tion, and failure to comply with the provisions of this section shall constitute 
a violation of this act. 

The provisions of this section do not cover all the details of boiler 
installation and operation. The committee recognizes that many 
States now have boiler-inspection laws, which it is not intended 
to supersede. The purpose of the section is rather to furnish a 
genera] guide for such legislation. 

In Chapter XI will be found the account of an accident at the 
Santa Gertrudis mine in which a number of men were asphyxiated 
underground as the result of a compressor or receiver explosion. 
This and other not infrequent accidents of the same nature suggest 
the advisability of prescribing regulations governing the installation 
and operation of compressors and their receivers, which shall reduce 
or eliminate the likelihood of explosion. It is difficult to formulate 
definite and (juantitative rules which shall be practicable and fair, in 
the light of present knowledge on the subject. For this reason the 
committee makes general provision for inspection of receivers and 
prescribes some obvious safety precautions. The manner of operat- 
ing the compressor itself and the more detailed precautions to be 
observed in regard to the receiver are left in the hands of the mine 
operators. The committee would recommend a close adherence to 
the best accepted practice in this regard. 

For any pressures over 60 pounds, two-stage compressors are 
desirable, with an efficient intercooler to remove the heat of com- 
pression as effectively as possible ; also a separator to remove oil and 
moisture. The cooling water for Ijotli the intercooler and the water 
jackets should be the coldest obtainable, and the rise in its tempera- 
ture due to passage through the machine should be kept below a cer- 
tain maximum, say 20° F, If the compressor is run continuously 
with a capacity of anything over, say, 500 cubic feet of free air per 
minute, an aftercooler and an oil-and-water separator should be in- 
stalled between the compressor and the receiver. The receiver must 
be provided Avith a safety valve and should be subjected to a pressure 
test when new, and periodically thereafter, and if large enough to 
permit it, .should be provided with a manhole in order to allow 



DKAFT FOR A LAW. 53 

thorough inspection and cleaning of the interior. Tlie hibricant for 
the air cylinders should be of high quality in general, and particu- 
larly it should have a high flash point. The quantity used should be 
kept at a minimum. It is probably good practice to sluice the air 
cylinders periodically with soapsuds, which may be introduced 
through the oil cups, in order to remove deposits of lubricants. 
The danger of explosion is thus diminished in three ways : By the 
use of a receiver sufficiently strong; by keeping down the tempera- 
ture; and by keeping at a minimum the accumulation of explosive 

material. 

SECTION 37. 

Guard Rails. 

All machinery used in or about the mine that when in motion would be 
dangerous to persons coming in contact therewith, such as engines, wheels, 
screens, shafting, gears, and belting, shall be guarded by a covering or railing 
so as to prevent persons from inadvertently walking against or falling upon 
the same. The sides of stairs, trestles, and dangerous plank walks, gangways, 
and platforms in and around the mines shall be provided with hand and guard 
railing to prevent persons from falling over the sides. This section shall not 
forbid the temporary removal of a fence, guardrail, or covering for the pur- 
pose of repairs or other operations, if proper precautions be used, and if the 
fence, guardrail, or covering be replaced immetliately thereafter. 

It shall be the duty of the operator to carry out the provisions of this section, 
and failure to comply with the provisions of this section shall constitute a 
violation of this act. 

SECTION 38. 

Women and Ciiii.drkn in Mines — Employment rROiiiBixED. 

No woman or girl, and no boy under the age of IG years, shall be employed 
or permitted to work underground in any mine; and it shall be unlawful for 
any operator to employ such persons within a mine. Before any boy shall be 
permitted to work in any mine he shall produce to the operator, superintendent, 
or mine foreman thereof an affidavit made by the parent, guardian, or next of 
kin of said boy, duly verified, containing a statement that he, the said boy, is 
at least IG years of age. Any violation of, or failure to comply with, the pro- 
visions of this section shall constitute a misdemeanor, and shall be punished 
as provided in section 52 of this act. 

Provided, however, That nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent 
the employment of women, or children under IG years of age, in the oflices or 
buildings connected with a mine. 

SECTION 39. 

Two Openings to Surface. 

It shall be the duty of every operator of every mine, except as hereinafter 
provided, to maintain at least two outlets to the surface from such mine, or an 
underground communicating passageway between every such mine and some 
other neighboring mine, so that there shall be at all times at least two distinct 
and available means of access to the surface to all persons employed iu such 
mine. Such outlets shall not be less than 100 feet apart iind there shall be 



54 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

l)et\veeu them :i siKue not less thsin 50 feet in width free of buildings or 
lullammahle structures or material. 

Where two openings to the surface shall not have been provided as aforesaid, 
it shall be the duty of the inspector to order in writing, served upon the operator 
or superintendent of such mine, a second opening to be made without delay by 
the opei'ator of said mine, and in the event of the operator of such mine failing 
forthwith to commence and prosecute thQ making of a second opening within 
20 days after the service of said order, or in tlie event of the inspector deeming 
any mine having only one such opening to be dangerous to the lives and health 
)f those employed 'therein, it shall thereupon be the duty of such inspector 
forthwith to institute an action for an injunction to close Siiid mine as provided 
for in section 12 of this act. 

Provided, Jimcci'cr, That the alwve requirements shall not npi)ly in the case 
of (a) shafts or mines in process of being connected, to comi)ly with the terms 
!)f this section; (h) shafts, winzes, adit levels, tunnels, and drifts to' prospect 
for and develop mineral substances, but not for the extraction of mineral sub- 
stances, except such as may be extracted in the course of such prospecting and 
developing work; (c) any mine in which one of the shafts or outlets shall have 
temporarily become unavailable for the i)ersons employed in the mine, and in 
which every effort is being made by the oi>erator of the mine to open such 
temporarily unavailable outlet, and provided the same is not, in the opinion of 
the inspector, dangerous to the life and health of those employed therein ; 
(d) mines having workings less than 100 feet deep and extending le.ss than 
500 feet from the shaft in any direction, bat not mines opened primarily 
by an adit level or tunnel; and (e) mines opened by an adit level, tunnel, or 
drift less than 1.000 feet in length; and provided further, that mines opened 
by an inclined shaft of less than 20° angle from the horizontal shall be con^ 
siderod for the purpose of this section and act as equivalent to a mine opened 
by an adit level, tunnel, or drift. 

Provided, further. That any prospecting or development projierty opened by 
a timbered shaft and exempt under exception 6 from providing two outlets to 
the surface shall not pernnt more than 50 men to work underground at any 
one time, unless such shaft be provided with a water-sprinkling system. 

The purpose of this section is to compel mine operators to have two 
outlets to erery mine in regular operation. The necessity for such 
a requirement is amply illustrated b}' experiences wherein men have 
been trapped underground by fire, Hood, caving of outlet, etc. In 
many cases catastrophes have been averted by tlie existence of a sec- 
ond outlet for escape." It is, of course, impossible to have two outlets 
to a mine that is simply in process of being opened; that is, where 
shaft sinking is in progress and the ore body is being opened, and 
also during the time wliile the second outlet is being provided. This 
is tlie reason for exceptions a and h. Exception c is sufficiently 
obvious. Exceptions *:/ and e are introduced in order to prevent the 
terms of this section fi-oni being too onerous. The perfection of 
conditions of safety demands, without doubt, the provision of two 
outlets in every mine, but so drastic a requirement would probably 
prevent many small mines from being op-erated at all. In mine^ of j 
moderate depth of shaft or moderate length of adit level or .slope it | 

" See account of fire at Coppcrhill, Tenu., descrlljed in Chapter XI of t'.us report. 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 55 

is conceivable that escape might be made so quickly that certain 
dangers might be avoided. Exceptions d and e have that possibility 
in view. The depth and distance prescribed are, of course, purely 
arbitrary. 

The committee recognizes that exception h is not a wholly satis- 
factory provision. Under its terms a large property might be de- 
veloped extensively for several j^ears and employ a large number of 
men who ought not to be subjected to the hazard involved in the lack 
of two outlets to the surface. It was thought that it might be pos- 
sible to limit the number of men emplo3'ed by such a development 
company, but application to specific cases showed such a restriction 
to be undesirable. It might have been prohibitive of development, 
for instance, if the Tamarack company had been required to sink 
two of the expensive shafts involved before permitting extensive lat- 
eral development. The committee has therefore contented itself 
with providing protection against shaft fire with a sprinkling s^'s- 
tem; there seems to be no practicable way of providing against the 
danger of men being cut off by caving or flood. 

The requirement for a sprinkling sj^stem contemplates some 
arrangement of pipes into which water can be turned so as to spray 
the shaft interior. Such a sprinkler may or may not be automatic. 
An automatic sprinkling system, which would come into operation as 
soon as the temperature passed above a certain point, offers many 
advantages, but in addition to being practically untried for the pur- 
pose considered, it also involves a definite disadvantage, namely, that 
in an upcast shaft it may reverse the direction of ventilation at the 
wrong time. This objection would not, of course, be present in the 
case of a mine with a single outlet, for which the sprinkler is here 
prescribed, but there would remain the likelihood that if another 
shaft were sunk later the automatic sprinkler would not be removed, 
and if the old shaft turned out to be an upcast the sprinkler might be 
a menace. If it were a downcast, on the other hand, the sprinkling 
water would only accelerate the ventilating current and not reverse it. 
It is not known just how dangerous a reversal of current by an auto- 
matic sprinkler would be. Accounts of fires in Chapter XI indicate 
how serious this reversal may be wdien brought about after a fire has 
gained some headway. An automatic sprinkler is supposed to extin- 
guish a fire soon after it starts, and when events proceed as contem- 
plated there should not be enough smoke or gas thrown back into the 
mine workings to be dangerous to the men imderground. There 
would, however, be always the possibility of some failure or hin- 
drance that would delay the action of the sprinkler, with serious 
results. The committee therefore does not require an automatic 
sprinkling system, and furthermore hesitates to recommend it until 
more data on performance are available. 



56 EULES AND REGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

SECTION 40. 
Openings Through Other Mines. 

When a comunmicating outlet shall haA-e been established by agreement 
between contiguous mines or mines not contiguous, it shall be unlawful for the 
operator of either mine to cloFe the same without the consent of both the 
other operator, or owner, and of the insirector of mines. When operators of 
such mines have by agreement established underground communication be- 
tween said mines as an escapement outlet for the men Employed in both, it 
shall be the duty of each operator to cause such communicating outlet in each 
operator's mine to be inspected at least once in every seven days, and it shall 
be the duty of each operator to see to it, within his respective mine, that the 
same is kept clear of every obstruction to travel and that intervening doors, 
if any, shall be kept unlocked and ready at all times for Immediate use. 

In the event of failure or refusal on the part of one operator to keep such 
opening in safe condition, the other operator shall have access thereto for the 
l)urpose of repairing and maintaining the same: Provided, lioucver. That when 
mcli an outlet shall have been established, each operator, unless it shall have 
been otherwise provided by agreement, shall pay a fair proportionate share of 
keeping such opening in such condition that men working in such mines may 
have access to the surface thereby: J'roridcd further. That in the event of 
either operator desiring to abandon mining operations, the expense and duty of 
maintaining such communication shall devolve upon the party continuing 
operations and using the same: Provided further, That in case one of such 
mines shall cease or suspend operations and there is danger of the mine still 
in oi)eration being flooded by reason of the existence of such communicating 
outlet, the operator of such mine still working shall have the right to close 
such outlet ujion giving notice to the owner or operator of the adjoining mine 
and to the inspector of mines. 

SECTION 41. 

Provisions Affecting Mines H.wing Only One Outlet. 

In every mine where, under the provisions of section 39 of this act, only one 
outlet is required and where a single shaft affords the only means of ingress or 
egress to persons employed underground, such shaft if more than 200 feet deep 
shall be divided into at least two compartments. One of said compartments 
shiiU be set aside for use as a ladderway and no hoisting couA-eyance shall be 
allowed therein. Whenever such ladderway compartment shall be covered by a 
nonfireproof building, it shall be the duty of the operator of said mine to cause 
said ladderway to be securely bulkheaded at a point at least 25 feet below the 
collar of the shaft; and below this bulkhead a passageway shall be driven to 
the surface so as to have its outlet in no case less than 30 feet beyond the walls 
of the building covering the main shaft. The said passageway shall be equipped 
with a ladderway when necessary, as provided in rules 35 to 41 of section 49 of 
this act, and shall be kept in good repair and shall afford an easy exit in the 
event of fire. Every mine opene<l by adit level or tunnel or by an inclined shaft 
or slope of less than 20° angle from the horizontal, which is less than 1,000 
feet in length, shall have a similar side outlet. A failure on the part of 
the operator of iuiy mine coming within the ]n*ovisions of this section to carry 
out or cause to l)e carried out the i)rovisions of ilii'^ section sh.ill constitute a 
violation of this act. 

This section is intended to cover cases that are not reached by sec- 
tion 30 or. in other words, the exceptions to that section. See also 
remarks on rule 37, section -19. 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 57 

SECTION 4.2. 
Protection of Outlets Against Fire. 

It shall be unlawful for tlie operator of any mine after the passage of this act 
to erect any combustible structure over the shaft, tunnel, or other mine opening, 
except headframes necessary for hoisting from such shaft or other mine open- 
ing, and the hatch or door necessary for closing such shaft or other mine open- 
ing. Provided, hoicever, That a housing of noninflammable and fireiiroof 
material may be erected over any shaft, tunnel, or other mine opening to protect 
the men working at such point. 

It shall be the duty of every ojierator to provide every adit, tunnel, inclined 
shaft, or slope of less than 20° angle from the horizontal, the mouth of which 
is covered by a building or house of any kind, with a door near the mouth of 
such adit, tunnel, inclined shaft, or slope of less than 20° angle from the hori- 
zontal that can be closed from outside of the buildi'ig by a i>ull wire or cable in 
the event of fire. 

In every timbered mine in which more than 100 men are employed there shall 
be in each drift or other working leading from any shaft used as a manway a 
metal or metal-eovered door suitably hung at a place in the drift or other working 
not more than 75 feet distant from the shaft from which such working leads. 
Such doors shall be so set that when closed they may be quickly made airtight, 
and for the purpose of sealing them there shall be kept in close proximity to each 
door a suitable quantity of moist earth or moist clay. Such door must swing 
inward toward the shaft and no such door shall be fitted with any catch that 
will prevent its being readily pushed open by a man from the other side. 

The committee recognizes the difficulty in mountainous regions of 
keeping adit portals, etc., free from snow, a condition that leads to 
the housing of such portals and to connecting them with covered pas- 
sages, which latter is prohibited by section 39 of this act. It would 
not be sufficient alone to require the making of such buildings fire- 
proof and noninflammable, as fire anywhere in such a group of build- 
ings might have its smoke drawn underground by a strong indraft. 

The purpose of providing fire doors is to isolate a shaft used as a 
manway from smoke in case of a fire underground. Their use is so 
novel to American mining practice that the committee does not at 
this time call for them except in those mines in Avhich 100 men or 
more are employed underground, but such doors are recommended in 
all timbered mines. They maj'' be installed in a simple way and at 
relatively small expense. A further discussion of this subject will be 
found in Chapter V. 

SECTION 43. 

T.ADDERWAYS AND LADDERS. 

It shall be the duty of the operator of every mine to provide, in addition to 
any mechanical means of ingress or egress, at least one means of outlet for the 
miners by means of ladders from the lowest workings of the mine to the surface. 
All ladders and ladderways constructed after the jiassage of this act shall be 
built as prescribed in rules 35 to 42 of section 4!) of this act. All ascending and 
descending manways through stopes, and every shaft, winze, raise, or incline 
steeper than 35 degrees from the horizontal, through which men ai'e obliged to 
pass, shall be provided with ladders and ladderways as specified in this section: 



58 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. _ 

Provided, hoicerer. That where the slope of the working place is such as to 
permit the installation of stairways that can be easily and safely traversed, 
puch stairways may be substituted for ladders. 

Every exit or outlet from a mine shall be marked with signboards plainly 
showing the direction to be taken wherever more than one course is i)ossible; 
Provided, hoicei'cr. That no signboards shall be necessary where the exit or 
outlet does not branch or fork. 

Every such exit or outlet shall be marked by colored electric lights wherever 
signboards are required, as herein specified, and an electric lighting circuit 
is available within. 25 feet. Such lights shall have a color distinct from all 
other underground lights. 

Relative to this section, attention is invited to the committee's 
remarks regarding rule 37 of section 49. 

SECTION 44 

Ventilation. 

The operator of every mine, whether operated by shaft, slope, tunnel, adit, 
level, or drift, shall provide and maintain for every such mine a good and sufll- 
cient amount of ventihition for such men and animals as may be employed 
therein, and shall cause an adequate quantity of pure air to circulate through 
and into all the shafts, winzes, levels, and all the working places of such mine. 

A mining law should be, undoubtedly, more specific with respect to 
the insurance of proper ventilation, but the conditions existing in the 
several mining districts of the United States are so diverse that the 
committee has not deemed it wise to attempt a generalization specify- 
ing the exact degree of ventilation that shall be provided. In draft- 
ing special State laws attention should, however, be given to this 
subject. 

Fatalities residting from asphyxiation by gases emanating from 
the discharge of explosives in mines, or parts of mines, in which there 
is inadequate ventilation are numerous in their occurrence and con- 
siderable in the aggregate. Thus, in the mines of the Province of 
Ontario, Canada, in which approximately 9,500 men are employed, 
3 men lost their lives from thi.s cause in 1911 and 5 in 1912. The 
mining regulations in the Transvaal provide that in metal mines 
sufficient air shall be provided so that any sample of air taken imder 
normal working conditions from any part of the mine not less than 
one hour after blasting shall contain not more than 20 parts in 
10,000 of carbon dioxide or more than one part in 10,000 of carbon 
monoxide or any practicably determinable amounts of the oxides of 
nitrogen, XO and XO.. 

A furtlier discussion of this sul)ject appears in Chapter V. 

SECTION 4.J. 

Saxitatiox — Dry Closets. Drinktnc; Watkr, Change Houses, Etc. 

It shall be the duty of the operator of every mine, for the purpose of im- 
proving the sanitation thereof and preserving the health of those employed 
therein, to provide dry closets, water closets, or closet cars upon all main work- 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 69 

iiig levels for the use of all men employed iu the iiiine. At least one sncli closet 
shall be provided for every 25 lueu employed within the mine. Ready means of 
access to each such closet shall be provided by the operator. No closet shall be 
constructed without adequate provision for the effectual cleansing and removing 
of the contents thereof, which shall be removed and disposed of at least once in 
every day. It shall be the duty of the mine foreman to cause each dry closet to 
be supplied with some disinfectant or deodorizer to be sprinkled upon the con- 
tents thereof. It shall be the duty of all men employed within any mine where 
such closets are provided to use such closets exclusively when in the mine, and 
the neglect or failure of any man employed in a mine to use such closets when 
j'rovided shall constitute a misdemeanor. The neglect or failure of the opei-ator 
of any mine to provide closets as required by this section shall constitute a 
misdemeanor : Provided, however. That this section shall not apply to any mine 
Vv'here the operator or superintendent prefers to permit the men to go to the 
surface, and requires the men so to do. 

Every stable or other place underground used for the housing of mules, 
horses, or other animals shall be thoroughly clenned and the waste contents 
thereof removed to the surface at least every 24 hours. 

It shall also be the dutj' of the operator of every mine to provide a good 
quality of drinking water for the use of all men employed in the mine, a supply 
of which shall be provided on each main working level, and it shall be the fur- 
ther duty of the superintendent to cause such supply of drinking water to be 
ndequately protected from contamination by dust and from promiscuous drink- 
ing from the supply vessel on the part of the men. 

It shall be the duty of the inspector of mines to see that the provisions of 
this section are complied with, and in the event of noncompliance to institute 
the proper proceedings under section 52 of this act. 

The operator of every mine employing more than 50 men underground shall 
provide a dressing room oi" a change house for the purpose of drying the 
clothing of the i>ersons employed in and about the mine, and such dressing 
room or change house shall be provided with adequate means of heating and 
lighting. Such dressing room or change house shall be available to the men, 
free of cost, at all reasonable hours. 

Every person employed in a mine who damages or misuses, or fails to use 
when necessary, any appliances for the prevention of dust, fumes, or smoke, or 
nny other sanitary appliance provided by the operator shall be deemed guilty 
of an offense against this act. 

SBCTION 46. 

Roof Inspection. 

In all mines where stoping is done by the oi'»euing of chambers, the roof 
thereof being supported only by the walls of the chambers, or by pillars, it 
shall be the duty of the superintendent of the mine to detail a competent man 
to make a frequent inspection of the roof of those parts of the mine where 
men are employed, and said man so detailed shall be charged with the duty of 
dislodging any slabs of rocks in said roof that have become loose. While such 
dislodgment is being effected, the floor of the stope immediately beneath such 
loose rock shall be fenced off or otherwise adequately guarded: Provided, 
hoicever. That it shall be the duty of every miner to care for the roof of the 
place where he is working. 

It shall also be the duty of the sui)erintendent of the mine to cause frequent 
inspection to be mjule by a competent person detailed for such purpose of the 
roofs of stopes, inclined shafts, inclined winzes, and other workings, and of the 



60 EULES AXD REGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

.sides of shafts and winzes when any of these are used as traveling ways, and 
of the roofs of all drifts, adit levels, tunnels, and gangways. 

The first part of this section has particular reference to the work- 
ing of mines in great open chambers, where the miners will be 
Btoping at the sides thereof, and where it is entirely impracticable to 
require the miners to care for, or to observe the dangerous condi- 
tion of, the roof of such chamber through which they are compelled 
to pass in order to reach their individual working places. Such 
methods of working prevail, for example, in the lead district of 
southeastern Missouri and in the Joplin zinc district, and in the 
former, at least, the safety of the roof is provided for as prescribed 
in this section. Where the roof is so lofty as not to allow satisfactory 
examination by the aid of tlie ordinary mine light, some more power- 
ful iLlnminating device should be employed. Portable electric and 
acetylene lamps are available which cast a brilliant concentrated 
light for some distance. The use of such apparatus should be insisted 
upon. 

It should unquestionably be required that the miner care for his 
working place, as the special knowledge that is acquired by famil- 
iarity in working a given place should result in the most careful and 
accurate inspection. Supervision will be exercised b}'^ the foreman 
or boss in j^assing on the miner's care of his roof, and constant failure 
to keep his roof and Avails safe should result in his discharge. The 
miner can not possibly, however, be held responsible for the condition 
of the gangways through which he is compelled to pass, and the 
operator should be held responsible therefor. 

SECTION 47. 
Safety Pillars. 

No stoping shall be done within 20 feet of a shaft that is used for hoisting 
men or material : Provided, hoivcvcr. That stoping may be done within 20 
feet of a shaft if said shaft is to be abandoned and the inspector of mines 
has been so notified in writing. The failure of the operator to observe the 
terms of this paragraph shall be deemed a violation of this act. 

No stoping shall be done within 10 feet of the boundary lino of a mining 
])roperty. 

Provided, however, That on the application of either owner of adjoining mines 
the inspector may give permission in writing to either or both owners to 
weaken, cut through, or work such pillars if, in the opinion of the inspector, the 
same will not be dangerous to the lives of those employed within either of said 
mining properties. Such consent, or a copy thereof, shall be filed in the office 
of the inspector. The failure of the operator of either or both of .such adjoin- 
ing mining properties to observe the provisions of this section shall be deemed 
a violation of this act. 

Provided further. That nothing in this section shall bo construed as com- 
pelling an operator to leave i)illars along the side lines of his claim or claims 
when engaged in extracting ore from beyond said side lines in the exercise of 
bis extralateral right.s. 



! DRAFT FOR A LAW. 61 

SECTION 48. 

Intoxicating Liquor Pkoiiieited in Mines. 

f Whoever shall, while under the infiiieiice of intoxicating liquor, enter any 
mine, or anj- of the buildings connected with the operation of the same where 
.miners or other workmen are employed, or whoever shall carry intoxicating 
hiquors into the same, shall be deemed guilty of an offense against this act, 
land upon conviction shall be punished accordingly. 

[ Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall prevent the carrying 
of any alcoholic spirits or liquor into such mine or buildings for the purpose 
of administering to anyone injured therein. 

SECTION 49. 
General Rules. 

Rule. ^"'^J'^^*- 

1. General Safety Precautions. 
2-4. Foremen's Duties. 
5-6. Candles. 

7. Fire Fighting Helmets. 
8-10. Cages. 

11. Hoisting while Sinking Shaft. 

12. Deepening Shaft — Protection. 

13. "Whims. 

14. Crossheads. 
15-16. Signals. 

17. Punishment for Interference with Signals. 
18-20. Signal Codes. 

21. Cleaning Manwavs. 

22. Fire Protection. 
23-25. Timbering. 

26. Fencing Disused Workings. 

27. Penalty for Destroying Fencings and Coverings. 
28-29. Lighting. 
30-31. Places of Refuge. 

' 32-34. Protection Against Water. 

i 35-42. Ladders and Ladderways. 

\ 43. Enforcement of Rules 35 to 42. 
1 
■ 44. Sumps. 

45. Stopes. 
46-48. Winzes or Raises. 
' 49-52. Shaft Protection. 

53. Oiling Cage Safety Catches. 
54-61. Explosives — Thawing and Handling. 
62-63. Fuses. 

64. Report of Personal Accidents. 
65-60. General Rules. 

The following general rules shall be observed in every mine : 

GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. 

Tiulc 1. — The operator and superintendent of every mine shall use every pre- 
caution to insure the safety of the w^orkmen in the mine in all cases, whether 
provided for in this act or not. 



«/■ 



62 EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

rOUKMENS DUTIES. 

RiiJc 2. — Wlieuever a mine foreniau can not personally carry out the provisioi 
of tills act, so far as they pertain to him, the superintendent shall authorize 
him to employ a sufficient number of competent persons to act as his assistants, 
who shall be subject to his orders and shall be known as " assistant mine fore- 
men,"' and they shall be under the direct supervision of the mine foreman and 
shall carry on the duties of the mine foreman as directed by him and as pre- 
scribed in section 22 of this act. 

Rule S. — The mine foreman sliall have charge of carrying out or directing 
the carrying out'of his duties as prescril>etl in section 22 of this act; and any 
superintendent who shall direct or cause a mine foreman to disregard the pro- 
visions of this act shall be amenable in the same manner as the mine foreman. 

Rule Jj. — ^The mine foreman shall see that ail dangerous places are properly 

fenced off and pfoper danger-signal boards are so hung on such fencings that 

they may be plainly seen. 

CANDLES. 

Rule 5. — No candle shall be left burning in a mine or any part of a mine 
when the person using the candle shall depart from his work for the day. 

Rule 6. — Where candle illumination is used underground metal sconces sha'l 
be provided at all timbered stations where candles must be kept burning, and 
it shall be unlawful to place or keep lighted candles in such places except in 
metal sconces. 

Many fires underground, some of them disastrous, started by care- 
lessness in leaving burning candles in dangerous places, emphasize 
the great importance of rules 5 and 6. The increasing use of the 
ficetj'lene lamp introduces a new fire hazard. Wlien the contents of 
the lamp bottoms are thrown out there may be unspent carbide there- 1 
with. This in a wet place will generate acetylene. Care should be 
taken therefore that carbide seemingly spent be not thrown where it 
ma}' be a menace, especially nowhere near a magazine or any explo- 
sives outside such magazine. 

FIRE-FIOHTIXG HELMETS. ii 

Rule 7. — The operator or superintendent of a mine employing more than 50* 
men underground shall provide and keep in a readily accessible place at least 
two fire-fighting helmets or sets of breathing apparatus to be used in case of • 
emergency. If such helmets or breathing apparatus be of the self-contained 
tyi>e, they shall not be used otherwise than in practice by anyone who does not; 
thoroughly understand their operation or who shall not have had at least 10 
hours' training iu their use under a competent instructor. 

The committee has not desired to specify any particular kind or 
make of apparatus to be provided as contemplated bj^ the ride. If 
oxj^gen helmets be selected, it will be necessary to train men in the 
use of them and to provide for frequent inspection of the apparatus 
to insure its being in good working order when needed. The pur- 
pose of the committee is to recjuire merely that some form of fire- 
fighting helmet, even if it l)e only a homemade affair, shall be always 
on hand. Such a homemade helmet devised at the Anaconda prop- 
erty is described in the Engineering and Mining Journal of October 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 63 

10, 1908. It consists of a canvas hood on a wire frame, drawn close 
;it the neck with a pucker cord. A small hole is cut opposite the 
eves of the wearer. A short length of hose attached to the back can 
iie comiected to a longer hose from the compressed-air line. The 
;l()w of air past the face of the wearer and out the hole keeps out 
:.'ases and acts as a cooling agent. These helmets have proved 
cniinently serviceable and efficient. Another homemade helmet was 
used at Cananea, Mexico, by men working in a flue from the smelting 
plant. 

CAGES. 

Rule 8. — At all mines where hoisting is done by cage from two or more levels 
{> man shall be emjiloyed whose duties shall be to load and unload the cage and 
to give the signals to the hoisting engineer. The superintendent shall be re- 
siK)usible for the enforcement of this rule. 

The conductor, cage tender, or cage rider required by the terms of section 31 
shall, when men are being hoisted and lowered, see that the gates or bars of the 
ciige are closed before giving the signal to move the cage and shall be responsi- 
ble for their closing. 

Rtile 9. — It shall be unlawful for any person to ride upon any cage, skip, or 
bucket tliat is loaded with tools, timber, powder, or other material except for 
the purpose of assisting In passing such material through a shaft or incline, 
and then only after a special signal has been given. 

It has been the desire of the committee to draft a rule that would 
be workable in practice and that would not be violated because of 
unnecessary stringency. The desirability of having tools, powder, 
and other materials hoisted and lowered separate from the men will 
hardly be disputed. This rule will not prevent a miner from riding 
with his pick or with any other tool, as in such case the cage would 
not necessarily be loaded with tools, etc. A careful mine foreman or 
superintendent will not only see that cages are not overcrowded, but 
will prohibit the carrjdng of tools on the cages by the miners, save 
when absolutely necessary. 

Rule 10. — When tools, timber, or other materials are to be lowered or 
hoisted in a shaft, their ends, if projecting above the top of the bucket, skip, 
or other vehicle, shall be securely fastened to the hoisting rope or to the upper 
part of the vehicle, and all tools, timber, or other materials loaded upon a cage 
shall be securely lashe<l before being lowei'cd or hoiste<I, for which purpose 
a rope at least 12 feet long shall be kept on the cage: Provided, liowever. That 
such tools or other materials may be placed without lashing in a closed box 
or in a mine car when lowered in a cage, or in a skip, or in a special tool bucket, 
when no tool projects above the edge thereof. 

iioistint; while sinking shaft. 

Rule It. — In no case shall a cage, skip, or bucket or otlier vehicle be lowered 
directly to the bottom of the shaft when men are working there, but such cage, 
skip, or bucket or other vehicle shall be stopped at least 15 feet above the bottom 
of such shaft until the signal to lower farther shall have been given to the 
hoisting engineer by one of the men at the bottom of tlie shaft: Provided, how- 
ever, that this rule shall not apply to shafts of less than 100 feet in dej^th. 



64 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES.- 

DEEI'EXIXG SUAIT— rUOTECTIOX. 

Rule 12. — During shaft-siuking operations no other work iu any other place 
in the shaft shall be executed, nor shall any material or tools be hoisted or 
lowered from or to any other place in the shaft while men are at work iu the 
bottom of the shaft unless the men so at work be protected from the danger of 
falling material by a securely constructed covering extending over the whole 
area of the shaft, sufficient closable openings being left in the covering for the 
l>assnge of men and the bucket or other conveyance used in the sinking opera- 
tions. 

WHIMS. 

Tiulc 13. — "VMiims in use at or iu mines shall be provl-ded with a suitable 
stopper or some other reliable device to prevent running back of the bucket or 
other conveyance. . 

CROSSIIEADS. 

liulc 1-1. — All vertical shafts more than 3(X) feet deep from which hoisting is 
done by means of a bucket shall be provided with suitable guides, and in cdu- 
nection with the bucket there shall be a crosshead traveling upon these guides. 
The height of the crosshead shall be at least two-thirds of its width. 

The matter of crossheads is vexing. Although they are in rather 
general use, it is maintained in some districts that loose crossheads, 
which can become stuck in the shaft and afterwards dislodged so as to 
descend with dangerous force on the bucket, cause more accidents than 
they prevent. If loose crossheads be prohibited, sinking operations 
will necessitate that the bucket be suspended far below the crosshead, 
which is inconvenient for dumping, or that a rather elaborate device 
be employed, which is usually fast to the hoisting rope, but will per- 
mit the bucket to descend alone when the mechanism is tripped by a 
stop on the guides. In the face of these considerations, the committee 
has followed what seems the most generally accepted practice and 
has iDrescribed a crosshead of proportions to minimize the danger of 
catching on the guides without specifying whether it l)e loose or fast. 

SIGXALS. 

Jinlc 1.'). — Every shaft, if exceeding 50 feet in depth, shall be provided with 
an ofticient means of interchanging distinct and definite signals between the top 
of the shafi and the lowest level aud the various intermediate levels from which 
hoisting is being done. The signaling apparatus shall be a cord or wire actuat- 
ing a knocker, bell, or whistle, which shall be supplemented by a speaking tube, 
or telephone, or an electrical system. 

Rule 16. — Special care shall be taken to keep the signaling apparatus in go<Ml 
order, and all proper precautions shall be taken to prevent electric signal and 
telephone wires from coming into contact with other electric conductors, 
whether insulated or not. 

rUXISIIMEXT FOR IXTERFEREXCE WITH SIGXALS. 

Rule 17. — It Khali be unlawful for any person to interfei'e with or impede any 
signaling in any mine, or knowingly to damage any signal system or knowingly 
to give or cause to be given any wrong signal within the mine or to ride upon 
any cage. skip, bucket, or other conveyance at a time when signals have been 
given informing the hoisting engineer that no iTer.son is so riding. 



DEAFT FOR A LAW. 65 

SIGNAL CODES. 

Rule 18.— The following signals shall be used: One bell, lioist (when engine 
is at rest) ; one bell, stop (when engine is in motion) ; two bells, lower; three 
lells, men on cage about to ascend or descend; four bells (when shaft sinliing 
is in progress), blasting signal; nine bells, or flashing of electric lights nine 
times in quick succession, danger signal, all men to get out of the mine. 

Some discussion of the question of signaling appears in Chapter V. 

Rule 19. — Special signals in addition to the above may be used in any mine, 
provided they are easily distinguishable by their sound or otherwise from the 
foregoing code, and do not interfere with it in any way. 

Rule 20. — An easily legible copy of the above code, and of any special code 
adopted in any mine, shall be printed in letters at least one-half an inch high, 
on a board or metal plate not less than 18 by IS inches, and shall be securely 
posted in the engine room, at the collar of the shaft and at each level or station. 
The superintendent of the mine shall be responsible for the carrying out of this 
rule. 

CLEANING OF MANWAYS. 

: Rule 21. — The timbers in all manways in daily use shall be cleaned of all 
loose rock lodged upon them at least once in every 24 hours. Manways in daily 
use shall be kept clear of obstructions. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

Rule 22. — In all heavily timbered stopes it shall be the duty of the mine 
foreman to cause fire inspection to be made after each shift shall have left 
such stope. A fire map shall be maintained showing all air and water lines in 
the mine and their dimensions with the positions of all valves and hydrants ; 
and such map shall be brought up to date at least every six months. 

TIMBERING. 

Rule 23. — Every shaft, incline, slope, adit, tunnel, level, or drift, and any 
working place in the mine shall be, when necessary, kept securely timbered or 
protected to prevent injury to any i)ei'Son from falling material. It shall be the 
duty of the operator to carry out and enforce the provisions of this rule, but 
nothing contained herein shall be construed to relieve the miner from the duty 
of caring for his own working place, save as hereinafter provided. 

Rule 2.). — It shall be the duty of the oi^erator to see that all miners in the 
mine are supplied at all times with such timbers as are necessary to keep their 
working places in a safe condition. For the purposes of this and the succeeding 
rules the term " timbers " shall be held to include and mean all wood to be used 
by the miner, or all steel or concrete material used in lieu of timber. 

Rule 25. — If for any cause necessary timbers can not be supplied to any miner 
when required, it shall be the duty of the mine foreman to instruct the miner 
or miners to vacate all such working places until supplied with the timbers 
needed, but nothing contained herein shall be construed to relieve the oi>erator 
of the duty of supplying such timbers. 

FENCING DISUSED WORKINGS. 

Rule 26. — All abandoned shafts, shafts temporarily out of use, or shafts used 
only as airways, shall be securely covered or fenced, and shall be so maintained. 
All mill holes, glory holes, and cavernous stopes opening to the surface shall be 
securely fenced, and shall be so maintained if such mill holes, gloi'y holes, or 
16559°— Bull. 75—15 6 



66 RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

cavernous stopes are within 300 feet of a highway or thoroughfare. All other 
abandoned, excavations whereof the sides slope more than 40 degrees from the 
horizontal, and whereof the depth is more than 10 feet, shall be securelj' 
fenced, but such fencing need be erected only at those places where such slope is 
in excess of 40 degrees, and all such fencing shall be maintained in good condi- 
tion. 

PENALTY FOR DESTROYING FENCES AND COVERINGS. 

Rule 27. — Any willful removal of, injury to. or def-truction in whole or in part 
of, any coverings or fences provided for in rule 26 of this section shall consti- 
tute a misdemeanor, and shall be punished as provided in section 52 of this act. , 

LIGHTING. 

Rule 28. — Stationary lights shall be provider! during the working hours at 
all shaft stations during the time the same are in actual use. and also at all 
stations on the levels where hoisting or hauling is effected by means of ma- 
chinery, and also at night at all places on the surface where work is Jbeing 
conducted, and at the head of any shafts not fenced or covered. 

Rule 29. — All places where hoisting, pumping, or other machinery is erected 
and in the proximity of which persons employed in the mines are working or 
moving about shall be so lighted that the moving parts of such machinery can 
be clearly distinguished. 

PLACES OF REFUGE. 

Rule 30. — In every mine in which mechanical haulage is employed there shall 
be at intervals of not more than 300 feet on each main haulage way, except in 
shafts, places of refuge affording a space of at least 2J feet in width between 
the widest portion of the car or train running on the tramway and the side 
of the gallery. When electric-trolley haulage is used or when there is a 
lighting circuit in the haukigeway, such places of refuge shall be marked by 
lights of a distinctive color, so placed as to be plainly visible from a distance 
of at least 50 feet in each direction in the haulageway. 

Rule 31. — Every such place of refuge shall be kept constantly clear, and no 
refuse shall be placed therein, and no person shall in any way prevent access 
thereto. 

PROTECTION AGAINST WATER. 

Rule 32. — Xo raise shall be allowed to approach within 10 feet of any part of 
a winze, stope, or other opening in which there is a dangerous accumulation 
of water unless such winze or stope be first uuwatered by bailing or pumping 
or by means of a bore from the raise. 

Rule 33. — When advancing a drift, adit level, or incline toward a mine work- 
ing that is suspected to be filled with water a bore hole shall be kept at least 20 
feet in advance of the breast of the drive when in the vicinity of such mine 
working, and also, if necessary, in directions laterally from the course of the 
drive. Such a working place shall not exceed 6 feet in width, and such addi- 
tional precautionary measures shall be taken as may be deemed necessary to 
obviate the danger of a sudden breaking through of water. 

It is necessary that rule 33 should be somcAvhat indefinite in its 
requirements. On the one hand, no good object is obtained by requir- 
ing the bore hole to be kept 20 feet in advance of the breast of the 
drive during the entire distance that an adit level, tunnel, etc., is 
advanced toward a mine working suspected to be filled with water. 
On the other hand, it is hardW possible to fix a given distance within 



I 



t 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 67 

which the bore must be kept in advance, as the workmen could not 
know exactly when they came within such distance. 

Rule S-'f. — In every mine where, in the opinion of the inspector of mines, 
there is danger of a sudden inburst of water, such additional raises, drifts, or 
other worliings shall be constructed as are necessary, in the opinion of the 
inspector, to insure the escape of workmen from the lower workings. 

LADDERS AND LADDERWATS. 

Rule 35. — The distance between the centers of the rungs of a ladder shall 
not exceed 12 Inches, and shall not vary more than one-half inch in any one 
ladderway. 

Rule 36. — The rungs of a ladder shall in no case be less than 4 inches from 
the wall of the shaft or any opening in which the ladder shall be used. 

Rule 37. — Every ladderway with an inclination of more than 45° from the 
horizontal, the vertical distance between the top and bottom of which Is more 
than 100 feet, that may be u.sed for the ascent and descent of persons working 
in the mine, shall have substantial platforms at intervals of not more than 20 
feet measured vertically, and the inclination of any ladder or section of a ladder 
shall not exceed 80° from the horizontal. 

In the discussion of the committee's preliminary draft some uncer- 
tainty or confusion of ideas seemed to exist as to the requirements of 
the proposed act with reference to ladders and ladderways. judging 
from some of the criticisms that have been made of the former draft. 
For this reason it seems desirable to group all such provisions in the 
form of a note, as follows : 

1. Ladders may be fixed vertically in shafts or ladderways not ex- 
ceeding 100 feet in depth, but may not be so fixed in shafts over that 
depth. (Rule 40.) 

2. Ladderways more than 100 feet deep must have platforms at 
intervals of 20 feet. Tlie inclination of ladders shall not exceed 80 
degrees from the horizontal. (Rule 37.) 

3. Shafts that are more than 200 feet deep, and where a single shaft 
affords the only means of ingress and egress, and where only one ou.t- 
let is required, must be divided into compartments, one of Avhich com- 
partments shall be used exclusively as a ladderway. (Sec. 41.) Un- 
der rule 37, this ladderway Avould have to be provided with platforms 
at intervals of 20 feet. 

4. All mines must provide at least one means of outlet for the 
miners by means of ladders from the lowest workings to the surface. 
If less than 100 feet in depth, rule 40 would apply ; if more than 100 
feet in depth, rule 37 would apply; and if more than 200 feet in 
depth, section 41 would apply, provided a single shaft afforded the 
only means of ingress and egress. 

Rule 38. — All such platforms, except for an opening large enough to permit 
the passage of a man, shall be closely covered. 

Rule 39.— Ladders shall project at least 3 feet above every platform in the 
ladderway and at least 3 feet above the collar of the shaft, unless handrails 
shall be fixed at such places. 



68 KULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Rule -'lO. — In vertical workiiigs not exceeding 100 feet in deptli or height lad- 
ders niaj' be fixed vertically; no vertical ladders shall be used with a greater 
height or depth than 100 feet. Provided hoiccver, That aronnd every siK-li 
vertical ladder, sollars or platforms shall be built which shall be not more than 
20 feet apart and shall be constructed as provided by rule 38 of this section. 

Vertical ladders of any height such that a fall therefrom would 
result in serious injury are undesirable underground. The com- 
mittee would like to prohibit their use altogether. Eecords of fatal 
falls from vertical ladders are common and records of cases where 
the fact that ladders were inclined and interrupted with sollars pre- 
vented falls from being fatal are almost as common. Furthermore, 
vertical ladders are rarely necessaiy, and whereas the introduction of 
inclined ladders with sollars has often encountered prejudice at first, 
it is found that their use over even a short period of time has 
always brought them into favor. Xevertheless the committee recog- 
nizes that such a prejudice does exist in some quarters and that to 
change over all installed vertical ladders would work a hardship on 
many mines. For this reason they have not been prohibited entirely, 
but it is urged that all ladders hereafter installed be inclined and 
interrupted with sollars at least every 20 feet. 

Rule 41- — Under no circumstances shall any ladder inclining backward from 
the vertical be installed. 

The danger resulting from the use of a ladder inclining backward 
is well known. Rule 41 provides that no such ladder shall be in- 
stalled. The last word is used advisedly, the committee recogniz- 
ing the difficult}^ of preventing laddei's in stopes from being thrust 
out of position by the movement of the timbering in the slope. The 
obligation to correct all of such displaced ladders might be unneces- 
sarily onerous. A careful superintendent will see, however, that 
proper correction is made in ladderways that are much used. 

Rule 42. — Ladderways shall be provided in all shafts in the course of sinking 
to within such a distance from the bottom thereof as will secure them from 
damage by blasting. From the end of such ladderways. chain, wire roi^e, or 
wooden extension ladders to reach to the bottom of the shaft shall be provided. 

Numerous instances of men being trapped in the bottom of a 
shaft after the fuses of a round of shots have been lighted and the 
hoisting engine has failed to work emphasize the necessity of a strict 
observance of rule 42. See also rule 13 of section 33 and the remarks 
thereon. Men may be trapped also by other accidents, for example, 
fire and inrush of water. 

EXFOKCEMEXT OF RULES 35 TO 4 2. 

Rule .'iS. — It shall be the duty of the superintendent to enforce the carrying 
out of rules 35 to 42. 



DEAFT FOE A LAW. 69 

SUMPS. 

Rale 'I'h — All sumps shall be securely covered except wlieu being cleaned or 
:. paired or for similar purposes. 

STOPES. 

Rule Jfo. — In stopes timbereil with square sets the working floors shall be 
( Insely and securely lagged ovei*. Lagging shall be long enough to reach entirely 
across the caps or girts; or shall reach to the center of the caji or girt at each 
c'ud and shall be spiked. Openings in the floors shall be protected by railings. 

WINZES OR RAISES. 

Rule 46. — Winzes opening directly from the floor of a drift or stope shall be 
I;('l't covered by a substantial hatch, or shall be planked over, except when in 
US'', or shall be barred off by a substantial railing not less than Si feet nor more 
tL.iu 4 feet above the level of the floor, or shall be provided with a gangway not 
!■ -s than 10 inches wide, which gangway shall have a substantial handrailing 
lint less than Si feet nor more than 4 feet above the gangway, and the ap- 
]i!itaches to such gangway at either end shall be protected by a substantial 
railing not less than 3* feet nor more than 4 feet above the floor. 

An offset winze protected by a railing is the safest arrangement, but 
ib not always practicable. 

Rule Jf7. — Stopes opening directly from the floor of a drift shall be protected 
liy a fence or a substantial handrail not less than SA feet nor more than 4 feet 
ill height above the floor of the drift, or such stopes shall be securely planked 
u'l er. 

Rule 48. — Drifts used as manways Intersecting overhead w^orkings through 
Avhich material is dropped shall be closed to the passage of persons by a sub- 
^SLalltial rail not less than 3* feet nor more than 4 feet in height above the level 
uf the drift, on each side of the working, whenever material is to be dropped 
tlnough such working, and the drift shall be kept so closed during periods when 
tlic woi'king is so in use. 

SHAFT PROTECTION. 

Rule 4^. — At all shaft stations a gate or a guardrail not less than 3^ feet or 
ninre than 4 feet above the floor shall be provided and kept in place across the 
shaft, except when the cage, skip, bucket, or other conveyance is being loaded 
or unloaded thereat, but this prohibition shall not forbid the temporary removal 
of the gate or rail for the purpose of repairs or other operations if proper pre- 
caution to prevent danger to persons be taken. 

The committee considered prescribing a tight fence for the shaft 
stations similar to that prescribed for the shaft collar in rule 50 
following. The use of such fences, however, is not common prac- 
tice and the committee did not care to require them in the body of 
the law, although recommending them as a wise safety provision. 

Rule 50. — The top of all shafts shall be protected by a tight fence, which 
may be provided with the necessary gates to give access to the shaft, but such 
gates shall be kept closed when access to the shaft is not necessary. 

Rule 51. — If hoisting be done from greater depth than 100 feet by means of a 
bucket, shaft doors shall be constructed that will prevent any material from 
falling into the shaft while the bucket is being dumped, and such doors shall 
be closed while the bucket is being dumped. 



70 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Rule o2. — All stations or levels shall have such a passageway through or 
around the working shaft that crossing through the hoisting compartment may 
be avoided ; entering or crossing the hoisting compartment of a shaft except to 
ascend or descend, or for the purpose of effecting reimirs is prohibited; before 
repairs are commenced the person in charge of or directing the repairs shall 
inform the hoisting engineer of the nature thereof. 

OILING CAGE SAFETY CATCHES. 

Rule 53. — The safety catches of cages shall be kept well oiled and in good 
working order, and shall be tested at least once a month. Such test shall con- 
sist of releasing the cage suddenly in some suitable manner so that the safety 
catches shall have opportunity to grip the guides. 

EXPLOSIVES. 

Rule J.J. — Every mine thawing dynamite or other explosives containing nitro- 
glycerin shall be provided with a separate place for that purpose on the surface, 
or with a special underground chamber, which shall be a separate drift "V 
crosscut, and it shall be unhiwful to thaw explosives in any other place or ia 
any other manner than as provided by rules 55 to 57 of this section. 

In some mining districts, especially in cold climates, a central 
thawing house is impracticable, inasmuch as the mine workings may 
be at such great distances apart, and without underground communi- 
cation, that the explosive may freeze solid before it can be carried 
to the working places. Under such conditions the absolute preven- 
tion of storage of explosives in the mine might be more dangerous 
than such storage, although in general the underground storage of 
explosives is deprecated and ought not to be permitted if storage else- 
where be practicable. 

Rule 55. — Dynamite or other explosives containing nitroglycerin shall not he 
thawed by any means other than a steam bath or a hot-water device, or by 
manure, or by electric current. If steam or water be the agent employed, the 
stove, boiler, or other primary source of heat shall not be nearer to the thawing 
room than 10 feet. If electric current be the heating agent, the current shall 
not be brought within 10 feet of the explosives to be thawed. 

Direct electric heating for the thawing of explosives is dangerou-^. 
and in the opinion of the committee should not be permitted under 
any circumstances. Indirect electric heating carried out in such a 
way that the heater is put in an antechamber to the thawing room 
or place, the heating of the thawing room being effected by the 
circulation of warm fluid from the antechamber, is considered safe , 
and allowable. 

Rule 56. — It shall be unlawful to thaw dynamite, or other explosive con- 
taining nitroglycerin, by placing it near a fire or near a steam boiler. 

Rule 51. — It shall be unlawful to thaw dynamite, or other explosive contain- 
ing nitroglycerin, by direct contact with steam. 

Rule 5S. — It shall be unlawful for any i)erson knowingly to distribute frozen 
dynamite, or other explosive containing nitroglycerin, to any person workins 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 71 

iu auy miue, unless such explosive is to be tliawed in accordance with rules 
55 to 57 of this section. 

Rule 59. — It shall be unlawful to carry explosives on an electric locomotive, 
or in a car next to an electric locomotive, or on a gasoline locomotive or iu any 
car hauled by a gasoline locomotive. 

Rule 60. — It shall be unlawful to place or leave explosives near live electric 
wires. 

Rule 61. — No person shall remove any explosive from a mine without the 
written consent of the superintendent of the mine. 

FUSE8. 

Rule 62. — No fuse shall be used in any mine that burns faster than 3 feet 
in 80 seconds or slower than 3 feet in 130 seconds. From every case of fuse 
opened, or from every lot of 6,000 feet, two coils shall be selected at random 
and pieces cut from such two coils shall be tested for rate of burning. 

Rule 65.— Notice shall be posted at the entrance of every mine stating the 
rate of burning of the fuse used in such mine. The superintendent shall be 
responsible for the carrying out of this rule. 

REPOKT OF TERSOXAL ACCIDENTS. 

Rule 6-'/. — Every personal accident occurring in or about any mine, including 

electric shocks and burns, and all accidents in connection with the operation 

(>f electrical equipment shall be promptly reported to the mine superintendent 

by the person injured, or, if such person shall be unable so to do by reason of 

the injury, then it shall be so reported by the person in immediate charge of 

the work at the time of the accident, or by some person acting in behalf of the 

injured person ; and shall be recorded in a book kept for that purpose in the 

office of the mine, which book shall at all times be open to examination by the 

inspector or any deputy. 

GENERAL RULES. 

Rule 65. — All defects in or damage or injury to machinery or timbering or 
to apparatus and equipment generally in and about a mine, all unsafe or dan- 
g'?rous conditions in any jiart of the mine, and all accidents occurring in the 
course of mining operations, other than those of a purely minor character, even 
though not resulting in personal injury, shall be promptly reported to the mine 
foreman or superintendent by the person observing the same. 

Rule 66. — Wages shall not be paid on any premises used for the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. 

Rule 61. — Strangers or visitors shall not be allowed underground in any mine 
unless accompanied by the operator or an official of the mine, or by an employee 
deputized by such operator or official to accompany them ; but this rule shall 
not apply to engineers sampling or inspecting the mine or to students of mining 
schools who are making a study of operating conditions in such mine, or to the 
mine inspector or deputy inspectors. 

Rule 6S. — Every mine employing more than 25 men shall maintain a suitably 
equipped wash room, which shall at all times be open to the employees of the 
mine. 

Rule 60. — Each workman employed in the mine when first engaged shall have 
his attention directed by the miue foreman to the general and special rules 
provided for in this act. 



72 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MINES. 

SECTION 50. 
Electrical Installation. 

GENERAL. 
Rule. Subject. 

1. Grounding. 

2. Voltage. 

3. Ground Detectors. 

4. Switchboards. 

5. Danger Signals. 

6. Precautions Against Shock. 

7. Fire Buckets. ' 

8. Emergency Lights. 

9. Plan of Electric System. 

10. Report of Defective System. 

11. Notice of Installation. 

underground stations and transformer rooms. 

12-16. Switchboards. 

17. Protection of Terminals. 
IS. Transformer Rooms. 

19. Protection of Circuits Entering or Leaving Transformers. 

transmission lines and cables. 

20. High A'oltage Wires. 

21-22. Support of Cables and Wires. 

23. Overhead Lines Above Ground. 

24. Cables Buried on Surface. 

25-26. Protection of Circuits Leading L'ndekground. 

27. Branch Circuits. 

25. Grounded Circuits. 
29-30. Lighting Circuits. 

31. L'NDERGROUND TrOLLEY. 

32. Protection of Trolley Wires. 

33. Location of Wires. 

34. Power Wires and Cables in Shafts. 

35. Cables in Main Roads. 

36. Protection of Cables During Blasting. 
37-38. Cables Entering Fittings. 

39. Joints in Conductors. 

40. Joints in Cables. 

41-46. Fuses, Circuit Breakers, and Switches. 

stationary motors. 

47. Protection of Stationary Motors Underground. 

electric lighting. 

48. Lamp Sockets. 

49. Flexible Lamp Cord. 

50. Incandescent Lamps. 

51. Separate Circuits for Hoists. 

The foUowiug: rules shall govern electrical installation and practices in every 
mine. 



I 
I 



DEAFT FOE A LAW. 73 

DEFINITIONS. 

Potential. — The terms " potential " and "^ voltage " are synoiiynaous and mean 
electrical pressure. 

Difference of potential. —The expression " difference of potential " means the 
difference of electrical pressure existing between any two points of an electrical 
system or between any point of such a system and the earth as determined by 
a voltmeter. 

Potential of a circuit. — The potential or voltage of a circuit, machine, or any 
piece of electrical apparatus is the potential normally existing between the 
conductors of. such circuit or the terminals of such machine or apparatus. 

Where the conditions of the supply of electricity are such that the difference 
in potential between any two points of the circuit can not exceed 300 volts, the 
supply shall be deemed a low-voltage supply. 

Where the conditions of the supply of electricity are such that the difference 
of potential between any two points in the circuit may at any time exceed 300 
volts, but can not exceed 650 volts, the supply shall be deemed a medium- 
voltage supply. 

Where the conditions of the supply of electricity are such that the difference 
of potential between any two points in the circuit may at any time exceed G."50 
volts, the supply shall be deemed a high-voltage supply. 

Grounding. — Grounding any part of an electrical system shall consist in so 
connecting such part to the earth that there shall be no material difference of 
potential between such part and the earth. 

Underground station. — The term " underground station " as used herein shall 
mean any place where electrical machinery is permanently installed in the 
mine. 

Carrying capacity. — The term " carrying capacity " shall be taken to mean 
the carrying capacity of a given wire as prescribed for various insulated wires 
in the National Electric Code, published by the National Board of Fire' 
Underwriters. 

Before undertaking the drafting of this section, an examination 
and study was made of the hiws of various foreign countries, par- 
ticularly the laws of Xew South Wales and of England. Bulletin 23 
of the Bureau of Standards, " Standardization of Electrical Practice 
in Mines," and the report of the so-called Tajdor committee of the 
American Mining Congress, recommending the adoption of a code of 
Titles governing electrical practice in coal mines, were also carefully 
examined and largely utilized. The most noticeable thing about 
these various laws and drafts of laws is the marked similarity of 
many of their respective provisions, many of which are practically 
identical in wording. The code of rules suggested b3' the Taylor 
committee has been embodied in the new bituminous-mining law of 
Pennsylvania, with few, if any, changes. 

Obviously, then, with such a marked unanimity of view as to the 
correct standard for electrical practices in mines, and with the adop- 
tion of the Taylor report by the great mining State of Pennsylvania, 
great steps forward have already been taken toward the establish- 
ment of uniformitj' in electrical practices in mines. The committee 
has endeavored to make these rules regarding electricity as clear and 



74 EULES AKD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

direct and simple as possible, and for the sake of uniformity has' 
adopted a good many of the rules contained in the Taylor report, 
.■where no good reason existed why the same langiuige should not be 
ifollowed, although it has by no means followed that report ex- 
clusively. 

The definitions of low, medium, and high voltages contemplate the 
pieasurement of the voltage with a voltmeter. A voltmeter, however, 
does not indicate the peak value of an alternating-current wave. It 
has, therefore, been urged that the limits be made lower in the case of 
alternating currents.. If the voltmeter indicated 300 volts when con- 
nected across an alternating-current line, the peak voltage would be 
actually about 425 volts. This is true, furthermore, only when the 
curve of electromotive force is a sine curve. As this condition rarely 
exists, it follows that even greater peaks may be expected in alter- 
nating-current circuits. If different values were to be used in the 
case of alternating currents, the standard voltages used for seconciary 
distribution would have to be taken into consideration. These are 
220 and 440 volts. The sine-wave maximum with 220 volts would be 
about 310 volts and with 440 volts would be about 620 volts. The 
fii'st of these values is just below one of the limits set and the second 
just above another limit. But although for the same voltmeter read- 
ings alternating-current circuits will have a greater maximum volt- 
age and therefore to that extent will be more dangerous than direct- 
current circuits, nevertheless, in almost every case where alternating- 
current circuit is used, the conductors will be insulated much more 
thoroughh', and therefore it seems unwise to introduce confusion into 
the regulations by making distinctions. 

GROUNDING. 

y Rule 1. — Tlie frames and bedplates of generators, transformers, and motors, 
otlier than low-voltage, portable motors, installed underground shall be effi- 
ciently grounded. All metallic coverings, armoring of cables, other than trail- 
ing cables, and the neutral wire of three-wire, continuous-current systems shall 
also be so grounded. 

VOLTAGE. 

Rule 2. — No higher voltage than medium voltage shall be used underground, 
except for transmission or for application to transformers or to other apparatus 
in which the whole of the high-voltage circuit is stationary. 

GROUND DETECTORS. 

Rule 3. — All circuits leaving the switchboard in underground stations, and 
all circuits leaving the switchboard upon the surface and leading underground, 
shall, if circuits are completely insulated from the earth, be equipped with 
earth or fault detectors proiierly installed. Such detectors shall be inspected 
daily by a competent person, who. shall report promptly to the superintendent 
of the mine the occurrence of any ground. 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 75 

SWITCHBOARDS. 

Rule If. — Main and distribution switeli and fuse boards shall be made of in- 
combustible, nonabsorbent insulating material, wliicli shall be free from metal- 
lic veins. The board shall be mounted upon supporting frameworlis of iron or 
steel and fixed in a dry place. If insulated conductors are used in the wiring 
of the board the insulation of such conductors shall be flame proof. 

DANGER SIGNALS. 

Rule 5. — All high-voltage machines, apparatus, and lines shall be marlied by 
the use of the word " danger " at fi'equent intervals. 

PRECAUTIONS AGAINST SHOCK. 

Rule 6. — Gloves and mats (or shoes) of rubber or other insulating material 
shall be provided by the mine superintendent for use in maliing repairs or 
adjustments to the live parts of any electrical apparatus. 

FIRE BUCKETS. 

Rule 7. — Buckets filled with clean, dry sand shall be liept in all underground 
stations ready for immediate use in extinguishing fires. The minimum quantity 
of sand thus stored in any one station shall be 2 cubic feet. 

EMERGENCY LIGHTS. 

Rule 8. — Lamps or other proper lights shall be kept ready for use in all 
underground stations where a failure of electric light is likely to cause danger. 

PLAN OF ELECTRIC SYSTEM. 

Rule 9. — The operator of every mine where electrical equipment is installed 
underground shall make or cause to be made by a competent person a clear 
and accurate plan, on a scale of not less than 200 feet to the inch, to be kept 
at the mine, showing the position of all stationary electrical apparatus in con- 
nection with the mine, including fixed cables, conductors, lights, switches, and 
trolley lines. The capacity in horsepower of' each motor and in kilowatts of 
each generator or transformer shall be shown on such plan and the nature of 
its duty. This plan shall be corrected and be brought up to date at intervals 
of not exceeding three mouths, and shall at all times be subject to examination, 
by the inspector or deputy. On failure or refusal of the operator to make such 
plan within three months after receipt of written notice so to do by the in- i 
spector or deputy, or failure at least once in three months to make the neces- 
sary corrections to bring the plan up to date, then the inspector is hereby au- 
thorized to have such plan or corrections thereof made, at the expense of the : 
operator, as provided by section 25 of this act. 

REPORT OF DEFECTIVE SYSTEM. 

Rule 10. — A report shall be promptly made to the mine superintendent or 
mine foreman of every breakdown of any part of the electrical equipment 
in the mine, or of damage or injury thereto, or of any overheating, or of the 
appearance of sparks or arcs outside of the inclosing casings, or when any, 
part of the equipment not a part of the electrical circuit becomes alive. It 
shall be the duty of the person first observing such breakdown, injury, damage, *" 
sparking, arcking, or the fact that some part of the equipment, not so sup- 
posed to be, is alive, to make such report or to communicate such fact to the t 
person in charge of the equipment in question, who shall thereupon make such J 
report as prescribed. ^ 



76 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MINES. 

NOTICE OF INSTALLATION. 

Rule 11. — Wlienever any electrical installation is originally introduced into 
any mine notice tliereof in writing shall be sent to the State mine inspector 
within three months from the date of such installation. Notice shall also be 
sent of any existing installation within three months after the coming into 
effect of this act. 

UNDERGROUND STATIONS AND' TRANSFORMER ROOMS. 

Switchboards. 

Rule 12. — All switches, circuit breakers, rheostats, fuses, and instruments 
used in connection with underground motor generators, rotary convertors, high- 
voltage motors, transformers, and low and medium .voltage motors of more than 
50-horsepower capacity shall be installed upon a switchboard constructed as 
provided in rule 4 of this section. Similar equipment for low and medium vol- 
tage motors of 50 horsepower and less may be separately installed if mounted 
upon insulating bases of slate or equivalent insulating material. 

Rule 13. Passageways. — A passageway not less than 3 feet in width shall be 
maintained in front of all switchboards installed underground, and any pas- 
sageway behind the switchboard shall be of like width where there are con- 
nections at the back of such board. Provided, hoicever. That In the case of high- 
voltage boards such passageways shall be not less than 4 feet in width. 

Rule l.'f. Space dack of switchboards. — ^The space at the back of switchboards 
shall be floored, shall be accessible from each end, and shall be kept locked 
up in the case of high-voltage boards, but no lock shall be used that will not 
permit the door being opened from the inside without the use of a key. Non- 
combustible flooring only shall be used at the back of high-voltage boards, 
except that rubber mats may be used as provided in rule 6. 

Rule 15. Conductors crossing passageway. — No conductor shall cross a pas- 
sageway at the back of a switchboard except below the floor, or at a height 
of not less than 7 feet above the level of the floor. 

Rule 16. Live metal tcorJc on switcJihoards. — No live metal work shall be 
placed on the front of high-voltage switchboards within 7 feet of the floor. 
If live metal work is placed on the front of medium-voltage boards, insulating 
mats or floors shall be provided. 

Protection of Terminals. 

Rule 17. — All exposed terminals on underground machines shall be protected 
with properly designed insulating covers of suitable material, or with metal 
covers connected to earth. 

Transformer Rooms. 

Rule IS. — Transformer rooms shall be of fireproof construction. 

Circuits Entering or Leaving Transformers. 

Rule 19. — Circuits entering or leaving a transformer shall be protected by a 
switch and an automatic circuit breaker on each pole, but fuses may be sub- 
stituted for the circuit breakers in the case of lighting cii'cuits, and in the case 
of power circuits transmitting 25 kilowatts or less. 

TRANSMISSION LINES AND CABLES. 
High-Voltage Wires. 

Rule 20. — All high-voltage wires used underground shall be in the form of 
insulated lead-covered cables, which may be either armored or unarmorod, but 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 77 

the lead or armor sliall be electrically coutiuuous tlirougbout, and shall be 
fliiciently grounded. 

SUPPORT OF CABLES AND WIRES. 

Rule 21. — All underground cables and wires, unless provided with grounded 
iiietiillic covering, shall be supported by efficient insulators. The conductors 
'onnecting lamps to the power supply shall in all cases be insulated. 

Rule 22. — Cables and wires unprovided with metallic coverings shall not be 
lixed to walls or timbers by means of uninsulated fastenings. 

OVERHEAD LINES ABOVE GROUND. 

Rule 23. — Overhead transmission lines between the generating station or sub- 
[ station and the mine entrance shall be supported upon insulators which shall 
be adequate In quality, size, and design for the voltage transmitted. Where 
such line Is more than 500 feet in length lightning arresters shall be installed in 
I connection therewith at the generating station and at the entrance to the mine. 
Such line at the lowest point shall be maintained not less than 14 feet above 
the ground and above any scaffold, trestle, or embankment used as a road or 
traveling way, except at the point of entrance to the mine. 

CABLES BURIED ON SURFACE. 
Rule 2^1. — Buried cables shall be sufficiently protectetl. 

PROTECTION OF CIRCUITS LEADING UNDERGROUND. 

Rule 25. — Every completely insulated feeder circuit in excess of 25-kilowatt 
capacity leading underground where the supply does not exceed the limits of a 
medium-voltage supply shall be provided above ground with a switch on each 
pole and an automatic overload circuit breaker on at least one pole in the case 
of direct-current circuits and on at least two poles in the case of polyphase 
alternating-current circuits. In the case of ground-return direct-current cir- 
cuits a switch and current breaker shall be installed in the ungrounded side of 
the circuit, but may 'be omitted from the return side. Fuses may be substituted 
for circuit breakers in circuits transmitting 25 kilowatts or less. 

Rule 26. — Every high-voltage alternating-current feeder circuit leading under- 
ground shall be provided above ground with an oil break switch on each pole, 
and every such switch shall be equipped with an automatic overload trip. 

BRANCH CIRCUITS. 

Rule 21. — Every branch circuit other than a trolley circuit shall be provided 
W'ith a switch of not less than 100-ampere capacity on each pole at the point 
where it leaves the main circuit. 

GROUNDED CIRCUITS. 

Rule 2S. — The uougrounded side of grounded circuits shall be efficiently 
insulated from earth. 

LIGHTING CIRCUITS. 

Rule 20. — Where wires for electric lamps are connected to a trolley wire the 
ear of the trolley hanger to which connection is made shall be provided with a 
drilled lug and a set screw for attaching the lighting wire. Such lighting wires 
shall not be wrapped or tied about the seams or studs of trolley hangers. 

Rule 30. — Wires for all lighting circuits shall be covered with an insulation 
adequate for the voltage of the circuit, and, unless encased in pipes or other 
metallic covering, shall be strung on porcelain or glass insulators. Separate 



78 EULES AND EEGVLATIOXS FOB METAL MIXES. 

uueased wires sbuU be kept at least 3 inches apart, except whore they enter the 
fittings. Metallic casings, if used, shall be ethciently grounded. 

rNDERGItOLXD TKOLLF.Y. 

Rule 31. — Trolley wires shall be installed as far to one side of underground 
workings as is iiracticable. and shall be securely supported upon hangers effi- 
ciently insulated and j)laced at such intervals that the sag between points of 
support shall not exceed 3 inches. 

PROTECTION or TROLLEY WIRES. 

Rule 32. — At all places where men are required to work or pass regularlj 
under trolley or other bare power wires, which are placed less than S^ feet above 
top of rail, a suitable protection shall be provided, which may consist of chanrj 
ueling the roof, or of placing boards along the wire, which shall extend 3 inches 
below it. or in the use of any other device that will afford protection. All sucl 
places shall be well lighted with electric lamps. 

LOCATION OF WIRES. 

Ride 33. — All wires, except telephone, shot-firing, and signal wires, shall be 
on the same side of the working as the trolley wire. 

rOWER WIRES AND CABLES IN SHAFTS. 

Rule 3^. — All iK)wer wires and cables in hoisting shafts or manway compart- 
ments shall be highly insulated and substantially fixed in position. All shaft 
cables shall be supported by grips that can not cause abrasion of the covering 
or insulation, so spaced rhat no part of the cable shall be under a tension 
greater than one-fourth its ultimate strength. Where the cables are not com- 
pletely boxed in and protected from falling material, space shall be left between 
them and the side of the shaft so that they may yield and lessen a blow from 

falling material. 

CABLES IN MAIN ROADS. 

Rule 3'). — Where the cables or feed wires in main roads can not be kept at 
least 12 inches from any part of the mine car or locomotive, they shall be 
specially protected by proper guards. 

PROTECTION OF CABLES DURING BLASTING. 

Rule 36. — Cables shall be temiwrarily protected against damage at any point 
where workings are being repaired or where blasting is being carried on. 

CABLES ENTERING FITTINGS. 

Rule 37. — The exposed ends of cables where they enter fittings of any descrip- 
tion sh.-ill be so protected and finished off that moisture can not enter the cable, 
or the insulating material leak out, if of an oily or viscous nature. 

Rule 38. — "NATiere unarmored cables or wires pass tln-ough metal frames or 
into boxes or motor casings, the holes shall be substantially lined with insulat- 
ing bushings. 

JOINTS IN CONDUCTORS. 

Rule 30. — All .ioints in conductors shall be mechanically and electrically 
efficient, and shall be soldered wherever possible. "Where conductors can not be 
soldered together, suitable scre\A- clamps or connectors shall be used. All joints 
in insulated wire shall, after the joint is complete, be reinsulated to the same 
extent as the remainder of the wire. 



DRAFT FOE A LAW. 79 

JOIXTS IX CABLES. 

Rule 40- — Where cables are joined, suitable juuction boxes shall be used, or 
the joints shall be soldered, aud the insulation, armoring, or lead covering 
replaced in as good condition as it was originally.. 

FUSES, CIRCUIT BUEAKERS, AND SWITCHES. 

Rule .'fl. — Fuses and automatic circuit breakers shall be constructed so as 
effectually to interrupt the current when a short circuit occurs or when the 
current through them exceeds a predetermined value. Open-type fuses shall 
not be used. 

Circuit breakers shall be adjusted to trip at from 50 to 150 per cent of their 
normal rated capacity, and shall be provided with indicators that shall show 
;ir what current the circuit breakers are set to trip. 

Rule 42- — Circuit breakers used to protect feeder circuits shall be set properly 
to protect the circuit, but shall always be set to trip before the current exceeds 
by more than 50 per cent the current-carrying capacity of the feeder. 

Rule 43, — All points at which a circuit has to be made or broken shall be pro- 
vided with proper switches, which shall be so installed that they can not be 
closed by gravity. 

Rule 44- — Fuses shall be stamped or marked, or shall have a label attached, 
indicating the maximum current that they are Intended to carry. Fuses shall 
be adjusted or replaced only by an authorized and competent person. 

Rule 4-J- — The capacity of fuses used to protect feeders shall not exceed the 
current capacity of the feeder by more than 25 per cent. 

Rule 46- — All switches, circuit breakers, and fuses shall have incombustible 
base-s. 

STATIONARY MOTORS. 
Peotectiox. 

Hule 4'^- — Stationary motors underground, together with the starting resist- 
ance, shall be protected by a fuse on each iwle, or by a circuit-breaking device 
on at least one pole for direct current, and two poles for alternating current 
motors, and by switches arranged to cut off entirely the power from the motor. 
These devices shall be installed in a convenient ]X)sition near the motor. Every 
stationary motor underground, of 100 brake horsepower or over, shall be pro- 
vided with a suitable meter to indicate the load on the machine. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING, 
Lamp Sockets. 

Rule 48. — The exterior of the sockets of all fixed incandescent lamps shall be 

entirely noumetallic. 

Flexible Lamp Cokd. 

Rule 4^' — The use of flexible lamp cord for lighting connections is prohibited, 
except for portable incandescent lights to be used in connection with the in- 
spection and repair of machinery and equipment. Such portable lights shall be 
protected by a wire cage large enough to inclose both lamp and socket aud shall 
be provided with a handle to which the light and socket shall be firmly attached 
and through which the leading-in wires shall be carried. 

INC.\NDESCEXT LAMPS. 

Rule 50. — Incandescent lamps shall be so placed that they can not come into 
contact with combustible material; and shall be so i)laced that an adequate 
circulation of air may take place on all sides of them. 



80 EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

Without the precautions prescribed in rule 50 incandescent himps 
have been known to cause disastrous fires. 

Seiarate Circuits fok Hoists. 

Rule 51. — Where electric hoisting is employed, at least one shaft accessible 
from all parts of the mine shall be equipped with an electric hoist supplied 
by separate feeders run from any convenient distributing point so that the 
power on either or botli circuits can be kept on when all other circuits in the 
mine are cut. Provided, however, That any hoist driven otherwise than by 
electricity and actilally in use shall be considered the equivalent of an electric 
hoist with such separate circuit for the equipment of such generally accessible 
shaft. 

SECTION 51. 

Care of Electrical Equipment, and Practices. 



I 



Rule 1. — It shall be unlawful for anj- person working in or about a mine to 
cause willfully another person to receive an electiic shock. 

Rule 2. — It shall be unlawful to direct or permit an inexperienced person to 
work on live apparatus. 

Rule 3. — No person shall handle electric wires or conductors, or electrical 
apparatus of any kind, or enter an electrical machine room or underground 
station without authority. 

Rule J/. — No i^erson shall be allowed to work any electrically driven apparatus J 
unless he shall have been previously instructed in the performance of his duties 
by a competent person and shall have been duly authorized by the mine super- 
intendent or mine foreman. 

Rule 5. — No repairing or cleaning of any electrical apparatus, except mere 
oiling or wiping, shall be done when the current is on. 

Rule 6. — Electric lamps underground shall not be installed or replaced save 
by a competent person to be designated or appointed by the mine foreman. 

Rule 7. — Instructions for the restoration of persons suffering from electric 
Ahock shall be posted at the entrance to the mine, in every generating station or 
substation, and in all underground stations. All employees working in connec- 
tion with electrical apparatus shall be required by the mine superintendent to 
familiarize themselves with, these instructions, and shall be capable of applying 
them before entering upon such work. 

Rule S. — It shall be unlawful to damage willfully or without proper authority 
to alter or make connections to any electrical lines or conductors, machines, 
apparatus, or part thereof, used in connection with the supply or use of elec- 
tricity. Any violation of this provision shall be deemetl to constitute a mis- 
demeanor and shall be punished as hereinafter provided. 

Rule 9. — All apparatus and wiring shall be inspected at least once in every 
15 days by a person designated for the purpose by the superintendent. Such 
person shall make a report once in each month, to the superintendent, of the 
inspections he has made, noting all defects found and how repaired or remedied. 

SECTION 52. 

Penalties. 

Any person who neglects, refuses, or fails to perform or discharge the duties 
or responsibilities imposed and required to be performed or discharged by any 
section, clause, provision, or rule of this act, or who does any act or thing 
declared to be unlawful or prohibited by any such section, clause, provision, or 



DRAFT FOR A LAW. 81 

rule, or who violates any provisiou or requirement of this act, shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeauor, and, upon conviction thereof in the circuit court of 
the county in which the misdemeanor was committed, shall be punished by a 
tine not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not 
exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion 
of the court, unless otherwise provided. 

The circuit courts of all counties within this State shall have and exercise, 
within the limits of their respective districts, jurisdiction over all ofCenses and 
proceedings under this act. All fines and penalties imposed or payable under 
this act may be recovered by distress and sale of any mining or other personal 
property of the offender ; and, in default of sufficient distress, by imprisonment 
for any term not exceeding six months. 

It shall be the duty of all county prosecuting officevs or attorneys to prose- 
cute all violations of this act, or all cases of neglect, refusal, or failure to per- 
form or discharge the duties or responsibilities imposed and required to be 
performed or discharged by said act, but nothing herein contained shall operate 
to prevent the insiiectors of mines, or any deputy, from procuring the services 
of counsel in accordance with the provisions of section G of this act. It shall 
also be the duty of such prosecuting officers or attorneys, upon request duly made, 
to assist the inspector of mines or any deputy in obtaining compliance with 
this act, or any provision thereof, by the institution of appropriate legal pro- 
ceedings, and to represent such inspector or deputy in any and all legal pro- 
ceedings brought against him in his official capacity. 

For any injury to person or proi>erty occasioned by any violation of this act 
or any neglect or failure to comply with its provisions on the part of any 
owner, operator, superintendent, mine foreman, or hoisting engineer of any 
mine, a right of action shall accrue to the party injured against said owner 
or operator for any direct damages sustained thereby; and in case of loss of 
life by reason of such neglect or failure aforesaid, a right of action shall accrue 
to the widow and lineal heirs of the person whose life shall be lost for like 
recovery of damages for the injury they shall have sustained. 

The committee has endeavored to place the responsibility for cer- 
tain conditions and the observance of certain requirements upon those 
who should clearly be responsible, the operator in some instances, 
and in others the superintendent or the mine foreman. It is recog- 
nized that man}^ accidents are due to the miners themselves, owing 
to carelessness or recklessness or to willful disregard of safety rules, 
but it is not practicable to penalize the miners for all of such acts. 
Of course, the miner, as well as the operator or superintendent, is 
personall}^ liable for the doing of an act expressly made unlawful, and 
the doing of which constitutes a misdemeanor. If a miner persist- 
ently violates safety requirements the operator can terminate his em- 
ploj^ment, if nothing more, or he may, if desired, report the violation 
of law to the local prosecuting officer or to the mine inspector. Al- 
though the men may not be reached in some instances, it is certainly 
true that a miner injured by reason of the doing of some prohibited 
thing — that is, violating the law — would have no recourse against 
the operator, which is in itself a penalty of a more or less drastjc 
character. 

lG.ii59°— Bull. 75— lo 7 



82 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOB METAL MIXES. 

SECTION 53. 
Cory OF Act to Be Posted. 

It shall be the duty of the iiis^pector of mines to furnish every miue with a copy 
or copies of said act, aud it shall be the duty of the siiperiutendent of every such 
miue to post or cause such priuted copy or copies to be posted, and to be kept 
po.sted at all times in the office of said mine and on a building or board in some 
conspicuous place at each entrance to the mine. 

The Y^nllful removal, injury, or defacing of any such printed copy v^-hen so 
poste<i by any person shall constitute n misdemeanor and shall be punished as 
provided in section 52 of this act. 

SECTION 54. 

liEPEAL OF Inconsistent Laws. 

All laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions of this act are 
herebv repealed. 

SECTION 55. 

When Act Shall Take Effect. 

This act shall take effect on the day of , 19 — . 

The act should take effect at least 90 days after passage, so as to 
enable operators to prepare to meet the changed conditions. 



The reader of the above draft will perceive that it is widely 
different from our draft of 1910. The legal theory upon which it is 
based has remained unchanged, but technical details have been ex- 
tensively altered. Further study would no doubt lead us to make 
further modifications. However, we are of the opinion that if the 
metal mines of the United States be operated in conformity with 
the rules herein prescribed the accidents to men v.ill be materially 
reduced. 

Walter Eentox Ixgalls, 

Chairman. 

J. Parke Channing. 

James Douglas. 

James TJ. Finlay. 

John Hays Hammond, 



CHAPTER lY. 
SYNOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 



Bv L. O. Kellogg. 



A synopsis of the proposed act presented in Chapter III is given 
herewith : 

SECTIOX 1. DEFINITION OF TERMS. 

Gives application of act; provides short title; makes singular and plural numbers 
interchangeable; defines "mine," "mineral," "ojierator," "superintendent," "mine 
foreman," "inspector," "deputy," "excaA'ations," "workings," "number of men," 
''explosive," "2>erson," "underground," "employee," and "men employed." 
Operation of law restricted to mines employing over 10 men; collieries, and oil, gas, 
salt, and sulphur wells excluded. 

SECTION 2. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR OF MINES. 

Inspector must be 30 years old, American citizen, State resident for at least 1 year 
previous to appointment, with 10 years' practical experience underground (1 year's 
service as a deputy counthig for 2 years of such experience), and 5 years' experience 
as superintendent or foreman of mine in United States employing more than 50 men. 
Salarj^ specified. Term of office, 4 years. Inspector appointed by governor of State. 

SECTION 3. DEPUTY INSPECTOR OF MINES, 

Inspector shall appoint certain number of deputies at certain salary. Subject to 
removal by inspector. Qualifications same as for inspector, except that deputy need 
be only 25 years of age, with 2 years' experience as superintendent or foreman of mine 
in United States employing 25 or more men. 

SECTION 4. RESTRICTIONS UPON INSPECTORS. 

Inspector or deputy shall not be connected with any mining, metallurgical or quar- 
rying company. Must devote entire time to office; must not engage in practice as 
consulting engineer; must not act for political candidate or receive compensation 
therefrom. 

SECTION 5, PAYMENT OF SALARY AND EXPENSES. 

Provides for payment of salary and necessary expenses. 

SECTION 6. LEGAL EXPENSES OF INSPECTORS. 

Inspector may engage counsel to assist in legal proceedings under provisions of act 
who shall be paid by State. If any suit result in costs against State, same shall be paid 
subject to approval by the court. 

SECTION 7. OFFICE AND RECORDS OF INSPECTOR OF MINES. 

Inspector to have oflice in statehouse; shall keep complete records of mme examina- 
tions and of recommendations with all data pertaining thereto; deputies to make 
periodical reports thereon to the inspector. All records property of State. Inspector 
may call for all papers of deputy when desired. 

83 



34 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTION 8. REPORTS TO INSPECTOR OF MINES. 

Every operator to make annual report to inspector, covering production, number of 
employees, days of work, number and nature of accidents, and information relative 
to siifety of mine. If property changes hands between dates of reports, retiring 
operator shall furnish necessary information to his successor to enable latter to make 
out report. Any accident or threatened change of conditions which would increase 
hazard must be at once reported to inspector. 

SECTION 9. DESIGNATION FOR SERVICE OF NOTICES. 

Operator shall appoint a person on whom all legal notices can be served ; he shall 
be in accessible situation; but any other responsible officer shall also be subject to 
such notices. 

SECTION 10. SECRECY OF RECORDS. 

Records of inspectors must be kept secret, except that information may be given to 
State government or in court, and findings regarding any mine to owner or superin- 
tendent thereof. 

SECTION 11. DUTIES OF INSPECTORS — INSPECTION — POWERS. 

Every mine employing more than 30 men shall be visited at least once every three 
months, and every other mine at least once a year, often er if seems necessary to inspec- 
tor; inspector shall examine operations as regards safety and ascertam whether pro- 
visions of act are observed; shall have access to any mine at any time and shall receive 
assistance of company officers; shall have authority to subpoena witnesses, take deposi- 
tions, and take evidence after administering oath. 

SECTION 12. DANGEROUS MINES — DUTIES OF INSPECTORS. 

When inspector finds any unsafe condition he shall serve notice on operator, specify- 
ing necessary changes. If on reexamination conditions are not remedied, inspector 
shall procure temporary court injunction shutting down mine or part thereof until 
changes are made. 

SECTION 13. REFUSING INSPECTION — PENALTY. 

If insi^ector is refused permission to make inspection, he shall obtam court order 
requiring operator to jjermit inspection and furnish facilities, under penalty of being 
adjudged in contempt of court. 

SECTION 14. RECORDS OF INSPECTION. 

After each inspection of a mine, record shall be made thereof in a book kept at the 
mine, noting parts inspected, nature of inspection, defects observed; such book shall 
always be open to inspector or deputies. 

SECTION 15. COMPLAINTS TO INSPECTORS. 

If certain minimum numbersof men in minesof various sizes make signed complaint 
to inspector of any dangerous condition existing, inspector shall make immediate 
examination, and if he finds violation of act shall order a change. Names of men 
shall remain secret unless released by them. 

SECTION 16. ACCIDENTS. 

Notice of any serious accident shall be at once telephoned or telegraphed to uispector 
by company official. Inspector shall make immediate investigation and re]X)rt thereon 



SYNOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 85 

withiii 20 days. If inspector or deputy can not proceed to mine, the person in charge 
of operations shall obtaia sworn statements of witnesses and forward same to inspector. 

SECTION 17. LOSS OF LIFE. 

Fatal accident shall be reported as in section 16. Inspector or deputy shall endeavor 
to be present at coroner's inquest and shall have right to examine witaesses. Coroner 
may adjourn inquest certain number of days to await mspector. If iaspector be not 
present and coroner discovers evidence showing culpability of mine operator, he shall 
notify inspector, who shall make immediate investigation. Coroner shall file with 
inspector a copy of evidence and verdict of jury. 

SECTION 18. INSPECTOR TO FORWARD PAPERS TO PROSECUTING 
OFFICER IN CERTAIN CASES. 

If inspector believes serious or fatal accident to have been caused by violation of 
act by company or employee, he shall forward papers applying thereto, with his 
ptatement showing manner of violation, to county prosecutor, who shall take steps for 
criminal prosecution, if he deems facts to make prima facie cause of action. 

SECTION 19. STATISTICAL REPORTS OF MINE INSPECTOR. 

Inspector shall make annual report to State government of the work of inspection, 
noting number of employees, number of accidents and nature, number of inspections, 
( implaints made, inquests attended, mines ordered vacated, violations found, etc. 
Copies of report shall be printed and circulated as public document. 

SECTION 20. REMOVAL OF INSPECTORS. 

On receipt of petition signed by 100 miners or 10 operators or 3 operators employing 
over 100 men iinderground, setting forth neglect, incompetence, malfeasance, or 
unlawful act on part of deputy or inspector, county court shall summon accused 
official and make examination. If charges are proved, notice shall be sent to inspector 
1 r governor and official shall be removed . Costs shall be borne by inspector or deputy 
if removed, otherwise by complainants. 

SECTION 21. SUPERINTENDENT TO BE APPOINTED. 

j\line operator shall appoint superintendent, who shall be responsible for inspection 
of mine and for remedying all defects; the superintendent shall appoint man to have 
I barge of powder magazines, and shall make other appointments as may be necessary. 

SECTION 22. MINE FOREMAN TO BE APPOINTED. 

Superintendent shall appoint foreman to have charge of underground workings, 
who shall be at least 21 years old, with at least two years' practical experience under- 
L'round in metal mines, able to read and write English. Appointment must be made 
ia writing, notice thereof posted at mine and sent to inspector. Failure to maintain 
i'nreman is misdemeanor. Foreman shall see that safety regulations are carried out, 
'oport and remedy violations of act, warn employees of danger, prohibit work in 
unsafe places except as absolutely necessary, and check number and identity of men 
i:oing underground and coming off on every shift. 

SECTION 23. CARE OF INJURED. 

Every mine shall maintain stretcher, woolen blanket, and waterproof blanket; 
mines with more than 100 men shall maintain two of each. Every mine shall keep 



86 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

on hand suitable quantity of first-aid materials, following list of the Auierican Red 
Cross industrial first-aid box. Where 100 men are employed, a first-aid tori)s shall 
be organized and receive instruction at least once in three months. 

SECTION 24. MINE MAPS. 

Mine must maijitaiu map of all underground workings and bring it up to date every 
six months. It shall be open at all times to examination by deputy or in^ipector, aixl 
if mine is closed down map or copy must be sent to inspector. 

SECTION 25. FAILURE TO MAKE MAP — REMEDY. 

If mine operator fails to make map after notification by inspector, latter cnu ha^■e 
map made at expense of his office and recover cost from operator. 

SECTION 26. INFLAMMABLE MATERIAL. 

Oils or other dangerously inflammable material shall not be stored within 100 feet 
of other building or of mine opening or within 300 feet of powder magazine; but vola- 
tile oils and fuel oils may be stored in vented, buried tanks within 50 feet of buildings 
or of mine openings and within 300 feet of magazine; and lubricating oils may be 
stored 30 feet from building or mine opening and 300 feet from magazine. Gra\'ity 
flow to point of coml)ustion not permitted unless accessible and rapid cut-off valve be 
installed. Not more than 24 hours' supply shall be taken at any one time from storage 
points. Possibility of flow by leakage within distances specifi.ed must be prevented. 
Not more than 24 hours' supply of illuminating oil to be stored underground. Not 
more than 6 gallons of any one kind of lubricating oil to be stored on any one level. 
No gasoline to be stored underground except that in tank connected to apparatus. 
No gasoline receptacle to be filled underground. Combustibles not to be stored 
within 50 feet of shaft station. Waste timber to be removed from mine unless buried 
in gob. Boxes, chips, paper, and other rubbish to be removed from mine every 24 
hours. Inflammalile structures, except wooden headframes, prohibited within 75 
feet of shaft or hoist house. Inflammable material in building over mine opening to 
be removed and not stored within 30 feet of exterior wall. Waste used around under- 
ground machinery to be deposited in metal receptacles. Calcium carbide to be 
stored only on the surface and in dry, waterproof, ventilated buildings, in original 
metal packages not exceeding 100 pounds each; only one package in storage place to 
remain unsealed at one time, except for 1 pound or less in one other package. 

SECTION 27. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

Term "magazine" defined. Not more than 48 hours' supply of explosives to be 
stored underground. Must not be kept underground where accidental discharge 
would cut off miners' escape; must be kept in stout boxes away from track, electric 
conductors or manways; scattering of particles prohibited. Black powder and high 
explosives not to be stored in same box. Not more than 75 pounds of explosive to be 
kept on any one level outside of magazine; such magazine shall be fireproof, kept 
locked, and in charge of one man. Explosives except detonators shall be stored on 
surface in magazine 300 feet from boiler house, engine house, habitation, mine open- 
ing, railway, or highway, except that inspector may grant exemption where situation 
makes this impossible. Magazine shall be waterproof, fireproof, bullet-proof, with 
protecting mounds of earth between it and buildings, etc.; character of floora speci- 
fied; surrounding ground to be kept clean of inflammable material; electric wires 
inside to be in conduit and kept 10 feet from explosives; mat<>hes prohibited ; screened 
ventilators prescribed; removal of explosives and washing of magazine prescribed 



SYNOPSIS OF PKOPOSED LAW. 87 

before alterations, which shall be conducted only with wood or soft-metal tools, all 
old material being burned and never nailed or screwed into. Detonators to be stored 
on surface in suitable magazine free from molestation; 48 hours' supply may be taken 
underf!:round; not to be stored within 100 feet of other explosives underground or 300 
feet above ground ; not to be taken into magazine containing other explosive or trans- 
ported therewith except as primer; all primers to be used within 10 hours; fuses to 
be capped only with crimpers at benches 50 feet from any storage place; not more 
than 1,000 detonators to be kept on any one level. Fuse not to be stored underground 
more than 72 hours. Oldest explosive shall be taken from magazine first; packages 
of explosives shall be opened only at safe distance from magazine and without metallic 
instruments. 

SECTION 28. MARKING OF EXPLOSIVES, DETONATORS, AND FUSES. 

Use of explosives, detonators, and fuse prohibited, unless every package be marked 
with name and place of manufacturer and date of manufacture and strength of 
contents. 

SECTION 29. BLASTING. 

Shot firers made responsible for blasting. Metal tamping rods and detonators of less 
strength than No. 6 prohibited. Approaches to blasting points to be protected by men 
or warning signs. Number of shots to be counted where possible and report made of 
possible misfires; in case of suspected misfire, no one shall return to blasting point 
for 30 minutes. Misfire shall be shot over when possible; if tight stemming be used, 
new hole shall be drilled at safe angle and exploded. After electric blast, no man 
shall return to work until shot firer disconnects blasting cable and examines working 
place; loose wires in muck to be reported and traced to source before work is con- 
tinued. Electric firing from grounded circuit prohibited; blasting wires must not 
come into contact with other conductors; portable devices for electric firing to be in 
charge of shot firer; all connections for electric blast to be made last and by shot firer. 
Firing batteries to make all contacts in case, except binding post, which must be 
insulated at all points except point of contact; battery must have detachable plug or 
safety button for making contact, plug to remain in custody of shot firer. light or 
power circuits not to be used for blasting unless connections are made in locked room 
in charge of shot firer. 

SECTION 30. HOISTING ENGINEER. 

.Superintendent shall appoint hoisting engineers, who shall be familiar with the 
operation of hoisting engines and shall be over 21 years old if required to handle men, 
otherwise over 18. No one else shall operate a hoisting engine except in case of emer- 
gency and excepting apprentices. 

SECTION 31. HOISTING. 

Maximum rates of speeds to be used in hoisting men shall be e.«tablished and posted, 
proportional to the depth of the shaft. Maximum number of men to be allowed to ride 
on shaft conveyance shall be determined and posted. Appointee of superintendent 
Bhall see that this number is not exceeded in hoisting or lowering. If mine has more 
than one level and employs more than 99 men underground, shaft conveyance shall be 
in charge of conductor who shall give all signals. If more than 99 men are employed 
underground there must be an extra man on platform with hoisting engineer when 
handling men at change of shift. Buckets with men thereon shall not be hoisted at 
more than 200 feet per minute when bucket is within 100 feet of the shaft collar or at 
more than 500 feet per minute anywhere. 



88 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTION 32. SAFEGUARDS AGAINST OVERWINDING. 

Headframe shall be stronger than hoisting rope; shall be high enough to allow instal- 
lation of safety chairs and Humble hook or equally good device for releasing rope in! 
case of overwind. Such de\dces shall be installed, if mine employs more than 100 men] 
underground; safety chairs shall be put in at distance below the releasing device 3J 
feet more than height of cage or other conveyance to its cle^ds, and shall be strongj 
enough to stop the conveyance. If mine employs more than 100 men underground! 
de^dce must be put in shaft to show engineer when conveyance passes point 100 feet| 
below collar, this device being independent of the usual indicator; but the rop€ 
release and warning signal may be omitted when an automatic stopping device k 
installed and kept in good order. 

SECTION 33. DUTIES OF HOISTING ENGINEER. 

Hoisting engineer shall keep watch over all machinery in his charge; shall not 
delegate his duties to anyone except apprentices or his relief; shall familiarize himself 
with and use the signal code herein provided; shall not run engine without brakes, 
indicators, and distance marks; shall allow nobody in engine room except those with 
business there or visitors authorized by the superinteijdent; shall not talk with 
anyone while engine is mo\T.ng or signaling is going on; shall be especially cautious 
when handling men; shall not exceed posted hoisting speeds; shall inspect all appa- 
ratus under his charge and report defects; shall, after any stoppage exceeding one 
hour, run the shaft conveyance through the shaft at least once before handling men; 
shall do no hoisting in any compartment while repairs are going on there except to 
aid in making such repairs; shall land shaft conveyance at either top or bottom before 
turning over the engine to his relief; shall answer preliminary blasting signal by 
raising and dropping shaft conveyance; shall familiarize himself with and carry out 
requirements of rules 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, and 19 of section 49 of this act. 

SECTION 34. HOISTING ROPES. 

Metal-wire ropes required for hoisting other than by human or animal power. Safety 
factor of six required for new ropes, based on manufacturers' tables and maximum 
dead hoisting load. Safety factor must never fall below 4.5. Ropes of standard 
construction shall be discarded when there are six broken wires in one rope-lay, when 
Avires on crown are worn to 65 per cent of their original diameter, when there are 
more than three broken wires reduced by wear more than 30 per cent in cross section, 
when marked corrosion appears. Record of every rope must be kept, showing kind 
of rope, how, when, and where used, etc. After three years in service, even if idle, 
rope may not be used unless tested for ultimate strength. New fastening of rope to 
shaft vehicle must be made at fixed intervals. New rope and new fastening must be 
tested by trips before used for men. Ropes must be superficially inspected every 
day and, whenever a new fastening is made, the piece cut off must be examined with 
care. Rope must be securely fastened to drum or reel with one lap always left thereon. 
Either socket or thimble required for fastening to shaft conveyance. Rope must be 
protected with dressing. Shafts over 3,000 feet deep and shafts in which no com- 
partment is used for handling men exempt from all the reciuirements of this section. 
Depth of inclined shaft .shall be its vertical component. 

SECTION 35. CAGES FOR HOISTING MEN. 

Cage must be jirovided for vertical shafts over 300 feet deep except when sinking. 
Such cage shall have bonnet of two removable iron plates, sides of sheetmetal or netting, 
gates or bars, handhold and safety catches. 



SYNOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 89 

SECTION 36. BOILER INSPECTION. COMPRESSED-AIR TANKS. 

Boilers must be inspected every six months or oftener, and report thereof certified 
to inspector. Boilers shall have safety valves and steam and water gages, in accessible 
position, which shall be tested at least every six months and condition reported. 
Every receptacle storing compressed air above 40 pounds pressure with capacity over 
6 cubic feet must be 50 per cent stronger than necessary to resist pressure permitted 
I)y safety valve; must be inspected like boiler; must be blown out every 24 hours; 
must not get hotter than 250° F. 

SECTION 37. GUARD RAILS. 

All machinery shall have its moving parts protected by coverings or rails; all stairs 
trestles, dangerous walks, or platforms shall be provided with hand rails; but such 
protecting deAices may be removed for repairs. 

SECTION 38. WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN MINES — EMPLOYMENT 

PROHIBITED. 

No woman, no girl, and no boy under 16 may work underground, but such may 
work in office or buildings; no boy may be employed without having presented 
affida\dt that he ia over 16. 

SECTION 39. TWO OPENINGS TO SURFACE. 

Every mine must have two openings to surface between which there must be a 
50-foot space free of combustible material; there are exempt, however, (a) mines 
being connected to comply with proA'i.-ions of this section, (6) prospecting and develop- 
ment properties, except that such if opened by timbered shaft shall not permit more 
than 50 men to work underground at once without providing shaft with sprinkling 
system, (c) mines in which one opening has been blocked but is being opened with 
diligence (subject to approval of inspector), (d) shaft mines less than 100 feet deep 
and extending less than 500 feet from shaft in any direction, (e) adit mines with open- 
ing less than 1,000 feet long, inclined shafts at flatter angle than 20° being considered 
adits. 

SECTION 40. OPENINGS THROUGH OTHER MINES. 

When two neighboring mines have established a communicating outlet, neither may 
close same Avithout consent of the other and of the inspector; each shall inspect outlet 
every seven days and keep it clear of obstruction; if one operator does not keep his 
part of outlet in repair, the other shall have access thereto to repair same; each operator 
shall pay fair share toward upkeep of established outlet; if one desires to cease opera- 
tions, other shall bear all subsequent expense; if one property stispend operations so 
as to render the other liable to danger from flood, the latter may close outlet. 

SECTION 41. PROVISIONS AFFECTING MINES HAVING ONLY ONE 

OUTLET. 

A shaft mine with only one opening shall have shaft divided in two compartments, 
one of which shall bo a ladderway and free of shaft conveyances. If shaft is covered 
with nonfireproof building, manway must be bulkheaded at least 25 feet below collar 
and passageway driven to surface so as to come out at least 30 feet beyond Avail of 
building, such passageway to have ladderway if necessary. Mine opened by adit shall 
have similar side outlet. 



90 liULES AXD KEGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 

SECTION 42. PROTECTION OF OUTLETS AGAINST FIRE. 

No mine oi^ening shall be covered with a combustible structure excc])t a headframe 
or a door. If an adit is covered by a building of any kind, it must be equipped with a 
door near the mouth which can be closed by a pull wire or cable from outside. In 
timbered mine with more than 100 men, every working from shaft used as manway 
must be equipped with metal or metal-covered door not more than 75 feet from shaft, 
ca}>able of being made air-tight, for which pur])ose clay or earth must be at hand. 
Door must swing toward shaft and must be capable of being pushed open by man from 
inside. 

SECTION 43. LADDERS AND LADDER WAYS, 

Every mine must have have at least one ladderway from lowest workings to surface. 
All manways steeper than 35° must be provided with ladderways or stairways. All 
outlets must be marked with signboards where more than one course is possible and by 
distinctively colored electric lights when a circuit is available. 

SECTION 44. VENTILATION. 

Adequate ventilation for men and animals must be sup])lied to every working place 
Undergroimd. 

SECTION 45. SANITATION, DRY CLOSETS, DRINKING WATER, CHANGE 
I HOUSES, ETC. 

■ Dry closets, -w ater-closets, or closet cars must be provided on every level in ratio of 
,at least one for every 25 men; effectual cleansing and removal of contents at least once 
a day must be proinded for; disinfectant or deodorizer must be provided for dry closet; 
only such closets shall be used by men underground; but men may go to surface, if 
desired. Animal barns imdergroimd must be cleaned every day. Good and sufficient 
drinking water must be provided on every level, protected from dust and against 
jjromiscuous drinking from same vessel. If more than 50 men are employed under- 
ground, there must be a well lighted and heated change house accessible at all hoiu's. 
Damage to, misuse of, or faihue to use any sanitary appliance is forbidden. 

SECTION 46. ROOF INSPECTION. 

AMiere mine is worked with chambers supported only by walls or i)illars, competent 
man must be delegated to examine and-clean roof; miner shall care for roof of his o\\'n 
working place; sides and roof of all traveling ways must be inspected and kept safe. 

\ SECTION 47. " SAFETY PILLARS. 

No stopiug shall be done within 20 feet of shaft used for hoisting until it is aban- 
doned and inspector notified . Along boxmdary line a 10-foot pillar nmst be left, except 
by consent of owners on each side and of inspector, but no interference with extra-lateral 
rights is allowed. 

SECTION 48. INTOXICATING LIQUORS PROHIBITED IN MINES. 

No intoxicated ])erson shall be allowed in mine or mine buildings, and no intoxi- 
cating liquors except for medicinal purposes. 

SECTION 49, GENERAL RULES. 

The following general ndes shall be observed in every mine: 

1. Operator and sui)erintendent shall use every precaution to insure safety 6i 
workmen. 

2. Assistant foremen may be a])i)ointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 91 

3. Superintendent shall not interfere ^\-ith the carrying out of the foreman's duties. 

4. Foreman shall see that dangerous places are fenced off and signs hung thereon. • 

5. Candles must not be left burning when men leave mine. 

6. In timbered stations candles may be burned only in sconces. 

7. ^^'here more than 50 men are employed underground at least two fire- fighting 
helmets must be kept on hand. If these are self-contained, they shall not be used by 
xmtrained men. 

8. A eager to be employed when hoisting by cage from two or more levels; he shall 
load and unload cage, give all signals, and he or conductor shall see that gates or bars 
of cages are pro])erly closed. 

9. No one shall ride on shaft conveyance with tools, timber, powder, or other mate- 
rial except to help handle them. 

10. ^^^len ends of material project above top of shaft conveyance they must bo 
secTirely fastened or put in receptacle. 

11. Shaft conveyance must be stopped 15 feet above shaft bottom where men are 
working and lowered therefrom only on their signal. 

12. Men sinking must be protected by covering. 

13. Whims must be equipped with suitable device to prevent running back of 
bucket. 

14. All vertical shafts over 300 feet must be ecjuipped with guides when hoisting is 
done with bucket, and a crosshead provided with its height at least t wo- thirds its widtli. 

15. Every shaft over 50 feet deep shall have jjull-cord signaling system supple- 
mented with speaking tube, telephone, or electric system. 

IG. Signal system must be kept in good order and electric signal or telephone wires 
out of contact with other conductors. 

17. Interference with signaling, gi\'ing of wrong signal, or riding on conveyance 
without gi\'ing man signal is forbidden. 

18. The signal code shall contain the signals: One bell to hoist; one to stoi>; two to 
lower; three, men on; four, about to blast; nine bells, general alarm. 

19. Easily distinguishable and noninterfering special signals may also be used. 

20. Legible code of signals with letters at least one-half inch high, on board or metal 
plate at least 18 by 18 inches shall be posted in engine room, at collar, and on each level. 

21. Timbers in manways shall be cleaned of loose rock at least every 24 hours and 
manways shall be kept clear of obstructions. 

22. All heavily timbered stopes shall be insjiected for fire after every sliift ; fire 
map showing pipe line, valves, hydrants, etc., shall be maintained and brought up 
lo date every six months. 

23. Every working place shall be kept timbered as necessary to prevent injury 
from falling material. 

24. Sufficient timber shall be supplied by operator, "timber" being taken here 
and elsewhere to include also steel and concrete. 

25. If timber can not be had, foreman shall have miners vacate place where it is 
needed. 

26. Shafts out of use or used only as aii-ways shall be securely covered or fenced 
and maintained so; mill and glory holes and cavernous stopes opening to surface shall 
be securely fenced if within 300 feet of thoroughfare; all other surface excavations 
over 10 feet deep shall be securely fenced where the sides slope more than 40° from 
the horizontal. 

27. Fences must not be willfully removed, injured, or destroyed. 

28. Stationary lights must be maintained at shaft stations and stations containing 
hoisting or haulage machinery during working hours, and on surface at night where 
work is going on and at uncovered shafts. 

29. All macliinery must be so lighted that moving parts are visible to ijcrsona 
working near by. 



92 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

30. Refuge places must be provided along all mechanical haulage ways, except 
shafts, giving 2^ feet clearance over widest part of train and marked by lights when 
electric circuit is available. 

31. Such refuges must not be obstructed. 

32. Workings must be clear of water before raise can apjiroach Avitliin 10 feet. 

33. When horizontal working approaches working suspected to contain water, bore- 
holes must be kept 20 feet in advance and on sides if necessary; such working must 
not be more than 6 feet wide; if other precautions be necessary, they shall be taken. 

34. When inspector judges that there is danger of outburst of water,' he shall order 
constructed additionjil workings to facilitate escape of employees. 

35. Ladder rungs shall not be over 12 inches apart and this distance shall not vary 
over ^ inch in any one ladderway. 

36. Rungs shall not be less than 4 inches from wall. 

37. Ladderways steeper than 45° and extending more than 100 feet measured ver- 
tically must not have ladders steeper than 80°, and must have sollars every 20 feet 
measured vertically. 

38. Sollars shall be closely covered, except hole to permit passage of man. 

39. Tops of ladders shall extend 3 feet above landings, or handrails shall be fixed. 

40. Vertical ladders permitted in vertical workings of less than 100 feet, but must 
have sollars every 20 feet. 

41. Ladders inclining backward may not be installed. 

42. Ladders must be provided to very bottom of all shafts in process of sinking. 

43. Enforcement of rules 35 to 42 made inciimbent on superintendent. 

44. Sumps must be securely covered. 

45. In square-set stopes floors must be securely lagged and openings fenced off. 

46. Winzes directly in floor of stope or drift must be covered, or railed, or crossed 
with gangway railed and with railed approaches. 

47. Stope opening in floor of drift must be railed off or covered. 

48. Part of drift where material is being dropped from above must be railed off 
during such process. 

49. Shafts must have rails or gates at stations. 

50. Shaft collar must be protected by tight fence and gates. 

51. When hoisting with bucket from more than 100 feet, shaft doors must be pro- 
vided and kept closed while bucket is being dumped. 

52. Must be passageway around shaft at every level. Crossing shaft is forbidden 
except to make repairs; notice must be given to hoisting engineer of such repairs. 

53. Safety catches must be kept in good order and tested every month by releasing 
cage suddenly. 

54. Explosives containing nitroglycerin must be thawed in separate and special 
place. 

55. Thawing permitted by steam, hot water, manure, or electricity; with steam or 
hot water, primary source of heat must not be nearer than 10 feet to explosive and 
similarly with electricity. 

56. Thawing by placing near fire or steam boiler proliibited. 

57. Thawing by direct contact with steam prohibited. 

58. Distribution of frozen explosive prohibited, except for thawing. 

59. Explosives not to be carried on electric locomotive or in car next to one, or 
on gasoline locomotive or in car hauled by one. 

60. Explosives not to be left near live electric wires. 

61. Explosives not to be taken from mine without written consent of superintendent. 

62. Fuse must burn between 3 feet per 80 seconds and 3 feet per 130 seconds, and 
every box must be tested. 

63. Notice of rate of burning must be posted at entrance (o every mine. 

64. Personal accidents must be reported to superintendent and recorded. 



SYNOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 93 

65. Damage to anything underground and dangerous conditions must be reported 
l)y person first observing. 

66. Wages may not be paid where liquor is sold. 

67. Visitors not allowed underground unless accompanied by company officer or 
employee, excepting students, examining engineers, and inspectors. 

68. Where more than 25 men are employed, wash room must be provided for em- 
ployees and kept open to them at all times. 

69. When engaged, every employee shall have attention called to rules of this act. 

SECTION 50. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION. 

Definitions of "potential," "difference of potential," "grounding," "under- 
ground station," "carrjdng capacity." Low voltage is that under 300; medium, be- 
tween 300 and 650; and high voltage, above 650. Gives the following rules for elec- 
nical practice in mines: 

1. Frames and bedplates of underground machines (except low-voltage portable 
motors), metallic covering of fixed cables, and the neutral \vire of tlu'ee-wire con- 
tinuous-current system must be grounded, 

2. No higher voltage than medium to be used underground unless entire circuit be 
stationary. 

3. All circuits leaving underground switchboard or surface switchboard and leading 
underground, if insulated from earth, must be equipped with earth detectors; daily 
inspection for grounding must be made. 

4. Switchboards shall be of incombustible, nonabsorbent, insulating material, 
mounted on iron frame in dry place. Insulated conductors thereon must have flame- 
proof insulation. 

5. All high-voltage apparatus to be marked with word "Danger." 

6. Insulated gloves, mats, or shoes shall be provided for working on live apparatus. 

7. At least 2 cubic feet of sand to be kept in buckets at each underground station 
kir extinguishing fires. 

8. Auxiliary lights to be kept in underground stations where failm'e of electric 
lighting circuit would cause danger. 

9. Electrical underground map to be made, showing apparatus, conductors, lights, 
switches, and horsepower of apparatus; shall be brought up to date every three months. 
In case of failure to make map, inspector shall proceed as in case of mine maps. 

10. Report shall be made to foreman or superintendent of unjury to electrical appa- 
ratus or dangerous conditions. 

11. Notice of original electrical installation must be sent to inspector. 

12. Auxiliary instruments and apparatus for underground motor generators, for 
rotary converters, for high-voltage motors, for transformers, and for low and medium 
voltage motors over 50 horsepower shall be mounted as prescribed in Rule 4; for low 
and medium voltage motors of 50 h(jrsepower and under, they may be mounted sepa- 
lately on insulating material equivalent to slate. 

13. Passageways at least 3 feet wide shall be maintained in front of underground 
switchboards; and behind them, when there are connections there; for high- voltage 
boards, width shall be 4 feet. 

14. Space back of switchboards shall be floored, accessible from both ends, locked 
in case of high-voltage boards, but capable of being opened from inside without key. 
Flooring back of high-voltage boards must be noncombustible, except for rubber mat. 

15. No conductor shall cross passageway back of switchboard between floor and 
]ioint 7 feet above. 

16. No live metal work to be ^^laced on front of high- voltage board within 7 feet of 
floor or on medium-voltage board unless insulating mat or floor be provided. 

17. Exposed terminals on underground machines to 1>e properly insulated or covered 
with groimded metal. 

18. Transformer rooms to be of lirepro(jf constructi(jn. 



94 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

19. Circuits to or from transformers to be protected with sv.-itch or automatic circuit 
breaker on -eacli pole or with fuse instead of circuit breaker on lighting circuits or 
power circuits under 25 kilowatts. 

20. High-voltage underground wires to be in form of insuhited, lead-coverevi cables, 
with lead or armor electrically continuous and grounded. 

21. Underground circuits, unless covered with groimdod metal, shall be sup])i>rted 
on insulators; conductors from power supply to lamps to be always insulated. 

22. Circuits without metallic covering not to be supported by uninsulated fastenings. 

23. Surface transmission overhead lines to be supported on suitable insulators; if 
over 500 feet long to be equipped with lightning arresters at generating station and 
mine entrance; to be 14 feet above ground or place where men pass, except at mine 
entrance. m 

24. Surface-bm-ied cables to be protected. I 

25. Every insulated circiut leading underground, of more than 25 kilowatts medium- 
voltage or under, shall have switch above ground on each pole and circiut breaker, on 
one ])oleof direct-current circuit, and on two poles of polyphase alternating current; 
switch may be omitted on grounded side of ground-return direct-ciu-rent circuit; 
fuses may be used for circuit breakers for 25 kilowatts and less. 

26. Sxich circuit, if high-voltage, shall have oil-break with switch automatic over- 
load trip on each pole above ground. 

27. Branch circuit, except trolley, to have 100-ampere .switch on each pole where 
it branches. 

28. Nongrounded side of groimded circuits to be efhciently insulated from earth. 

29. "Where wires for lights are connected to trolley wire, ear of hanger shall haA 
drilled lug with set screw for attachment. Wires shall not be fastened aroimd sear 
or stjids of hangere. 

30. Lighting cucuits to have insidated covering; shall have metallic covering oi 
be hung on insulators; separate imcased wires shall be kept 3 inches apart except 
where entering fittings; metallic casings shall be grounded. 

.31. Trolley wires shall be as far to one side as possible, shall be hung on insula tedj 
hangers so spaced that sag between supports does not exceed 3 inches. 

32. Where men pass regularly below wires nearer rail than S^- feet, wires shall be pro- 
tected for 3 inches below lowest }X)int, and suitable lighting shall be provided. 

33. All wii'es, except telephone, shot firing, aud signal, to been same side of working 
as signal wires. 

34. Power circuit in hoisting shaft or manway to be well insula te<;l and supp(.)rled; 
shaft-cable grips must not cause abrasion, must be spaced so that no part of cable is 
stressed above one-fourth of its breaking strength; cables unboxed aud luiprotecteil 
must be spaced out from shaft side so as to yield to blow. 

35. Cables or feed wires in main roads must be 12 Inches from any ]>art of train or 
protected by proper guards. 

3G. Cables to be protected against damage during repair work or blasting. 

37. Entrance of cables to fittings to be protected against entraute of moi.><ture or 
leakage of insulating material therefrom. 

38. Unarmored cables or wires shall have entrances to metal frames, boxes. t)r motor 
casings, bushed with msulatiug material. 

39. Conductor joints shall be mechanically and electrically efficient, soldered where 
]X)ssible, otlienvise made with screw connections: joints in insulated wires to be 
reinsulated. 

40. Cable joints to be made in junction boxes or by soldering: insulation, armoring, 
and lead covering to be brought to original efliciency. 

41. Fuses aud circuit breakers shall interrupt current when predetermined value is 
exceeded; open-type fuses not to be used; circuit breakers to be adjusted to trip at 
point between 50 per cent and 150 i)cr cent of normal rated capacity, with iiulicaiors 
to show trii)ping jKjint. 



SYXOPSIS OF PROPOSED LAW. 95 

42. Circuit breakers on feeders shall be set to trip before current is in excess by 50 
>er cent. 

43. Switches to be installed where ckcuit has to be made or broken shall not be 
■apable of being closed by gravity. 

44. Fuses to be marked indicating maximum capacity; to be manipulated only by 
ompeteut person. 

45. Fuse capacity on feeder shall not exceed feeder capacity by more than 25 
er cent. 

411. Fuses, circuit breakers, and switches to have incombustible bases. 

47. Stationary underground motors and their starting resistances shall be ecjuii^ped 
.vith fuse on each pole or circuit-breaking device on one pole for direct current and two 
:)oles for alternating and with switches to cut off all power from motor, devices to be 
lu convenient position near motor; if over 100 horsepower motor must have suitable 
ueter to indicate load. 

48. Exterior of fixed incandescent lamp sockets to be entirely nonmetallic, 

40. Flexible lamp cord prohibited except for portable lights used to inspect or 
re])iiir machinery, when wire-cage protection for lamp and socket is required and 
handle for leading-in wires. 

50. Incandescent lamps must not touch combustible material and must have cir- 
culation of air about them. 

51. Where electric hoisting is employed there must be one hoist accessible from all 
parts of mine with separate feeder system or else some hoist actuated by means other 
than electricity. 

SECTION 51, CARE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PRACTICES. 

Section 51 contahis the following rules: 

1. Causing a person to receive an electric shock is forbidden. 

2. Inexjierienced i)erson not to work on live apparatus. 

3. No i^erson allowed around electrical apparatus without authorit>-. 

4. No person allowed to work on electrical apparatus without previous instruction 
rjnd due authorization. 

5. No repairing of electrical apparatus exce2:)t oiling or wijiing to be done when cur- 
rent is on. 

G. Underground electrical lamps to be put in only by competent ai^jwintee. 

7. Instructions for resuscitation of persons suffering from electric shock to be posted 
at mine entrance, generating station, substations, and underground stations. Elec- 
trical employees must be familiar with such instructions and capable of applying same. 

8. Damage to electrical apparatus and alterations without i^roper authority })ro- 
hilnted. 

9. Inspection of electrical apparatus to be made every 15 days by sj^ecial appointee 
and report made to superintendent every month. 

SECTION 52. PENALTIES. 

Prescribing penalties for violations of act, jurisdiction of court, manner of recovery, 
duties of prosecuting ofiicers, right of action for damages resulting from violation of act. 

SECTION 53. COPY OF ACT TO BE POSTED. 

Copy to be posted in ofllce of mine and in consj^icuous place near mine entrance. 

SECTION 54. REPEAL OF INCONSISTENT LAWS. 
Repeals conflicting laws. 

SECTION 55. WHEN ACT SHALL TAKE EFFECT. 

Prescribes date on which act becomes effective. 



CHAPTER V. 
DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 



By The Committee. 



At the end of Chapter II of this report the committee made the 
statement that the code here offered could not be considered the last 
word and that many problems had been fomid incapable of satis- 
factory solution. It is proposed in this chapter to take up the 
foremost of these problems and discuss them in some of their more 
important aspects for the double purpose of showing the difhculties 
encountered and of stimulating discussion and investigation in direc- 
tions where they seem greatly needed. 

STEAM-SHOVEL MINING. 

In framing this code it was intended to cover not only underground 
minmg but also operations in quarries and open pits, whether these 
last be mined with steam shovels or by other methods. The provi- 
sions of the code m their general scope do apply to such operations 
and many of the specific rules apply as well. The committee is aware, 
however, that there exist many hazards peculiar to steam-shovel 
mming against which no special provision has been made. The 
reason for this is to be found in the relatively recent development 
of this system of minmg. Practice has not become uniform, methods 
arc not yet standardized, and data are still too scanty to permit fair 
comparison of different methods of conducting operations, as regards 
safety. It seemed unwise to the committee to mclude in the code, 
rules and regulations of which the efficacy and practicability had not 
yet been sufficiently tried out and which might work hardships 
without resulting in any correspondmg gam in safety. The com- 
mittee felt the more ready to omit such specific regulations for the 
reason that steam-shovel mining seems to be safer than underground 
work. On this pomt definite statistics are lackuig, but study of 
reports of inspectors would indicate a far lower death rate for open-pit 
work than for underground. 

This is entirely what one would expect. The inherent danger 
would appear to be much less. The great hazard underground that 
results from lack of illumination is present in an open pit for less than 
half of the time. Another great hazard, that of material falfing from 
overhead, is replaced by that of a slidmg bank, which is much less 
grave. Entering and leaving an open pit involves some risk but less 
96 



DISCUSSION OF CEKTAIIS^ MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 97 

tlmii that of lowering and hoisting men in an underground mine. 
Blastmg, although involving some pecuhar risks in open-pit work, 
would seem on the whole much less likely to cause death or injury 
than when carried on in confined places underground. On the other 
hand, open-pit minmg m general means a higher proportion of un- 
skilled and consequently unintelligent labor than underground work. 
Based on tonnage extracted, open-pit minmg is, of course, still safer. 
The crews are relatively small and the tonnages produced per man are 
enormous. 

ACCIDENTS IX OPEN-PIT MINING, 

Accidents in open-pit minmg with steam shovels may be classified 
as follows: Slides of bank; blastmg accidents; accidents around the 
shovel or the drill; falls of persons; railroad accidents; miscellaneous 
accidents, including such accidents as acetylene or gasoline fires and 
explosions; accidents occurrmg in unloading cars; and shop accidents. 
Judging from available reports and from the rules which the mining 
companies set forth, blasting accidents and raikoad accidents arc the 
most frequent and the most to be guarded against. 

SLIDES OF BANK. 

Slides or falls of bank can not be considered comparable with falls of 
material underground as a source of injury. Except at night the 
bank is always clearly visible and threatenmg conditions are the more 
readily discerned. A slide of bank from its very nature gives some 
warning so that it may be possible to escape even after the slide starts. 
Nevertheless such slides have resulted disastrously, and since many 
operations in open-pit work are carried on by gangs of men which may 
be rather large, there is always tho possibility that a smgle slide will 
catch a number of laborers. In Chapter XI will be found accounts 
of two such shdes, each of which killed many men. 

The avoidance of this danger would seem in general to consist of 
kecpmg the banks as flat as is economical and of watching them care-' 
fully. When anyone, such as a driller, is occupied under a bank 
from which the least danger is anticipated and is unable to keep watch 
on it, he should have some assistant do this for him. 

It is also commonly prescribed by the companies operating steam- 
shovel properties that men shall work between the shovel and the bank 
as little as possible. The reason for this is obvious. In case of a 
rush of material, men between the bank and the shovel are liable to be 
crushed against the shovel side, whereas for those on the outside, 
the shovel acts as a bulwark. For night work as brilliant illumination 
as can be afforded ought to be employed. 

Slides of large quantities of material are not the only danger from 
open-pit banks. Small quantities and single rocks may fall from a 
1G559°— Bull. 75—15 8 



98 EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

high bank with sufficient force to kill or seriously injure anybody 
that they may strike. To meet this danger many companies employ 
men whose sole function is to trim the loose material off the banks of 
the pit. 

BLASTING. 

Open-pit blastmg differs from underground blastmg in many points. 
Black powder is used to a large extent and black powder, although 
not so powerful, is subject to explosion by fire and is more dangerous 
and treacherous on the whole than are the high explosives. Churn- 
drill holes or other holes are often chambered or sprung by a prc- 
limmary explosion at the bottom ; this leaves the rock hot and if the 
final charge is inserted before the hole is cooled, a premature explo- 
sion is likely to result. In the wintertime it is difficult to keep 
explosives thawed and warm until they are exploded. On the other 
hand, there is little danger that men may be trapped, as in shaft 
sinking; operations are usually visible ; there is less blasting done for 
the tonnage produced; warning can be given effectively by the shovel 
whistles ; there is no danger of asphyxiation ; electric firmg with all 
precautions is entirely feasible; and the fact that the individual 
holes are usually large and few in number makes it practicable to 
take precautions which would be uneconomical miderground. 

Based on a study of the rules of practice at typical copper and iron 
steam-shovel mines, the following precautions in regard to blastmg 
appear desirable : 

Thawers of approved design and adequate capacity should be pro- 
vided. The thawed powder should be conveyed to the hole to be 
blasted in insulated boxes during cold weather in order to prevent 
its freezing and should not be kept exposed even thus longer than 
necessary. There should be no greater accumulation of powder 
near the hole than is needed. The charge should be deposited at 
least 50 feet from the collar of the hole and brought to the hole only 
as fast as it is actually inserted. The undergroimd precaution of 
keeping detonators and dynamite separate mitil the last possible 
moment must be amplified to the keepmg of detonators, dynamite, 
and black powder all separate. " None of these should be transported 
or stored with another. Covers of tarpauUn or other material should 
be provided near the hole to protect against dampness and sparks 
the supply of explosive bemg loaded. Smce the holes are large and 
relatively few, all the blasting can be put in charge of careful and 
skilled men, trained to the work. No employees other than such 
blastmg gangs should be allowed near the hole being charged. Hob- 
nail shoes and heel and toe plates should be prohibited for the blastijig 
gang, inasmuch as they may strike fire. 

No hole after springing should be loaded with its final charge until 
the rock is unquestionably cool; deluging it with water insures its 
being cool. The charging cf black powder into the inclined or flat 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 99 

"goiDher holes" used in the Mesabi open pits should be conducted 
with great care and by some device which will prevent there being 
left a train of i:)Owder through the hole. The black-powder cans 
should be handled with extreme caution. Powder should be removed 
only through the bunghole, the cans should never be cut open for 
this purpose, and empty cans should not be rolled down the bank or 
kicked around. 

The whistles of the steam shovels should be used for signaling 
warnings when blasting is to be performed. When the blasting gang 
is to set off a blast, it should request permission by a certain signal 
on the nearest shovel, which should be answered by a control whistle 
at some prominent point, and the blast should not be exploded until 
this whistled permission is obtained. It is preferable that all the shovels 
have differently toned whistles so that all the employees in the pit 
will know at what point the blast is to be expected. Shelters in suffi- 
cient quantity should be provided at accessible points. These are con- 
veniently made of sheet steel in such a design that they can be trans- 
jjorted on cars and handled by cranes as on wreckers. 

Care should be exercised in breaking bowlders near the shovel 
either by block-hohng or by ' ' bulldozing.' ' Only one such blast should 
be set off at a time and in general block-holing is preferable to bull- 
dozing. A certain amount of blasting is often carried on by drillers, 
either company men or contractors, near or in the open pit. Then- 
handling of explosives should be controlled by the mine and made to 
conform to the company regulations. 

THE SHOVEL. 

The steam shovel is a small power plant. Many of the dangers 
besetting work around the shovel are those to be expected in a power 
plant. There are, in addition, risks of accident to the gang around 
the shovel, from falls of material out of the cars and the shovel dipper 
and from crushing by the dipper. Around the churn-driUing machines, 
also, there is danger of injury from the moving machinery and from 
miscellaneous causes. As for the shovel, the boiler should be of 
good quality, handled and inspected like any stationary boiler; mov- 
ing parts should be covered or railed off when practicable; good illu- 
mination should be provided; running boards, walks, stairs, and 
ladders should be furnished and kept railed, in good condition, and 
free of obstructions ; the machinery should be inspected regularly by 
the engineer. The shovel should not be moved without signaling; 
it should be blocked or chained when on a grade. The men working 
around the shovel should be kept away from in front of the machine 
as much as possible and out from under the dipper; they should 
v/atch out for chunks rolling from the cars being loaded. Nobody 
whose business does not call him there should be allowed around the 
shovel. 



100 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 



FALLS OP PERSON. 



Falls of iDcrsons are far loss likely to occur in an open pit than under- 
ground, and when they do occur they are less hkely to result seriously. 
They are, however, possible. In winter snow and ice may cause 
slipping and falls of greater or less seriousness. Where the exigencies 
of the operations require the men to' work on the sides of the banks, 
they are in danger of rather serious falls. The sides of the pit are 
often so steep that a fall from the edge might cause death. In general, 
precautions should be taken to make travel in and around the work- 
ings as safe as possible. Stairs should be placed where necessary and 
both they and any trails that may be in common use, should be kept 
clear of ice and snow if practicable. Where men must work on dan- 
gerous banks, they should be required to equip themselves with 
ropes. Dangerous points on the sides of the pit— preferably the 
whole perimeter — should be guarded by a substantial fence; and 
similarly dangerous points within the limits of the pit protected in 
the same way. 

Another hazard accompan3nng open-pit work is that of falls into 
auxihary or prehminary workings such as shafts and test pits. When 
possible, these should be blasted in after abandonment; otherwise 
they should be guarded as this code provides. 



LOCOMOTIVES AND ORE TRAINS. 



Steam-shovel mining resembles railroad operations in many 
respects. Many of the accidents that occur in steam-shovel pits are 
the same that occur on railroads and the precautions to be taken 
against them are the same that railroads observe. Precautions are 
necessary against coUisions, against runaway trains on the steep 
grades and sharp curves that usually exist, and against the danger of 
running do\vn men who may be walking on the track. To avoid this 
last danger trails and walks should be provided apart from the rail- 
road tracks and their use insisted upon. Dangerous methods of 
coupling and dangerous methods of boarding cars or engines should 
be forbidden. Nobody should be allowed to ride the ore trains 
except the train crews. Proper clearances over cars and on the sides 
should be provided and material should not be allowed to be piled so 
close to the track as to be dangerous. The men selected to work on 
the track should be intelhgent and alert and should be taught extraor- 
dinary caution in looking out for trains. Fi'ogs should be blocked 
and signs provided at crossings. There should be a strict adherence 
to safe practice in regard to the use of headhghts and rear lights on 
locomotives and trains, to the sounding of whistles, and the ringing of 
bells. While the raihoad hazard in open pits is perhaps greater than 
any other, it is impossible to specify here the many rules that should 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTEES OF PRACTICE. 101 

be observed. Raili'oad codes covering the matter in detail are avail- 
able. 

Illumination of steam shovels at night is frequently effected by 
gasoHne or by acetylene. Both of these are dangerous to handle. 
Precautions should be taken against fire and explosion. All filhng of 
cans and charging of generators should be done in the daytime and 
lights should not be permitted where there is danger of leakage. 
'Where gasohne torches are used they ought to be substantial. Safety 
cans are advisable for transporting gasoline. 

There is a certain amount of danger attached to dumping the strip- 
ping cars, and somewhat less to discharging the ore cars when the 
contents are frozen or sticky. Dangerous practices in performing 
these operations should be specificaUy prohibited. 

A steam-shovel mine is usually a large property; the locomotives 
and shovels and cars are subject to hard usage and a great deal of 
repair work is necessary. This entails somewhat extensive shops, 
together with a roundhouse. In such shops the usual machine-shop 
hazards are present and should be guarded against. 

CONCLUSION. 

This rather brief outline of the conditions appertaining to open-pit 
mining and the precautions which are considered advisable, must 
suffice for the time being instead of a specific code. A more detailed 
study of this rapidly developing system of mining and a comparison 
of data more extensively collected wiU undoubtedly in time make it 
feasible and desirable to frame a safety code appHcable to the West- 
ern copper mines, the Lake Superior iron mines, and various smaller 
mines of several metals in other parts of the comitry. 

PREVENTION OF UNDERGROUND FIRES. 

FIRE DOORS. 

The menace to human life from an underground fire lies m. the 
])roducts of combustion. The smoke and gases circulating through 
the mine workings may overtake the men in unexpected places and 
not infrequently trap them by cutting off an exit which would other- 
wise be an avenue of escape. Eddy currents enter blind workings 
and reversals of the direction of ventilation make upcast shafts of 
those previously downcast and vice versa, often with fatal results. 
It follows that if the direction of ventilation could be positively con- 
trolled and the fire isolated, the danger to human Ufe would be vastly 
decreased. Such control and such isolation could be had by a com- 
plete installation of fire doors. Fire doors are not at all hi common 
use underground, probably because the danger and the frequency 
of nime fires are not yet fully appreciated. The committee has 



102 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

prescribed the use of such doors under certahi conditions. The pro- 
vision would have been made more sweeping but for the fact thii 
httle information on the subject of fire doors m metal mmes is obtain- 
able owing to their infrequent use, and the committee is unwillhig to 
stipulate more elaborate and general mstallations on purely theoretic 
grounds. 

In a mme where the danger of fire is at all' serious, a generous 
equipment of fire doors is wise insurance. They offer many advan- 
tages. By shuttmg off ventilation to the manway used for the egress 
of the miners, they provide a safe exit in spite of the fire. By hiii- 
dermg the air current they decrease the draft to the fire and thn 
retard its burning. Finally they interpose obstacles to the spreadin. 
of the fire, as through timbered drifts. An ideal fire-door equipme;n 
would consist of fireproof doors, quite tight against the passage of 
smoke or air, arranged so as to close easily and stay closed, but 
capable of bemg opened by a man from either side. They should 
close automatically by the melting of a fuse when the temperature 
m the vicuiity rises above a certain pomt and they should be capable 
of closing by means of electricity or compressed air or by other 
mechanism from the surface or from a distance. They should be 
in sufficient number and so disposed that every entrance to the mine 
could be completely isolated from a supply of air or from the entrance 
of smoke, and the mine stopes and other workings should be divided 
into relatively small sections which could be similarly isolated. 

This outlme of a complete installation is here included chiefly for 
the suggestions contained. Even if the efficacy and the practicabihty 
of the devices and the scheme were proved, the vexatious question 
would arise of when to insist on the requirements. The fire hazard 
varies tremendously. It would be absurd to prescribe so elaborate 
an mstallation for all properties. In many cases, especially in the 
case of mines that have been worked for many years, the relations of 
the shafts, tunnels, stopes, and other workings become so complex 
that complete protection by the means of fire doors would be ahnost 
an impossibihty. Old workings that open to the surface, such as 
glory holes, are peculiarly baffling in this respect. The committee 
has therefore contented itself for the time being with requiring that 
in timbered mines, shafts used as man ways be protected with fire 
doors, so that a safe exit for the men shall be maintamed, and that 
the doors be capable of bemg made tight but need be capable of 
closing by hand only. Such an arrangement still contains elements 
of risk of course, since a fire may gam such headway that the doors 
are inaccessible through the smoke and are then utterly useless. 
In the High Ore-Modoc fire of the Anaconda company, described in 
Chapter XI, men were overcome just after closn\g a fire door in one 
of the levels. To those desirous of installing a more perfect protec- 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 103 

tion, the committee would suggest that the next step would be to 
provide the doors with some device to permit their bemg closed from 
a distance or to close them automatically with a rise m temperature. 
It is essential, however, that the doors be of such a pattern that they 
can be opened from either side and will not trap men behind them. 

This particular provision has been framed to cover shafts only. 
In the case of tunnels, the code requires that a door be provided 
which can be closed by pulling from the outside of the workings. 

The greatest necessity for the fire door arises m the case of two 
connecting mmes, especially where one or both may depend on the 
other for a secondary outlet. In fact it is possible for a mine with 
only one outlet actually to add to its hazard by connecting its work- 
ings to neighboring workings. This would be the case, for example, 
if the first mine contained little timbering and the second were heavily 
timbered, especially if the outlet of the second became a downcast. 
The advantage to the first mme of having two outlets might be more 
than oft'set by the risk of a fire starting in the second mine and 
pouring smoke and gases into the first. One mine by this arrange- 
ment not only adds the hazard of its neighbor to its own hazard, but 
is also helpless in the face of careless practices by this neighbor. For 
this reason it is particularly urged that fii'e doors alwaj^s be installed 
in every connection between neighboring mmes. 

SPRINKLERS. 

In considering the safeguardmg of mines against underground fires, 
the committee directed its attention to the possible introduction of 
the automatic sprinkUng system, which has been so highly successful 
in reducing the fire loss among industrial plants m the United States, 
especially in New England. After making some inquiries, the com- 
mittee felt that it might summarily dismiss the present consideration 
of automatic sprinklers, for the reason that nothing appears to be 
known about their apphcation underground. The committee's dis- 
missal of them does not by any means imply a condemnation of 
them, but means simply the nonexistence of data permitting the for- 
mulation of any opinion about them. The advantages that they may 
offer underground and the conditions of their application are weU 
worth experimental mvestigation. 

There is another type of water sprmklers, namely, the nonauto- 
matic or ''open" sprmklers. These were used as fire protection in 
mills long before the automatic spruiklers were mvented, and are still 
in use to a limited extent. These devices are known as "open 
sprinklers," and havhig no seal at the valve outlet they are not 
automatic m action, but depend upon the human element to render 
them effective by the operation of openuig a valve through which 
water is conveyed to the distributor; but even with this disadvantage, 



104 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

the open sprinkler has so often proved its value as a reliable fire stop, 
as to warrant its uitroduction as a means of protection against fires. 
This system finds apphcation especially in protecting structures from 
attack by flame originating in adjoinhig structures, and they render 
their protection by the dehvery of a volume of water agamst the 
outside walls, upon the cornice, and over the front of the wmdows of 
the building to be protected, thus formmg a water curtain as a fire- 
stop to the attack of flame from the burning exposure. The com- 
mittee finds that such open sprmklers are already used to some extent 
in mmmg practice, -especially for the protection of timbered shafts 
used as manways. 

The committee also finds that the actual use of such sprinkling 
systems in shafts is under tlie suspicion of causing reversals of a: 
ciuTent, with resulting loss of life. Although such reversal has no 
perhaps been actually proved, there is indeed the possibihty that such 
may happen and that there may be fatal results therefrom. An 
examination of some of the accounts of mine fires given in Chapter 
XI will inspke some ideas on this subject. The committee was of the 
opinion that too httle is known about the use of sprinklers as fire 
protection underground, to permit of the formulation of any strict 
rules respecting them, and is further of the opinion that the subject 
in question must be approached with a good deal of caution. How- 
ever, there was one case where the committee considered that the 
installation of sprinklers might be positively prescribed, this being 
the case of a mine opened by a single shaft without communication, 
wherein a reversal of air current would be impossible. The com- 
mittee was wishful to prescribe that every mine should have two 
outlets, but such is admittedly impossible in all cases. One of those 
cases is the very deep mine in its development stage. Some pressure 
was brought upon the committee to recommend two outlets even in 
that case, but without conceding that very radical proposal, the 
committee tried to meet it by prescribing that in such a case the shaft, 
if timbered, should be provided with a water-sprinkling system. 

SURFACE CAVES. 

One question of practice which the committee found entirely 
insoluble was that in regard to stoping near the surface. This is a 
mining operation which frequently involves a great deal of risk, yet 
one that is also frequently necessary. It is carried on under condi- 
tions so variable that any attempt to regulate it by provisions of 
general application would be sure to work luirdship to a quite unwar- 
ranted extent. It was thought best therefore to leave the question 
open, one to be settled bj^ those immediately concerned in any case 
where it might arise. 



I 



DISCUSSIOX OF CERTAIN- MATTEES OF PKACTICE. 105 

Stoping too near the surface manifests itself in the form of a surface 
cave or subsidence. Such a cave will usually involve more destruc- 
tion of property than loss of life. It is hence particularly a question 
of commercial expediency which probably may be left to the discre- 
tion of the operator without unduly jeopardizing the safety of the 
miners. The fact that under the operation of the compensation laws 
which are so rapidly increasing in number, loss of life, and injury to 
person among the mine employees is a fixed and unavoidable charge 
against operations, tends to make these commercial considerations 
coincide more closely with questions of personal safety and thus still 
further decrease the risk to the men. 

The judgment of the operator or his officers is not of course infalli- 
ble. In the desire to extract the last pound of valuable ore lie may 
take too gi*eat chances and destroy surface improvements worth more 
than the ore that would otherwise have been left in the ground. 
Instances of this are known. In Chapter XI there is given a short 
account of the cave that forced the abandonment of one of the Gold- 
field Consolidated mills. It can not be stated, without definite 
figures, that this was an ultimate loss to the company, but it is easily 
seen that it might be so. 

In this particular accident men were killed, but they were killed 
underground. The fact that the cave was near the surface probably 
had nothing to do with their death. Indeed, for the same quality of 
rock, it is easier to support workings near the surface where the load 
is lighter than at a depth of several thousand feet. So far as under- 
ground accidents follow from stoping too near the surface, they are 
provided against by this code. It is regulations against surface acci- 
dents only which have been left unspecified. It is presumable, 
without knowing the exact facts, that if this Goldfield stope cave had 
occurred somewhere on the lower levels of the mine, the miners would 
have been killed in the same manner. 

The subject of surface subsidence in which the property of others 
than the operating company is involved is one of the greatest moment 
but one beyond the scope of this rejDort. It is much to the fore now 
in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania. 

RELATIVE HAZARDS OF THE CAVING SYSTEM. 

One of tlie best and most economical systems of metal mining 
involves stoping very near the surface indeed. For in the caving 
system or in any of its variants, such as top shcing, surface subsidence 
is expected and provided for. In fact a relatively valueless surface 
overlaying the deposit to be mined is an essential to the adoption of 
the sj^stem. This brings up the question of the safety of the caving 
system in respect to underground operations as a whole. The safety 



106 BULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

or danger to the miners has not been usually considered in determin- 
ing whether or not to adopt this method. Questions of commercial 
expediency have been the determining factors. This must have been 
so necessarily; for reliable data on the relative safety of this and 
other stoping methods are not available. The only bit of evidence 
on the point known to the committee is the fact that the death rate 
on the iron ranges was formerly faiily high considering the fact tluit 
much of the work there is carried on in open pits by steam shoveling, 
which is considered rather safer than underground work; and the bulk 
of the underground ore from these districts is, of course, the result 
of some form of slicing or caving. But .the statistics from which 
death rates are computed have not been collected with sufficient care 
to make it at all safe to base conclusions on small differences in rates. 
Furthermore, many other factors might have been responsible for 
this rate, admitting that it is high, such as the character of the labor, 
the attitude of the oj)erators, etc. 

Extraordinary accidents are of course possible. Such was the 
Miami cave, wherein the air blast set up, and not the fallmg material 
itself, caused the fatalities that occurred. But no conclusions as to 
the relative safety of a method can be postulated on unusual and 
isolated occurrences of this nature. The only statement that can 
fau'ly be madeis that there is nothing to show that the caving system 
is either safer or more dangerous than other stopmg methods. 

If it IS attempted to analyze the question without reference to 
results in practice, it would appear a risky business at fu'st glance to 
carry on minmg by dehberately bringing about what it is usually 
attempted to avoid, namely, the caving of the back. The very fact 
that it is deliberate, however, robs it of most of its danger. The 
caving is directed and controlled with a good deal of certainty. 
The attention of everybody, furthermore, is directed to this point in 
the operations, the sliglitest sign of giving way is remarked and 
interpreted. Logically the result would be to decrease the danger of 
small falls of rock or ore, which are the most prolific som'ce of injury 
underground. Work under a great mass of constantly moving ground 
must, however, involve a good deal of risk under any conditions. 
So far as hoisting accidents, blasting accidents, and falls of person 
are concerned, there would seem to be nothing in the caving system 
either to increase or to decrease their frequency. One hazard there is 
whicli is certainly increased where the mining method involves the 
formation of a mat of timber, namely, the risk of fu-e. The timber 
mat in a mine worked for some time may attain a thickness of several 
hundred feet. A fh-e once fairly started in this mat would be most 
difficult to extinguish; a certain amount of rock and earth would be 
mixed with the timber but not enough to prevent the wood from 
burning. The situation might even be such that the fire could not 



DISCUSSIOX OF CEETAIX MATTEES OF PRACTICE. 107 

be extinguished even by flooding. This -increased fire risk, liowerer, 
'^oes not necessarily involve an increased risk to human life. Such a 
lire would usually be slo%y-burmng and not of the kind whereby men 
are trapped and suffocated, not so dangerous as a small fire in or near 
a shaft. The property loss would be its most serious result. 

MESTE VENTILATION. 

The difficulty of prescribing equitable regulations covering the 
subject of ventilation has been touched on in a footnote. Quantita- 
tive restrictions on temperature and humidity and on the percentages 
of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and the nitrogen oxides in the 
mine air should be varied to conform with the conditions in many 
different classes of mines. It is questionable whether any one State 
even could frame a single set of regulations to apply equitably to 
all the districts within its boundaries. Under some systems of 
mining it is much easier to keep the air of the stopes in good condition 
than under others, and there may be also profound differences in 
natural conditions. A possibly successful solution of the problem 
would be a division of the mines or districts into groups according to 
lie relative difficulties of providing ventilation. The requirements 
ior each group could then be made more or less strict as the conditions 
justified. 

A timbered mine is usually harder to ventilate than one which is 
untimbered, and the greater the size of the extraction openings, the 
simpler is their ventilation in general. Oxidizmg sulphide ores, 
though not perhaps introducing the objectionable gases into the 
mine atmosphere, operate to raise the temperature sometimes to an 
inibearable degree. Great depth, decaying timbers, proximity to 
areas of dying vidcanlsm, crushing of rocks, and mine fires have a 
similar effect. The products of blasting explosions, of illuminating 
combustion, and of underground fires, the exhalations of men and 
animals and the oxidation of timbei' — these not only vitiate the atmos- 
phere by the substitution of irresphable gases for oxygen but also 
raise the temperature. Marsh gas is not unknoMTi in metal mines 
and carbon dioxide is frequently found present m the rocks. The 
intrusion of the latter gas is often peculiarly troublesome, as in tho 
Cripple Creek district where it adds a new problem to metal mining. 
A consideration of these many variable factors will indicate the 
reasons of the committee for refusmg to include m the code strict 
quantitative regulations as to the air to be furnished per man and 
per animal, the temperatures permissible, the quantities of noxious 
gases to be aUo wed, etc. 

It has seemed equally inadvisable to prescribe any special means 
to be adopted for securmg suitable ventilation. In many properties 
natural ventilation suj)piemented with a little compressed air after 



108 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

blasting is entii-ely sufficient. In others, forced ventilation of some 
sort, in whole or in part, is necessary. Metal mines are coming more 
and more to an appreciation of the value of the fan. In one property 
where difficulty was encountered in getting enough fresh an* to the 
working places, the instaUation of a fan not only led to a saving on 
the use of " compressed aii- sufficient to pay for the installation in a 
short time, but also increased by about 50 per cent the efficiency of 
the miners in the stopes where the worst conditions had prevailed. 

As American -metal mmes get deeper, ventilation becomes more 
necessary and more difficult and attracts more attention. A good 
deal of study of the subject can be expected and changes in practice 
are probable. It may be that when operations have been readjusted 
on a new basis, additional regulation on the subject of ventilation wiU 
be desirable. 

USE OF GASOLINE UNDERGROUND. 

As has been stated in Chapter III, the committee is strongly 
opposed to the use of gasoline underground when it can possibly be 
avoided. Speaking broadly, gasolme is a more dangerous substance 
than most of the blasting explosives, and distillate, kerosene, and the 
other liquid fuels used in internal-combustion engines are less danger- 
ous only in being less volatile. Gasoline in particular introduces risk 
in a number of ways. If an explosion occurs, it not only is liable to 
injure those in the immediate vicinity, but may set fire to timber and 
may generate sufficient noxious gas to suffocate all or part of the 
men underground. An explosion may result from a collision or from 
the ignition of either liquid or vapor while the gasolme is being 
handled. Such ignition may cause a fu-e without an explosion, 
which, however, would be equally dangerous. The exhaust from an 
internal-combustion engine, furthermore, is itself an element of risk 
unless safely conducted outside the mine workmgs. Nevertheless, the 
gasoline engine, and especially the gasoline locomotive, seems to have 
a distinctive, if small, field of usefuhiess; and the committee feels 
that injustice might result if its use underground were entirely 
prohibited, although a recently enacted law in Nevada makes such 
a prohibition, except under certain close restrictions. 

In addition to the requirements of the code covcrmg the use of 
gasolme the committee would also urge that no intcrnal-combustioa 
engmes be used at aU in mines heavily timbered or where the venti- 
lation is poor. The danger of fire in the first case and the certainty 
of vitiating the air in the second case make these precautions advisable. 
The disposal of the exhaust is likely to be a more troublesome problem 
with the stationary engines sometimes used for hoisting and other 
purposes than with the locomotive; the latter distributes its products 
of combustion automatically as it moves around so that the danger 
of asphyxiation, at least, is diminished. If the exhaust of a stationary 



DISCUSSIOlSr OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 109 

aigine has to be piped any distance to a pomt where it will do no 
lamage, the back pressure is likely to reduce seriously the power of 
he engine. It is noteworthy that the manufacturers of gasoline 
ocomotives insist on adeouate ventilation where their machines are 
be installed. 

Another precaution that should be observed is that in regard to 
he use of naked lights where there is danger that gasoline vapor may 
ie present. It would be desirable to use only electric lights any- 
vhere around the engine. It is of great importance to keep the 
mgine, tanks, and connections in good shape, but there is always the 
possibility of a leak having developed since the last inspection. The 
)ortabie electric lamps are suitable for such work. 

Foreign regulations seem to permit the storage of gaso]ine under- 
^•ound and the fdhng of supply tanks from the storage tanks, but 
they hedge the operations about with many stringent rules. At least 
me mine in this country, one which is opened by a shaft, stores its 
supply underground in 50-gallon tanks. Plere fiUing of the engine 
tanks is carried on by electric light only. In the opinion of the 
L'ommittee, however, it is unnecessary ever to store or fiU under- 
i^round. The locomotive manufacturers do not advise it and provide 
practicable means to avoid it. As for stationary engines, these can 
also be fitted with the same type of detachable tanks. It would be 
safer, however, to store gasolme underground than to pipe the liquid 
down the shaft, as has been suggested. 

Around a stationary engine or on a gasoline locomotive, some lire- 
fighting apparatus should be provided, if possible. This may be dry 
sand in buckets or heavy mats of felt or similar stuff. 

HANDLING MEN WITH INCLINED SKIPS. 

A point of minor importance, perhaps, but one deserving some 
consideration, pertains to the use of skips for handling men on in- 
clined tracks. This practice is not uncommon in small mines, and 
its prohibition would work real hardship, but it is ahnost sure to be 
a source of danger; whenever possible man-cars should be provided 
and the handling of men restricted to them, including even incidental 
travel when the shaft arrangements permit. Wlien skips are used 
lor men, it is not uncommon to prohibit riding on the bail, and the 
committee considered the hiclusion of a provision to that effect in 
this code. The practice is clearly dangerous, but there are objec- 
tions to prohibiting it. The inside of a skip is usually wet and dirty. 
It wiU not hold many men, especially if the incline be flat. Conse- 
quently men often, if not usually, prefer to ride the bail and are also 
often forced to do so in order to get on at aU. A true regard for 
safety will eliminate the use of skips for men altogether. 

An illustration of the danger attendant on riding the bail is fur- 
nished by two accidents noted and commented on in the Mining and 



110 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

Scientific Press of October 22, 1910. In the spring of 1910 in th. 
Central Eureka mine at Sutter Creek, Cal., two men were swept fron 
the bail of a skip and killed. At the adjoining South Eureka mine ii 
October of the same year, while five men were being hoisted in a 60 
degree shaft, two on the drawbar and three in the skip, the two mei 
outside were swept off and fell to their death. Curiously enougli th( 
pariiUeUsm extends even to the causes of the accidents. In each in 
stance a loose strap rail was to blame. This brings up the quest Idi 
of the use of strap rails in inclined shafts. It appears that in thk 
district trouble was had with a swelling foot wall, and strap railj 
were used as a safety precaution. It was believed that they wouk 
conform more easily to the irregular and constantly changing con- 
figuration of the ground than would the heavier T rails. It is sup- 
posed that in the case of the two accidents the spike holes got so worr 
that the spikes no longer held the strap, which, loosened thus from its 
backing, was caught by the skip lip and wrenched further loose so as ' 
to fling the men from the baU. Under the conditions existing here i 
it may be possible that the strap rails were safer than T rails would 
have been, but the great ease with which they do come loose makes 
them in general far more dangerous. It would seem hardly neces- 
sary, however, to prohibit their use, as they are now almost an 
anachronism, and v.4iere found they wiU usually be in mines too small 
to come within the scope of the code here proposed. 

HOISTING HOPES. 

GEN^ERAL STATEMENT. 

No section of this proposed code was the subject of more discussion 
and none was found more difficult to frame than that governing the 
use of hoisting ropes. It was felt that the matter was one of great 
importance, inasmuch as in most mines the lives of many men for 
several hours in each day depend on the reliability of the ropes used 
to hoist the cages. This is well recognized by operatoi's and in gen- 
eral the greatest care is exercised in inspecting the ropes and main- 
taining them in good condition. This probabl}' results from the fact 
that the danger is obvious to even the most inexpert. It is further- 
more true that inspection of a rope is relativel}^ simple, that the pre- 
cautions against accident are easy to take and, particularly, that a 
good wire rope gives ample warning of being unsafe. 

Nevertheless, distressing accidents do occur from failure of ropes 
and practice in the methods of caring for, inspecting, and retiring 
hoisting ropes varies greatly. It was felt that standardization was 
highly desirable in regard to the methods of rope fastening, to the 
ratio between rope and sheave diameters, to safety factors and the 
method of determining them and to the basis on which a rope should 
be retired from service. It was found, however, that there was 



DISCUSSIOX OF CERTAIN MATTEES OF PEACTICE. Ill 

iiot obtainable, in this country at least, sufficient accurate data on 
which reguhitions as specific as desirable might be based. The com- 
mittee therefore contents itseK \vith the somewhat general provisions 
found in the code, -with the expectation that investigation along this 
Une will sometime make possible a revision in the direction of more 
specific regulation. 

In order to obtain technical information as complete as possible on '• 
tiiis question of hoisting ropes, the committee consulted with the 
leading rope manufacturers of the countr}^ and finall}^ arranged for a i 
conference at which representatives of the several manufacturers * 
met with the chairman of the committee and discussed the matter in 
detail. Some of the most perplexing points were then referred to a ' 
committee of the manufacturers for further consideration. The \ 
general discussion and the report of this committee have brought out | 
tacts that are of great interest and technical value aside from their | 
bearing directly on the question of safety. The results will be incor- I 
porated in this discussion. 

SAFETY FACTOR. 

,Jn considering first, the matter of safety factors, questions arise as 
to what safet}^ factor to require, what stresses to include in the divisor 
in determining such factor, and how to ascertain the di^ddend or 
ultimate strength of the rope. As regards ascertaining the ultimate 
strength of the rope, the committee is convinced that it is both safe 
and economical to rely on the tables furnished by manufacturers in 
then' catalogs or elsewhere. Since the strength of the material in the 
wire and the method of assembling the \\ires into the rope both have a 
bearing on the rope's strength, it is plain that there is much oppor- 
tunity for variation. Nevertheless the product turned out is remark- 
ably uniform and reliable. Each indi\adual rope is not tested; but 
tests are made on ropes of the several constructions and classes of 
material, and these are constantly checked. The tables in the cata- 
logs perhaps rather understate than overstate the strength of a rope, 
but the error is slight, is on the right side so far as safety is concerned, 
and is not of enough consequence to affect seriously the matter of 
costs. 

The total stress in a hoisting rope is made up of several factors. 
The most important of these is the dead load of the vehicle, its con- 
tents, and the rope itself. Added to this is the stress caused by starts 
ing and acceleration; this may be extremely high if the hoisting 
engineer is reckless, careless, or ignorant; the practice of starting 
^\ ith a slack rope, sometimes followed where the hoist is under- 
powered for its work, may put extraordinary tension on the rope. 
Then there is the bending stress when the rope takes the curve of the 
heave, drum, or reel or straightens out when leaving it. These three 

: esses are more or less calculable. Finally there are extraordinary 



112 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



stresses, such as those that occur when a shaft vehicle is pulled at 
full speed into a constriction of the shaft or when it is overwound. 
These of course may be of such magnitude that no rope could be 
expected to withstand them. It is also true that high-speed hoisting : 
is harder on a rope than low-speed and causes more rapid deteriora- 
tion, a consideration of importance- in determining safety factors. 

What stresses shall be considered in calculating the rope safety 
factor ? While those due to acceleration and bending are determina- 
ble, they are not easily so and it seemed to the committee that it 
was desirable to make the provisions of this code easy of analysis 
and enforcement, It was therefore decided to calculate the safety 
factor on the basis of dead load only, and make it proportionately 
greater. 

It is evident that with so many different elements affecting the 
service of a rope, no single safety factor could be selected v>hich 
would be effective and fair for all cases. It was the sense of the 
majority of the manufacturers' representatives that the service of 
ropes should be classified, taking account of the depth of the shaft, 
whether it be vertical or inclined, wet or dry, whether the hoisting 
be fast or slow, whether the water be ''acid" or not, etc., and that 
the safety factor and other requirements should be varied to suit 
these several classifications. Such a course would be theoretically 
correct, but would result in provisions too complicated for a code 
such as this. The code therefore imposes a minimum safety factor 
for all installations and another below which no rope shall fall and 
remain in service; very deep shafts it exempts altogether. 

However, the manufacturers' committee, of which mention has 
been made, went carefully into some phases of this matter and com- 
piled some tables which represent good practice and constitute excel- 
lent rules for mining operators to follow. In the first place, the 
safety factor is varied according to the depth of the shaft, one is 
specified for new ropes and another below which no rope shall bo 
allowed to fall. The factor is to be determined by dividing the 
manufacturers' figures for breaking strength by the dead load, just 
as prescribed in section 34. 



Tablk 1. — Iloisting-rope safety factors for various depths of shafts. 



]-eui;th of rope. 



Feci. 

500 or loss 

S'JO to 1 .(MK) 

1 .000 to 2,000 

2,0{X) to 3,0<K) 

3,000 and over 



Miniiniun 

saf(?(y 
factor for 
new rope. 



M ill i mum 
safety 
factor 

when rope 
must be 

discarded. 



6.4 
5.8 
5.0 
4.3 
3.6 



Perccnt- 
ai;e re- 
duction. 



20 
17 

14 
10 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 113 

The several factors given in Table 1 are based on an actual safety 
factor of four and are made greater for the shallower shafts because 
in them the acceleration stresses and a good many of the possible 
extraordinary stresses are normally greater. In deep shafts it is well 
recognized that the spring of the rope acts to eliminate the shock of 
starting and to decrease the stresses of acceleration. 

PERMISSIBLE HOISTING SPEED. 

Then for the several depths of shaft, or lengths of rope in the shaft, 
maximum permissible hoisting speeds are specified. These are given 
in Table 2. 

Table 2. — Permissible hoisting speeds ichen specified safety factors are used. 


Length of rope in shaft. 


Maximum, 
hoisting 
speed. 


Length of rope in shaft. 


Maximum 
hoisting 
speed. 


Feet. 
500 or less 


Ft. per min. 
1,200 
1,600 
2,000 
2,000 
2,250 


Feet. 
2,500 to 3,000 


Ft. per min. 
2 500 


500 to 1 ,000 


3,000 to 3,500 


2,750 


5,000tol,500 


3,500 to 4,000 


3 000 


1 ..'lOO to 2,000 


4,000 to 4,500 


3 250 


1 ,000 to 2,500 


4,500 to 5,000 


3,500 









PERMISSIBLE ACCELERATION OF HOISTING SPEED. 

Finally, a table of permissible accelerations is given for various 
hoisting speeds which are not to be exceeded with the safety factors 
specified. These are shown in Table 3. 

Table 3. — Permissible rates of acceleration for certain hoisting speeds and safety factors. 







Minimum i 






Minimum 






time of j 






time of 






acceleration 






acceleration 




Maximum 


in which 




Maximum 


in which 


Speed. 


accelera- 


to attain 


Speed. 


accelera- 


to attain 




tion. 


speed 
corre- 
sponding 
thereto. 




tion. 


speed 
corre- 
sponding 
thereto. 


Feet per min. 


Feet per sec. 


Seconds. 


Feet per min. 


Feet per sec. 


Seconds. 


500 or less . 


4.16 
4.16 


2 
3 


2,000 


8.33 
8.33 


4 


7.j() 


2,,500 


5 


1 ,000 


5 55 


3 


3,000 


8.33 


6 


l.LV.I) 


5.95 
6.25 


3i 
4 


3,500 


8.33 


V 


1,.J00.. 











DIAMETER OF SHEAVE. 

The figures take care of the variables of depth of shaft, hoisting 
speed, and acceleration stresses. The question of bending stresses is 
not considered, nor is it in section 34. The bending stress of course 
increases as the diameter of the sheave or drum decreases. It could be 
kept from becoming too great by specifying minimum permissible 

16559°— Bull. 75—15 9 



114 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

ratios between sheave and rope diameters. Tlie increase in stress 
caused by running a rope over too small a sheave is unimportant com- 
pared with the resulting increase in rope wear, and as explained in the 
footnote to section 34, considerations of economy can be trusted to 
prevent the use of sheaves and drums too small for the ropes. If the 
other provisions of section 34 are followed, the question of size of 
sheave will take care of itself. 

The economical ratio between rope and sheave diameters varies 
with the character of the wire in the rope and the t3'pe of constructio]).. 
A phable rope can. run economically and safely over a smaller sheave 
than can a stiffer rope. The committee has reports of excellent 
results from the use of a 1^-inch rope over an 84-inch sheave, v\-hich 
gives a ratio of 66, whereas in many cases, especiall}^ in the case of 
deep shafts and long ropes which usually are of necessity stiffer, a 
ratio of 100 has been recognized as not too high. 

In connection with the question of sheave diameters, one point 
should be noted, namel}', that it is possible to make the ratio too high 
under certain conditions, or more correctly stated, it is possible to 
make the sheave too heavy. This is the case frequently with turn- 
sheaves, guide pulleys, rollers, etc., on which the arc of contact and 
the compression between sheave and rope may be so little as to allow 
excessive slip, the rope faihng to rotate the sheave easily. Of course 
such a condition would cause wear and tend to deteriorate the rope 
faster than would the use of a smaller, lighter sheave. To decide on 
a suitable size of sheave under such conditions the following rule is 
serviceable. Suppose that a ratio between sheave and rope diameters 
of 72 is considered permissible. Then when the deflection angle of the 
rope is less than 90°, that is, when it has less than 90° of contact arc 
on the sheave, the diameter of the sheave shall be eight-tenths of the 
deflection angle times the diameter of the rope. Thus as the deflec- 
tion angle or arc of contact becomes less, the size of the sheave 
decreases. For a 45°-deflection angle, a 3-foot sheave is required for 
a 1-inch rope, and for zero degree no sheave is required, a rubbing 
board alone being sufficient. 

INCLINATION OF SHAFT. 

The classification of rope service on the basis of vertical or inclined 
shafts has not been attempted. It is well recognized that service in 
an inclined shaft is likely to be more severe than in a vertical. It was 
felt, however, that considerations of economy could be depended 
upon here to obtain automatically proper installation, as in the case 
of diameters of sheaves and drums. It is necessary of coui^se to use 
rollers so disposed as to reduce wear to the lowest practicable point. 



I 



DISCUSSION OF CEETAIiN" MATTERS OF PEACTICE. 115 

ROPES NOT USED FOR MAN-HOISTING. 

It would seem also as if a classification and a distinction in require- 
ments should bo made on the basis of whether or not ropes are used 
for handling men. As a matter of fact in metal mining, it is seldom 
that a rope- is not called upon at some time to handle men, and even 
if this service be only incidental or occasional, it is desirable that the 
rope be as reliable as those used strictly for man-hoisting. For this 
reason the requirements of the code have been made applicable to all 
ropes except those w^hich are not used for man-hoisting under any 
circumstances and the brealdng of which could not injure anybody. 
These latter ropes, on the other hand, have been left exempt from all 
restrictions, their installation and operation being a concern of the 
operator only. 

PERMISSIBLE DETERIORATION OF ROPE IN USE. 

It wdll be noted that in Table 1 the final permissible safety factor is 
not fixed, nor is the percentage reduction constant. The reason for 
not specifying a fixed permissible percentage reduction in the code 
is given in the explanatory note to section 34; a specified minimum 
reduction would tend to penahze the operator who is willing to install 
ropes with safety factors above the minimum. The manufacturers' 
committee, on the other hand, felt that if the initial safety factor bo 
liigh, the rope should not be allowed to deteriorate so as to bring the 
safety factor to the same point as when starting from a lower initial 
safety factor, for such a large degree of absolute deterioration would 
indicate that the condition of the rope was very bad indeed. The 
greatest percentage reduction permitted by the manufacturers is 20 
per cent, and the code permits 25 per cent. It mil thus be seen that 
the manufacturers' proposed regulations are both more minute and 
more drastic than the provisions of the code. In drafting the code 
it was not thought advisable to make the provisions too severe until 
the questions still unsettled have received more study. It is the 
intention of this committee to recommend that the United States 
Bureau of Mines undertake the study of hoisting ropes, probably in 
conjunction with the manufacturers, and that data be collected by 
breaking used ropes in testing machines, in order that an improved 
sot of rules can be built up. 

The question of when a rope shall be discarded is most difficult to 
determine. It is discussed to some extent in the explanatory note 
to section 34. It is desirable that only a certain percentage of reduc- 
tion in strength be permitted, or else that the strength of the rope 
be kept above a certain point. The difficulty consists in determining 
when this point is reached. Probably the most satisfactory way 



116 EULES AXD EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

would be to determine the strength of a rope at reguhir intervals by 
breaking tests, but this is impracticable in this country and is further- 
more open to the objection that only the end of the rope can be thus 
tested. The committee has therefore tried to specify certain easil}^ 
recognized signs for determining when the rope is to bo discarded. 
Chief among these is the number of broken wires occurring in a given 
length of rope. There are, however, no data on which can be based 
a close quantitative interpretation of the effect on the rope's strength 
of the number of broken wires. Furthermore it would be a slow and 
difhcult undertaking to gather and interpret such data. The reasons 
for this mil be set forth later. 

There may be said to be five ways in which deterioration of a rope 
proceeds. First, there is frictional wear; second, there is breakage 
of wires due to inequalities in even the best material; third, there is 
the breakage caused by the stress of bending over sheave and drum; 
fourth, there is corrosion inside and out; fifth, there is fatigue of the 
steel caused by its passing its elastic limit and accelerated by bend- 
ing and by rapid hoisting. All of these effects finally take the form 
of broken ^\^res. For this reason the committee considers the appear- 
ance of broken wires the best single sign to follow in deciding when 
to discard a rope. The number of such wdres permitted is intended 
to correspond to a reduction in strength of about 25 per cent, but as 
stated, this correspondence is only approximate and probably exists 
only in ropes of standard construction. There are two difficulties in 
the way of expressing quantitatively by the number of broken ^\iTes 
a percentage reduction in strength. The first is that the position of 
the broken mres in the rope is of the greatest importance in deter- 
mining their effect on the rope's strength. The second is that ropes 
of a great variety of construction are in use and in each type the 
effect of the breaks is different; this is especially true when the wires 
are of different diameters. 

As regards the different types of rope, whereas those used for hoist- 
ing are generally made of 6 strands with 19 wires to the strand, 
there are sometimes \ised ropes with strands consisting each of 7, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 37, and 61 wires. Of the 6 by 19 construction, as 
it is called, there are again several different tj'pes. What is com- 
monly considered standard is that in which the strand is composed of 
7 inside wires with the 12 outside wires laid around these, alter- 
nating in the size of their diameters. In this construction the twist 
of both outside and inside groups is the same and the alternation in 
size of outside wdres is necessary to prevent 6 of them from sinking 
into the valleys between the inside wires and making a rough-surfaced 
strand. In another method of construction the wires are all of the 
same size, but the twist is made different. In the "scale" construc- 
tion 9 small inside wires are surrounded by 9 large outside \vires 



DISCUSSION" OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 



117 



:)f uniform size, about twice the diameter of those inside. In a fourth 
lype the valleys of the inside group of wires are filled with 6 very 
small annealed filler wires and the 12 outside Wires are all of one size. 
There are further to be considered ropes of flattened and triangular 
strands which use wares of various shapes and sizes, nontwisting ropes, 
steel-clad ropes, and many ropes of special constructions. 

As regards the effect of the position of the broken wires, it is evi- 
dent in the first place that the binding action of the twist is such that 
d a number of breaks occur separated some distance from one another, 
the diminution in strength may be only that due to the elimination 
of one wire. Therefore the committee has specified that the breaks 
are to be counted within the distance of one "lay" or turn of the 
[•ope, within which distance the binding action need not be consid- 
sred. A greater difficulty arises from the fact that the disposition 
ji the breaks in the strand and their occurrence in one or several 
strands modifies their effect on the strength of the rope. 

In connection with this matter of the location of the breaks, some 
tests made under the auspices of the manufacturers' committee are 
of interest and value. They are not at all conclusive but serve excel- 
lently to illustrate how comphcated the problem is. The tests were 
made on a plow-steel rope of standard 6 by 19 construction, 1 inch 
iu diameter. The results with explanations are presented in Table 4. 

Table 4. — Tests of hoisting rope with cut ivires. 



Test No. 



1, 

4. 

,S, 

!) 

10. 
11. 
12. 

13. 



Number 

of 

strands 

cut. 



Number of 

wires cut in i 

strand. 



Large. 



Small. 



Percent- 
age of 
metal 
area. 



93.02 
89. 5(i 
82. 62 
79.20 
72.23 
68.79 
61.83 
89. 56 
61.83 
79. 20 
61.83 
79.20 

89. 56 



Esti- 
mated 

strength 
after 

cutting. 1 



Pounds. 

74,441 
71,887 
66,119 
63,375 
57, 793 
55,046 
49, 474 
71,807 
49, 474 
63,375 
49, 474 
63,375 

71,837 



Breaking strength. 



By actual 

test. 



Pounds. 
74, 100 
72, 390 
67, 640 
67, 010 
62,020 
59,620 
55, 57.5 
60, 090 
58, 180 
54,090 
58,850 
72, 250 

70. 700 



Percent- 
age of 
original 
strength. 



92. 60 
90.40 
84. 50 
83.74 
77.51 
74.51 
69. 45 
75. 09 
72.71 
67.60 
73. 54 
90. 29 

95.85 



Strands broken. 



Number. 



Point of 
breakage. 



Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

End. 

End. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

Center. 

End. 



Strength before cutting was about 80,000 pounds. 



Test 1. — ^Ono large wire cut from each strand. Each wire cut three times. End 
cuts a distance of two rope lays from center cut. Each series of cuts in same circum- 
ference. 

Test 2. — One large and one small wire cut in each strand on same axis. Each wire 
cut three times. End cuts a distance of one rope lay from center cut. 



118 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

Test S. — Two large wires and one small wire cut in each strand in same manner as 
in test 2. 

Test 4.-^Two lai^e and two small wires cut in each strand, same manner as in test 2. 

Test 5. — Thi-ee lai^e and two small wires cut in each strand, same manner as in 
test 2. 

Test 6. — Three large and three small wires cut in each strand, same manner as in 
test 2. 

Test 7. — Four large and three small wires cut in each strand, same manner as in test 2. 

Test 8. — Three sets of four wires each or all outside wires in one stjand only cut. 
Wires cut only once. Each set of four wires cut were a distance of one straiid lay 
from each other. _jj 

Test 9. — Same as test 7, except each wire cut only once. ml 

Test 10. — Same as test 8, except two strands were cut. ■ ' 

Test 11. — Four large wires and three small outside wires in each strand cut. One 
large wire in each strand cut in center in same circumference. One end cut, two lara;e 
and one small wires; other end cut two small and one large. Distance from center 
to end cuts one strand lay. Each wire cut only once. 

Test 12. — Same as test 10, except that each set of cuts was a distance of one rope 
lay apart. 

Test 13. — Same as test 8, except that each set of cuts was a distance of one rope lay 
apart. 

It should be noted that the rope tested was new and the diminution 
in strength is purely that from cuts or breaks, corrosion and abrasion 
not entering in. Furthermore the tests were static, the effect of 
passing over sheave or drum being neglected. The 13 tests can be 
divided roughly into two classes. Nos. 1 to 7, 9, and 11 had the 
cuts sj-mmc trie ally located by strands, that is, there were wires cut 
in each of the six strands. Nos. 8, 10, 12, and 13 had the cuts unsym- 
metrically located by strands, that is, one or two strands had 
^\^res cut, the other strands being left intact. Those of the firet 
class gave results about as might have been expected, that is, the 
more cuts the less strength. Those of the second class gave results 
that seem discordant until anal^'zed. In test 8, for instance, only 
one strand had wires cut and these cuts being one strand lay apart 
the binding action vras not enough to prevent the strand from elongat- 
ing, so that an undue share of the stress was put on the other five 
strands, which were thrown out of their position of strength, the 
shape of the section being altered. Before they could re-form into a 
position of uniform tension the wires were attacked severally and 
rupture resulted at a point below the calculated strength of the 
section, evidently because part of the wires were momentarily out 
of commission. In test 13, on the other hand, the cuts were also 
all in one strand, but they were a whole rope la}* apart and therefore 
the binding action was such as to give an ultimate strength above 
that calculated for the uncut wires. 

Although many of the difficulties evidenced by the apparent dis- 
crepancies in these tests may be overcome by specifying that the 
breaks and worn wires lie within the limits of one rope lay, as in 
section 34, it is nevertheless evident that the relation between 
broken and worn wires and ultimate strength is dependent on a host 
of variables, and it must be repeated that the requu*ements of section 






DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 119 

34 for discarding are not intended to be strictly quantitative. They 
merely constitute a useful criterion for determining when a rope is 
no longer safe. 

It is the opinion of the manufacturers that many mine superintend- 
ents or officials responsible for the operation of the hoisting ropes are 
overzealous in the matter of discarding and in many cases do not 
get full service from their ropes. The manufacturers are probably 
correct in their stand and are evidently desirous of turning out the 
best possible ropes and seeing that these ropes get the best possible 
treatment. Nevertheless, the committee is not inclined to recom- 
mend that operators be any less zealous in the matter of discarding 
ropes. The slight saving in hoisting costs would not justify the 
possibihty, however slight, of an accident caused by running a rope 
too long. Where practice errs on the side of safety, it is well to leave 
it undisturbed. 

The manner in which breaks occur is of significance. Thus when 
a new rope is installed there is likely to be a short period, while the 
rope is taking its set and equalizing tension, during which breaks 
are relatively frequent. These breaks are of no importance and do 
not indicate that the rope is wearing out. After the period of their 
occurrence, the rope will run for some time without more wires breajk- 
ing. Toward the end of the life of the rope, however, it may happen 
that the number of breaks begins to increase rapidly. Thus inspec- 
tion on one day may show one wire broken at a certain point. The 
next day two may appear there and the third day, three or four. 
This condition arising is a sign that the rope is going to pieces and 
should be taken off forthwith. It may also happen that breaks 
occur before any great wear is visible — this, of course, after the period 
of initial breaking. Breakage without wear indicates faulty installa- 
tion of some kind; either the rope is made of brittle wires or it is 
being bent over too small a drum or sheave. 

The section calls for the superficial inspection of hoisting ropes 
every 24 hours. As to how tliis shall be performed, the following 
extract is pertinent: '^ 

76. The person making the examination stands in a safe position at the collar of the 
shaft and allows the rope to be slowly raised or lowered tlirough his hand, which is 
protected by a thick glove or piece of waste. The rope should not be moved faster 
than 40 or 50 feet per minute; and, while feeling with the hand for any broken wires, 
the eye of the operator watches closely for any other defects, such as excessive wear, 
loosening of the strands, straightening of the lay, kinking, or severe con-osion. WTien 
anything abnormal is noticed, the motion of the rope should be stopped and the sus- 
pected part thoroughly cleaned and examined. If the defect is a serious one, such 
as the occurrence of two or more broken wires in a short length of the rope, say two 
feet, the engineer's attention should at once be called to the fact; while, in the case 

" Report of the Transvaal commission on tlie use of winding ropes, safety catciies, and appliances in 
mine shafts, 1907, p. xxv. 



120 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

01 a lesser defect, a note should be made of its position in the rope, a proper entry 
logged in the record book, and the engineer duly informed. It is also advisable that 
the rope should be watched for a short time while it winds on and off the drum and 
while coiled on the drum, so that the positions of possible pinching or crushing can be 
located and examined. 

ROPE FASTENINGS. 

Involved with the question of selecting and caring for a hoisting 
rope is that of the proper method of fastening it to the conveyance 
in tlie shaft. There are two types of fastening in common use, that 
in which the end of the rope is held in a socket by metal poured m 
the molten state, the socket being arranged for easy attachment to 
the shaft conveyance, and that in which the rope is doubled around 
a thimble, brought back and fastened to itself by clamps or clips. 
The latter method is probably most widely used in this country, 
although the former is extremely popular in certain districts, for 
instance, the copper region of Lake Superior. When the socket fast- 
ening is employed, it is customary to use babbitt or some similar 
alloy for fastening the rope in the socket, the wires in the end of the 
rope being ''broomed out" and doubled back a short distance. 
Many operators have a profound distrust of this method of fasten- 
ing, a distrust based partly on records of poor performance, partly 
on the apparent insecurity of the fastening, and partly on the fact 
that the essential parts are concealed and it is impossible to know 
what is going on inside the socket. The committee was, in fact, 
strongly urged to prohibit this type of fastening altogether. It was 
unwilling to do so, because the fastening properly made is a good 
one, because it prevails in many important mining districts, and 
because it possesses certain advantages, being economical of head- 
room, a matter of some importance, especially in preliminary opera- 
tions where buckets are used. 

This decision of the committee received entire vindication through 
the conference with the rope manufacturers, w4io are strongly opposed 
to the thimble-and-clamp method of fastening and recommend the 
socket method under all conditions. The socket fastening which 
they recommend, however, differs from that in ordinary use in that 
instead of some metal of the babbitt class, zinc is used to hold the 
wires and the wires themselves are not doubled back inside the socket 
but are merely "broomed out." It has been established beyond 
question of doubt that this is the strongest fastening that can be 
made. The wires having been previously cleaned with acid, the 
zinc makes a perfect bond with the steel just as in galvanizing; the 
wires can not pull out. As final proof of the efficiency of this fasten- 
ing there is adduced the fact that in testing ropes in machines for 
ultimate strength, the zinc-filled socket is used and when properly 
made never fails. < 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTEES OF PEACTICE. 121 

The manufacturers urge against the thimble-and-clamp method of 
f listening that it is practically impossible to develop by it more than 
85 per cent of the strength of the rope, and that the maintenance of 
even 85 per cent efficiency is difficult. As a rope takes tension, it 
tends to compress the hemp center and become reduced in diame- 
ter; this loosens the clamps or clips that hold it to itseK. It is 
therefore necessary to keep tightening the clamping bolts to prevent 
the fastening from becoming unsafe. On the other hand, it must 
be said that the thimble-and-clamp fastening is easy to make and 
not easy to make wrong, and that it is constantly exposed to view 
and therefore subject to easy mspection, whereas the zinc joint 
must be made with care and like the babbitt joint is not readily 
inspected so far as its internal condition is concerned. 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A SOCKET JOINT WITH ZINC. 

The following directions for making a socket joint with zinc are 
given by the manufacturers' committee: 

1. The rope should be securely seized at the end before cutting off 
and an additional seizing placed at a distance from the end equal to 
the length of the basket of the socket. In the case of large ropes 
this seizing should be several inches long and wrapped on securely 
with a special seizing iron. This is very important in order that 
the lay of the rope may not become untwisted, otherwise the tension 
in the strands may not be uniform when the socket is applied. 

2. Take the end seizing off the rope, leaving the other seizmg on. 
Then cut out the hemp center back to this latter seizing and broom 
out the wires; they should be all untwisted but not necessarily 
straightened. 

3. Clean the wires thoroughly in benzine, naphtha, or gasoline 
for the distance that they are to be inserted in the socket and then 
dip them in a bath of commercial muriatic acid for a period of about 
30 to 60 seconds or until the acid has thoroughly cleaned each wire. 

4. Dip the wires in boiling hot water to which has been added a 
small amount of soda to neutralize the acid and insert the wires in 
the basket of the socket. Be sure that the socket lies with the axis 
of the rope. If the temperature is below 65° F., warm the socket 
before pouring the zinc. 

5. Seal the base of the socket basket with putty, clay, or similar 
substance and pour the molten zinc into the basket until it is full. 
The zinc must not be too hot or it wiU anneal the ends of the wires, 
especially of small ropes. About 700° to 800° F. should be sufficiently 
hot. After the zinc is solidified the socket can be plunged into cold 
water to cool off. If the sockctmg is properly done, the rope when 
tested will break one or more strands between the sockets m a test- 
ing machine. 



122 



EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 



DIFFICULTY OF SPECIFYING FOR CLAMP FASTENIXGS. 

In regard to tlie use of the thimble -and-clamp fastening, it was 
found impracticable to specify any mmimum number of clamps or 
clips to be used, inasmuch as the type of clamp largely determines its 
efficiency; for this reason the requirement is made that the fastening 
develop a certain percentage of the rope strength. The operator 
may satisfy himself of this strength of fastening by actual test or in 
any way he pleases. He is, however, responsible for any accident 
which occurs from failure of the fastening, if it be proved that the 
strength of the fastening was below requirements. 

In some mining regions it is customary to use a socket with a 
bridle-chain clamp attached to the rope above the socket. The use 
of this additional fastening increases the safety of the attachment 
and is probably to be recommended, although it is not a practice 
sufficiently well established to be required in the code. 

RENEWING FASTENINGS. 

Whether socket or clamps be used for fastening the rope, it is 
important that the fastenings be made anew every so often. The 
reasons for recapping are given in the explanatory note to section 34. 
It serves to bring new parts of the rope to the points subject to 
maximum deterioration. A somewhat similar effect is obtained by 
turning the rope end for end, but reversing the rope is left optional 
with the operator. The question of time deterioration and the per- 
missible life of a rope whether in active service or not is also taken 
up in the note to section 34. 

In order to make the frequency of resocketing correspond to the 
severity of the service to which the ropes are put, the manufacturers' 
committee has drawn up a table, to be followed after the arerage 
life of three ropes has been determined. The table, No. 5, follows: 

Table 5. — Time interval permissible betiveen resocketings for ropes of various expected 

terms of service. 



Average length of service. 


Maximum 
time be- 
tween re- 
socketings. 


Average length of service. 


Maximum 
time be- 
tween re- 
socketings. 


0... 


Months. 


Months. 
1 

U 
2" 
2 
2 
3 


21 


Months. 


2Iontlis. 


8 


24 


4 


10 


27 


4 


12 


30. 


4 


1.5 


36 


4 


l^i 













OTHER COXSIDERATIOXS. 



There are certain other considerations in connection with the in- 
stallation and use of hoisting ropes which are worth}- of attention. 



DISCUSSION OF CEKTAIX MATTEES OF PEACTICE. 123 

although lor various reasons they are unsuitable for inclusion in the 
provisions of the code. 

Drums which require the rope to be wound in more than one layer 
cause more rapid deterioration of the rope. Such drums are often 
necessary but they should be avoided when possible. A large fleet 
angle in connection with multilayer drums is also undesirable, as 
causing excessive rope wear. A certain large minmg company sets 
a maximum of 1|° for this angle when the drum carries more than 
one layer. One rope company advises a lead of at least 50 feet from 
sheave to drum for each foot of drum face under such conditions. 

In connection with the subject of wear from this source, the fol- 
lowing observations are of mterest." 

72. WTiere small winding drums are used to carry several layers of rope, very severe 
damage is frequently caused owing to the "pinching" effects that occur at the cheeks 
(flanges) of the drum, where the winding rope is forced by wedge action to turn back- 
ward on itself in a riding turn. This can be obviated if the flanges are constructed 
to a design introduced by Mr. H. C. Behr, consulting mechanical engineer to the 
Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa, Ltd. In his standard specifications for 
winding engines, as mentioned in Mr. E. J. Laschinger'g evidence, it is provided that: 

"The last groove opposite to where the rope is attached shall rise gradually above 
the other grooves, so as to raise the second laj^er of the rope gradually and without 
shock above the first layer. In order to prevent overstraining the drum flange or 
wedging the rope as it mounts from the second to the third layer, where it can not 
be assisted by a rising groove in the drum as employed in the case of mounting the 
roi^e from the firet to the second layer, the drum flange at that point shall be formed 
with an annular projection sloping at an angle of 45° for the depth of the second layer 
of rope. Below the sloping part there must be a filling piece shaped along a spiral, so 
as to fill the space between the edge of the "rope and the lower edge of the conical 
projection of the drum flange, for the purpose of preventing the end of the second 
layer of rope from being wedged in between the first layer and the foot of the flange." 

73. Side friction of one coil of rope on the next coil, as also on the lower coils on 
which it is bedding, may be produced by too short a lead from the pit-head sheave 
to the drum. The angularity of the pit-head sheave and the horizontal distance of 
the drum from the shaft should so conform to the width of the drum that the devia- 
tion of the rope is not too great. An angle of 2° on each side of the center line has 
been found to be sufficient. If this limit is departed from to any extent, there ia 
considerable side friction on the rope and the coiling of the rope on the drum is likely 
to give trouble. However, in the case of a grooved drum with the rope coiling in 
only one layer it may be permissible to have more lateral deviation. 

Care is necessary when a new rope is uncoiled. This can not be 
done as it is with a fiber rope, since a wire rope would Idnk or un- 
twist. If tho wire rope is in a coil, this should ])e rolled along the 
ground and if it is on a drum or reel, this should be mounted so as to 
revolve freely and allow the rope to be pulled out. 

When a rope is placed in storage, it is essential that it bo kept in a 
dry place free from fumes of any land and properly protected from 
the weather. It is advisable also to apph' a coating of lubricant to 
the outside layers occasionally. 

o Report of the Transvaal commission on the use of winding ropes, safety catches, and appliances in 
mine shafts, 1907, pp. xxiv, xxv. 



124 EXILES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL JsIIXES. 

The pieces comprising the connection of rope to shaft vehicle 
should be annealed at intervals in order to avoid "crystallization." 

It will be noticed that the provisions of section 34 and the discus- 
sion of hoisting ropes up to this point appear to pertain solely to 
round ropes. It is true that many flat ropes are still used in tliis 
country, but they are becoming less and less common and new reel 
hoists are now rarely installed. Furthermore, one of the claims 
made for the flat rope is its increased safet}", due to the fact that its 
open structure renders it easy to inspect all its wires and diminishes 
the chance of failure through internal corrosion. It is intended 
that section 34, so far as it is applicable, shall coA'^er the use of flat 
ropes as well as of round, but it w^as felt that the inclusion of special 
provisions lor flat ropes or of distinctions between the two types 
would greatly complicate the section and would serve little useful 
purpose. For this reason the question of the installation and care 
of flat ropes as such has been left in abeyance. 

RULES FOE USE OF EOPES. 

Some rules put forth by the manufacturers bearing on the install- 
ment and maintenance of hoisting ropes are given here. Although 
they repeat somewhat the provisions of this code and parts of this 
discussion, their somew^hat different and concise form may be found 
useful. 

1. Sockets are recommended for all rope attachments; when properly made they 
will develop the full strength of the rope. 

2. All socket attachments should be made with zinc. 

3. All wii-es should be thoroughly cleaned and fluxed. 

4. All wires should be separated and straightened. 

5. Four good seizings of iron wire should be placed on the rope, the first at a point 
from the end of the rope equal to the length of the socket basket. 

6. The zinc shoidd be pt-ured when its temperature will cause a pine stick to char 
and ignite. 

7. When the surrounding temperature is less than 50° F., the socket should be 
warmed before pouring the zinc. 

8. At the top of the socket there is a point which is rigid where vibration is arrested 
suddenly, causing fatigue at that point. Therefore the rope should be resocketed 
every three months for a speed of 1,000 feet per minute or less and every two months 
for higher speeds. 

9. ^^"hen resocketing, about 6 feet of rope should be cut off the end and examined 
for internal corrosion. This length is specified because this part of the rope is subject 
to the most rapid depreciation. It is advisable, since it brings another section of rope 
on the head sheave when the cage is stationary. 

10. All new hoists should have drum capacity enough to take care of the surplus 
rope necessary to permit resocketing and allow a minimum of three laps to remain 
on the dnim when the rope is fully out. 

11. Clips are not advisable for fastening the rope to the cage, as they do not develop 
the ultimate strength of the rope and when placed incorrectly may damage the rope 
to a great extent. 



DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN MATTERS OF PRACTICE. 125 

12. Catalogue strengths are to be used in fixing tlie proper load capacity of a rope. 

13. Ti\e factor of safety is not to be less than five for vertical shafts. 

14. The factor of safety is not to be less than six for slopes and inclines. 

15. The head sheaves shall be at least 60 times the rope diameter for 6 by 19 ropes 
;) J 90 times the rope diameter for 6 by 7 ropes. 

16. All kniickle sheaves on slopes or inclines that change the direction of the rope 
.'U^ or more shall have diameters as specified in article 15. 

17. All ropes shall be inspected daily. 

18. All ropes shall be thoroughly lubricated. 

19. The lubricant shall consist of oils or greases that will penetrate between the 
n-ires and the strands. The rope shall not be coated with any lubricant that hardens 
)n the outside, as this cracks with bending over sheaves and drums and when exposed 
CO moisture allows the moisture to penetrate to the center and cause internal corrosion. 

20. Head sheaves must be in perfect alignment with the slope or incline. 

21. All sheaves must run true and be kept in perfect condition. 

22. AU sheaves shall have grooves that support the rope for one-third of the rope 
diameter. 

23. All metal surfaces on obstructions in contact with the rope must be eliminated. 

24. On inclines and slopes the moving rope must be kept from contact with the rails 
and other metal unless this be impossible, when roller equipment must be installed 
to the best possible advantage. 

SIGNALS. 

As elsewhere stated, it would be desirable to have uniform signals 
all over the country, and the committee carefully considered the 
question. After making a study and comparison of the codes of signals 
now in use in the several States, it was found that such radical dif- 
ferences exist that it would be impossible to coordmate them. The 
accompanying table presents clearly the hopeless discrepancies 
existing. Consequently the committee confines its recommendations 
to the few basic signals mentioned. Even then there are differences 
in practice. For example, in Michigan and in Minnesota it is not 
customary to use the same signal to stop and to hoist. The committee, 
however, does not see any great objection against the practice of 
sigiialmg one bell for starting and one bell for stopping, as such signals 
prevail in nearly all the States, and as the hoisting engineer is always 
cognizant of whether the hoist is at a standstill or in motion. The 
(liingers urged against usmg one bell to hoist are that the signaling sys- 
tem may give out after the first bell of a more complicated signal has 
been given, or that some fallmg object may strike the signal wu*e and 
give one bell when none was intended. Cases are known where these 
things have happened with resulting accidents. On the other hand, 
at the Keating mine in Montana, as noted m Chapter XI of this report, 
the accidental ringuig of one bell saved the Uvcs of two men m a 
blasting accident. 

The most commonly given signal in the mme is the hoisting 
signal. It is therefore logical to make the signal the quickest and 
simplest possible. Especially where fast hoistmg is necessary to 
mamtain the capacity of the shaft is it important not to waste time 



126 



RULES AISTD REGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



in signaling. The stopping signal must also obviously bo as readily 
given as possible and one bell is almost a necessity. The slight 
danger of confusion or of accident from other sources does not seem 
to outweigh the advantages of speed and simplicity and of familiar 
practice in most sections of the coimtry. 

In the case of two signals, practice is in accord practically everyw4iero 
in this country, namely, one bell to stop and two bells to lower 
Entire imanimity is not found even in the western States as to the 
blasting signal when sinkmg. The committee has prescribed four 
bells as being simpler than the other combinations used and would 
urge the States in which three-two-one and two-tw^o-one are pro- 
scribed to brmg their codes into conformity in this respect. 

The nine-bell signal, to be used for mdicatmg an accident such as a 
flood or a fire which endangers the whole worldng force, is one found 
in the codes of some States, and one which should be in. all. In the 
report of the Royal Commission which investigated the North Mount 
Lyell disaster, was included a recommendation for some such general 
alarm. Its value can not be too much insisted upon. By flashing 
it on the mine lighting circuit as weU as on the signal system tlie 
working force can be apprised of danger in a fraction of the time 
required when dependence is placed on messengers and by its use 
many wholesale fatalities. would be avoided. 



DISCUSSION OF CEKTAIX MATTEES OF PEACTICE. 



127 





to 








d 


c 


id^ 


















"s 

•IS 
eg 


n 




.S o 

1 "^ 

e5 




C c o- 

!£2 










% 




o o 


o o = .= 










" O 






1-^ H-t 












|a 




















1 _ 




rt ^ 


« tr; 


T cc -c 


o 


















11! 




1 1 




1 ■ r 


















o 






"" 


e a 


























' s- ' 


*— V ■ 


























u 










J 


p* ' ^* 






















a- 










t 












o 










tt 










o c .,: 














i. 






S 








£■ 


-^ o £ 










s •§ 




~ 






e 










^ 


K '^ " 










c 




















c.-^ 


5 














'o 
















oc; 

o 


fcn , 










t: 

o 




^ 
















.b 3 


o*5 










.>; 




X 
















<"" 


s 










< 








C 1 >.w 










^ 


li 




















C3 ^^S 










o 


£ 
















































i2 












c 


5" 
















"3 




o-S- ®T3 










o 


3 
















.2 


a 

t, 
c 
c 








.—'■ 




E . 
IS' 


|l 

CO 










s i 








c 








2= 




='-■:. 
















1 


c 
c 

c 


o . 




J 1 

'o 'c 


oist to sha 
collar. 

or\ on 


ti 

"3 


oris 


. o 

-'J 






i 








< 
























CC 




l-l H- 


►i- 1^ P- 


■^ 


''^ 






cc 








p 








;,_ 






t' -^ 




































5' 


t 


■ .2 








_o 


£ 


2 


^ ^ 
_©•§ 






o 




9:: 


'^ 


— o 








■^ 


X 




.^ 


1 




E • 




o 


r 


£ ° 








■ 'o 


O 


'3 


'3 o 


"o 






















K- -F^ 


o 












cc 








'~ 


^ 


'- 








cc 








^^ 












r^ t- . 


















^ 




>-, 


>-, 




O P '^ 


^, 
















' o 
























"S 


C 
C 


o 9" 


t, 


c 1 i 


5 


S 


IJI 


_o 


c 




t 






^ 


c 


^ it^ £ 






t- 




;- C-* " 






.£ _o 










C' a 


c 


© 












-* 


1 




c 


II 


s 


o 


O «''« 


o 


Z^ 


S "'■ 






K 


cc 


P 








■-^ 




£ 


p; .' 


















-^ t. . 




^ ? 


-' ~^ '■ 




v: 


C 

c 


d c 


^ 


.^ = 


d _c 


d 


K o.S' 


tJ:.2 




Uil 




-— 


c 


•C Ti^ 'C 


'3 "i 




o £ £ 


S 3 


~ «- 


^I'l 




— 


s 






^ 






woo 




c ^ 






























V* \ 




-r. 


L- 
























*£ tt 






o 
























> £ " 








do c 


c o 


6 o o 


d 


_o 


_c 


^ ^ # 








■w -3 ■:; 












o = S 






o 














CM 
























" ^ 






7 


^ . • 


















































































^ 


'A ^ ^ 


















c 


C ' 






V 


~r-2 


















o 


o" 1 




^ 






















E 






^ 


"J;; 






c 


6 




_o' 


_c 




*j d 


I J 




















VI O 










c; o— < 
























o 


iU -^ o 




Q 




o 








O "w 


o 


































l-H 




Oj 


. 


cc 








'^ 


" 












c 


«j> g a 'o >> 


c 
























o 


glldl -2 1 


o 














c 


li t>» 


& 






£ 


£ 
















7^ 


S 






5 


g g o g g _Z2. 


E 

o 










5 : 




- o 




6 6 o 


o . o 




_2 




d 


^ o 


1 


i?' 


o 


'3 'c '::: 


o -^ 


9 >.lS g 2 u 


g 






•3 


B "^ 


























M ; 


'J 


K 


w 






£" 


^^^""a^-- 


a " 


























2>. 


5 

o 








_2 








•" S ® 


c _p o n = s -J 


s 


c 








rt 




ci „ 




;:-^ s ti 


Con 
IronC 

Kew 
Con 

Mara 

Coii 

innesola 


go 




• • +-> 


el T? 




w 


r 


F ■§ 




^•5 


2 '^ 






s 


5 5 2 

=^ 1 is 




'-' 


02 


o t? 


5 « 

o o 






< 


6 u 


M 


3 








s 








;^ 




s 


» 



128 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



"^ 



6 


(3 

1 







.5 

1 

s 





c 

e 




III 






CO 


CO CO 


"3 

05 








C 








■3 
00 









'■5 






■3 






0) 

'0 



C 



2^1 So 

,^ fcH t-'C 

" _, ffl » 

< 




to 


oc.S 




03 CC 


c 


ll 




^ 


1 



l-I 


n ; c 
5 

-O / '^ 73. 

■a 5 -o 
as § a2 

CO W M 




■3 





^ 1 


ft 


C3 a 
M 






Sf S OJ C 
C3 w rv Q 


c 




c 






.- <p w a) « 


1-1 M 


c 




"3 


c 




I c 



c 


c 


c 




ii 

S ® 

6a 


+J © to 

1 •• -s ■ 

■c S "O §i 

S;8 g.§8£ 


c 


CI 










c 


c 


c 
c 

c 

1- 

c 


c 

c 

1 




c 

'i 

c 


! 



CHAPTER VI. 
DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 



By C. B. Button. 



The following digest of State mine-inspection laws has been made 
so as to show the technical provisions relating to the operation of 
, mines in the existing laws and to serve as a basis of comparison with 
the draft of the committee. 

The various sections dealing with the reporting of accidents have 
been omitted for the reason that although every State having an 
inspection law requires that accidents be reported, the details of 
such requirements are so varied that nothing was to be gained by 
printing them when it was known in advance that such sections 
differ from similar provisions in the proposed code of the committee. 

All provisions relating to penalties also have been omitted, because 
the punishment for violation of specific provisions varies in each of 
I the different States, while the important feature was the matter or 
thing prohibited. Likewise the sections relating to the hours of 
: labor, the employment of women and children, the fixing of the 
liability of the owner or operator of mines in case of accident or 
injury to employees, and the abolition of the fellow-servant doctrine 
have been left out of the compilation. Similarly the sections dealing 
with the reports to be made by the inspector, and by the operators 
to the inspector, have been omitted because they consist largely of 
detailed enumerations of the contents of such reports. The elabor- 
ate enumeration of the specific duties of the inspector with reference 
to the examination of mines and the machinery connected therewith 
has been left out as being a matter of detail of only local interest. 

The term "operator" has been uniformly used as designating the 
o^vner, lessee, manager, superintendent, or other person in charge of 
the operation of the mine. The phrases used by the various legisla- 
tures in order sufficiently to identify the responsible person are 
necessarily long and cumbersome, so that the term mentioned has 
herein been used in lieu of all such pln*ases. 

The original arrangement of the various laws by sections has been 
retained and the section numbers have been inserted so as to facili- 
tate references to the statutes themselves, with the exception that 
some of the laws have been rearranged, so as to bring together pro- 
\ isions relating to the same subject matter. The original language 
has been retained so far as possible although materially briefed. 
1G550°— BulLTu— 15 10 129 



130 'rules and regulations for metal mines. 

Only tlie laws of the States in which metal mining is of paramount 
importance are given here, the laws of States such as Kansas, Okla- 
homa, and Tennessee, where coal mining is of chief importance, 
being excluded. Some regulations in force in the zinc district of 
Wisconsin were drawn up after these digests were prepared and are 
therefore not noted here. 

The law of Colorado has been adopted as a model and references 
thereto are made when similar provisions are found in the laws of 
any of the other States. 

It will be noticed that in many cases the substance and even the 
wording of the provisions have been taken from previous drafts of 
the code published herewith, a fact that the committee considers as a 
bit of evidence that its efforts have been appreciated. It is to be 
hoped that the revised and expanded code will be immediately and 
generally adopted. 

ARIZONA." 
SECTION--1. application OF ACT. 

The act applies to all mines in the State. 

SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5. INSPECTOR. 

Elected for two years; must be 30 years of age; have resided in the State two years 
prior to election; have been practically engaged in mining in the State, and have 
had at least seven years experience in underground mining. He is prohibited from 
holding office while an employee, director, or officer of any mining, milling, or smelt- 
ing company. Salary, |3,000 per annum, and an allowance of |1,400 for clerk hire 
and office expenses. 

SECTIONS 6, 7. DEPUTY INSPECTORS. 

The inspector is authorized to appoint three deputies to hold oflice during lusterm, 
with same qualifications as the inspector. Salary, $1,800 per annum, and $1,400 for 
traveling expenses. 

SECTION 8. REPORTS. 

The inspector and deputies are prohibited from making any report upon any mine 
or prospect, save? an official rej^ort to a superior, and from making public any knowl- 
edge or information obtained in the exercise of their duties, under penalty of dismissal. 

SECTION 10. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Mines employing upward of 50 men shall be inspected once every three months; 
every other worldng mine employing more than 6 men, at least once a year. (Tlie 
section prescribes in detail the matters to be investigated, substantially the same as in 
the committee's present draft.) Operators are required to render the necessary assist- 1 
ance to enable the examination to be made. 

SECTION 11. DANGEROUS MINES. 

If the inspector shall find that a mine is in a dangerous condition, or has failed to 
comply with the provisions of the act, he shall serve written notice upon the operator, 

a Session Laws, 1912, chap. 33, p. 87. The act is modeled on revised draft previously published by the 
committee. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 131 

stating in what particular the mine is dangerous, or not in compliance with the act, 
and specifying the changes to be made and the time in which to make them. A 
certiiied copy of the notice is made prima facie evidence of the negligence of the 
operator in the event of loss of life or injuries sustained in consequence of the dan- 
gerous condition. If the changes are not made within the time specified, the inspector 
shall order work to cease and not permit employees to enter except to remedy the 
defects complained of. 

SECTION 12. COMPLAINT. 

The inspector shall examine a mine upon receipt of complaint in writing signed by 
one or more persons employed therein, setting forth that the mine, or any part thereof, 
is dangerous to health or life and is being operated contrary to law. Names of the 
complainants must be kept secret in the absence of permission to disclose them, 

SECTION 15. RECORD OF INSPECTION. 

The inspector shall enter in a book, to be kept at the mine, all dangerous defects 
observed in the condition of the mine, macliinerj', and appliances, but nothing con- 
tained in or omitted from such entry shall limit the duty of the operator. Such book, 
shall be open at all reasonable times to the examination of the inspector, the operator, 
and the miners. 

SECTION 17. FIRST-AID REQUIREMENTS. 

The operator of a mine employing 10 or more men shall keep at the mine entrance, 
or at such other place as the inspector shall designate, a stretcher and a woolen and a 
waterproof blanket, in good condition. Where more than 100 persons are employed, 
two or more stretchers with woolen and waterproof blankets shall be kept. A supply 
of first-aid remedies shall be kept at all mines. Where 300 or more men are employed, 
a first-aid corps of employees shall be organized and the services of a competent 
surgeon and physician shall be procured to instruct the members not less than once 
a montli in the handling and treatment of injured persons. 

SECTION 18. MINE MAP. 

When ordered by the inspector, the operator of a mine employing upwards of 10 
men underground shall make an accurate map of the mine workings, showing all 
excavations and all parts of the mine worked out or abandoned, and shall bring it up 
to date at least once in each six months. All underground workings shall be surv^eyed 
and mapped before allowed to become inaccessible. Such maps shall be open to 
the examination of the inspector at all times. 

SECTION 19. EXPLOSIVES. 

Explosives shall be stored in a separate magazine placed far enough from the working 
shaft, tunnel, or incline to insure the same remaining intact in case of explosion, and 
shall not be stored in underground workings where men are employed. 

Explosives in excess of the amount required for 24 hours' work must be kept in such 
surface magazines. The temporary supply shall not be kept at any place underground 
where its accidental discharge might cut off the escaj^e of miners. A suitable device 
for thawing explosives shall be provided and no explosives shall be thawed except 
in such device. Oils or other combustible substances or blasting caps shall not be 
kept or stored with explosives. High explosives shall be marked with date of manu- 
facture and sliall not be stored or used after 12 months from date of manufacture. 
The use of iron or steel tamping bars is proliibited. 

Dealers in explosives are required to keep an accurate and complete record of all 
transactions, such record to be open at all times to the examination of the insi)ector 
or any peace officer. 



132 RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

"Warning must be given before firing charges, and misfires must be reported to the 
mine foreman or shift boss. Where shots are fired by electricity the place must be 
carefully examined before men are permitted to work therein. The finding of loose 
wires must be promptly reported, and work must cease imtil the wires have been 
traced to their terminals. 

SECTION 20. FIRE PROTECTION. 

Same as section 4287, Colorado law. 

SECTION 21. TWO EXITS TO SURFACE. 

Every operator who shall have sunk a vertical shaft or incline to a greater depth 
than 100 feet and drifted on the vein a distance of 200 feet or more and commenced 
to stope shall provide a separate escapement shaft, raise, or opening, or underground 
communication with, some other contiguous mine. Where the contiguous mine 
belongs to a different owner, the right to use the outlet shall be obtained and kept 
in force. 

Work shall be commenced on such escapement shaft or opening as soon as stoping 
begins, and the same shall be connected with the lowest workings, and shall be of 
sufficient size to afford easy passageway. If a raise or shaft, it shall be provided 
with substantial ladders from the deepest workings to the sm'f ace. Signboai'ds showing 
the direction to be taken must be placed at each departure from a continuous course. 

SECTION 22. HOISTING MACHINERY. 

No person under 18 years of age, or addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors, shall 
be employed as a hoisting engineer. All hoisting machinery, except in prospect 
shafts not exceeding 300 feet in depth, shall be equipped with an indicator placed 
within clear view and hearing of the engineer, which shall be in addition to marks 
on the rope, cable, or drum. It shall be unlawful to hoist or lower men at a speed 
greater than 800 feet per minute. 

Hoisting machinery must be inspected once every 24 hours by a competent person 
appointed by the superintendent. Wire ropes or cables shall be used for hoisting 
purposes in shafts or winzes over 200 feet in depth. All hoisting ropes or cables 
shall be of approved quality and manufacture. 

Ileadframes shall be constructed so as to provide 25 feet in the cleai- above the 
landing stage, where men ai-e hoisted at a speed of over 250 feet per minute, and 25 
men or more are employed. 

GENERAL HOISTING PROVISIONS. 

Shafts less than 300 feet in depth shall be provided with a platform equipped with 
safety catches for employees to ride upon, where crossheads but no safety cages are 
used. It shall be unlawful to hoist or lower men in shafts over 300 feet deep unless 
an iron-bonneted cage with safety catches be used, with gates at least 5 feet in height. 
This shall not apply to shafts in process of sinking. Cages must have overhead hand- 
hold. A cage or skij) for hoisting men must be provided with a safety catch of suflicient 
etrength to hold the cage, in case the cable should break. The inspector shall see 
that cages and skips are equipped in compliance herewith, annd that safety catches 
are kept oiled and in good working order. 

^\^lcre hoisting is done with bucket, shafts more than 200 feet in depth must be 
provided wilh suitable guides and crosshead. If the crosshead is not secured to the 
hoisting rope, a stopper approved by the inspector must be fastened to the hoisting 
rope at a suitable point above the rim of the bucket. 

The inspector shall determine the number of persons permitted to ride upon the 
cage, skip, or bucket. Riding upon cage, skip, or bucket loaded with rock or ore is 
prohibited. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MIJSTE INSPECTION LAWS. 133 

Tools, timber, or other material projecting above the top of the bucket or skip 

all be securely fastened, and all tools, timber, or other material loaded erectly 

pon the cage shall be securely lashed. 

No person shall ride upon a cage, skip, or bucket loaded with tools, timber, powder, 
btc, except to assist in passing same through the shaft. 

A cage, skip, or bucket shall not be lowered directly to the bottom of the shaft 
'where men are working, but shall be stopped at least 15 feet above bottom until signal 
to lower farther has been given. This shall not apply to shafts less than 50 feet in 
Idcpth. Persons engaged in deepening a shaft in which regular hoisting is being 
carried on from an upper level shall be protected by suitable covering from falling 

aterial, leaving a sufficient opening for passage of the bucket. 

A bulkhead shall be provided where two or more crews are working one above 

other in shafts, winzes, or raises. -•" -^'-^vi?- .' * 

Shafts or winzes shall have a bulkhead over men working in the bottom thereof, 
and shall be cleaned down below such bulkhead after each blasting. i 

Windlasses and whims shall be provided with a suitable plug or olher reliable device 
to prevent running back of the bucket or conveyance. An approved form of safety 
hook or shackle hook shall be used with a bucket in hoisting. J 

A release signal of one bell shall be given the hoisting engineer to release the cage, 
ikip, or bucket after same has been stopped at any strtion. . I 

WTiere men are hoisted by mechanical means a hoistman shall be kept on duty at 
all times when men are underground. 

SECTION 23. TWO OUTLETS TO THE SURFACE. 

Every mine shall have at least two outlets to the surface, except as hereinbefore 
provided, which must not be nearer to one another than 30 feet, and must not lead 
to the same house on the surface. 

If in different mines, the respective owners -shall be responsible for the part of the 
outlet in their own mine being kept in repair, any accident jeopardizing the safety 
of an outlet shall be reported immediately to the operator. If either of the outlets is 
situated in an abandoned mine, the operator of the working mine shall be responsible 
for the proper maintenance of such outlet. 

No structm'e shall be erected over the outlet of a mine except the headfi'ame and 
the hatch or door necessary for hoisting therefrom, and to protect men working at 
the top from inclement weather. The construction of a small house of noninflammable 
material may be permitted by the inspector for this piu-pose. The storage of inflamma- 
ble materials therein, or within 30 feet thereof, or in any existing house covering shaft, 
adit, etc., is forbidden. 

An adit covered by a building shall be provided with a fireproof door near the mouth, 
closeable from outside the building. 

A shaft, winze, raise, or incline, sloping more than 40 degrees from the horizontal, 
and more than 40 feet deep, used as a manway, shall be provided with a ladderway. 
Ladders or footways shall be provided to connect floors of sets in stopes and other 
places requiring communication. Shafts shall have at least one ladderway or footway 
from the lowest workings to the surface, in addition to any mechanical means of 
^ress. 

Permanent ladderways shall be firmly fastened and kept in good repair. Provision 
regarding construction of ladderways same as section 4290, Colorado law. 

Ladders shall be provided within such distance of bottom of shafts being sunk aa 
will secure them fi-om damage by blasting. Portable ladders shall extend therefrom 
to the bottom of the shaft. 

A station or level shall have a passageway around the working shaft. Sumps shall 
be seciu"ely y^lanked over. A gate or guardrail must be provided at each shaft station. 
The top of the shaft shall be protected by a gate, gui\rdrail, or chain. Winzes or raises 
shall be offset from the drift. 



134 RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

Winzes now opening on any drift or tunnel traveled by men shall be covered with 
a grizzly or by doors. An opening of an offset winze shall be protected by a fence 
or guardrail of 3 to 4 feet in height above the level of the drift. 

Any existing winze, sump, or other opening in the floor of a drift or stope must be 
kept covered by a substantial hatch or planking, or be provided with a guardrail. 

SECTION 24. VENTILATION. 

An adequate amount of pure air shall be made to circulate into all working places 
in quantities sufficient to maintain same in a fit state for working therein. An ade- 
quate spraying system shall be installed to settle dusts or gasea. The total quantity 
of carbon dioxide shall not exceed 0.25 per cent by volume, except that after explo- 
sives have been fired a higher percentage shall be permissible for a reasonable timo. 
Respirators shall be provided when needed. Wuste timber underground shall be 
removed as soon as jjracticable. 

SECTION 25. LIGHTS. 

Stationary lights shall be provided at all shaft stations diu"ing time they are in 
actual use; also at stations in levels where mechanical hoisting or haulage is usi-il: 
also at night at all working places on the siu-face; candles shall not be left burning 
when the person using same departs from his work for the day. 

SECTION 26. PROTECTION AGAINST THE INRUSH OF WATER. 

^^"hen advancing toward a mine working suspected to be filled with water, a bore 
hole shall be kept at least 20 feet in advance of the breast of the drive; also laterally 
from the course of the drive. Such Avorking places shall not exceed 6 feet in width, 
and such additional precautions shall be taken as the inspector deems necessary. 

No raise shall approach within 10 feet of a winze or stope containing a dangerous 
accumulation of water, unless the same be first unwatered. 

"NMiere there is danger of sudden inrush of water, such additional raises, drifts, or 
workings shall be constructed as will insure the escape of the workmen. All sumps 
and places for the storage of water shall be constructed so as to prevent leakage and 
insure the safety of men working below same. 

It shall be unlawful to impound water except by means of a dam or wall approved 
by the inspector. 

SECTION 28. INTOXICATING LIQUORS. 

Intoxicating liquors shall not be taken into a mine. No intoxicated person shall 
be permitted to enter or remain therein. 

SECTION 29. VISITORS. 
Same as section 4301, Colorado law. 

SECTION 30. WASHROOM. 

' Every mine employing 25 or more men shall maintain a suitably equipped and 
heated washroom and change room contiguous to the mine. 

SECTION 31. PROHIBITED PRACTICES. 

No person shall knowingly injure or destroy any water gage, barometer, air course, 
brattice, or other equipment or machinery, nor without authority disturb any airway 
or part of the hoisting engine, neglect to close the door of the mine, disobej' any 
order given pursuant to law, or do any willful act endangering life or the security <if 
the mine or machinery connected therewith. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 



135 



SECTION 32. DANGER SIGNALS. 

The superintendent shall place notices at the entrance of dangerous working places 
or abandoned workings. No unauthorized person shall remove or go beyond same. 

SECTION 33. FIRE HELMETS. 

Operators employing 25 or more men underground shall keep at least two fire- 
fighting helmets in condition to be used, and provide training in the use of same. 
Tests of the helmets shall be made monthly by actual use. 

SECTION 34. SIGNAL APPARATUS. 

Shaft or compartment more than 50 feet deep used for hoisting shall be provided 
with efficient means of interchanging signals between the top and the lowest level 
and all intermediate levels. 

WTiere a station tender is employed, no other person shall ring the signal bell 
except in case of danger or when the main shaft is being sunk. 

SECTION 35. TROLLEY WIRES. 

Electric trolley wires shall be at least 6^ feet above the floor, save in mines newly 
equipped, where they shall be at least 7 feet above the floor. 

SECTIONS 36, 37. SIGNAL CODE. 

The following signal code shall be used: 1 bell, hoist muck, stop, release conveyance; 
2 bells, lower; 3 — 1 bells, hoist men; 3 — 2 bells, lower men (if bells are rung slowly, 
move slowly); 5 bells, ready to blast or shoot (the engineer must acknowledge by 
raising the bucket or cage a few feet and lowering it again; the engineer must accept 
no other signal and must be prepared to hoist away from blast when 1-bell signal 
is given); 4 bells, steam on or off; 6 bells, air on or off; 7 bells, danger signal (followed 
by station signal calling cage to that station; this signal takes j^recedence over all 
others excej)t an accepted blasting signal). 



Number 
of bolls. 


Station 
No. 


Number 
of bells. 


Station 
No. 


Number 
of bells. 


Station 
No. 


1—2 


. . Collar of shaft 
1 


2 J 


7 


5—1 

5—2 


14 


1—3 


2—5 


8 


15 


1—4 




2 
3 


4—1 

4—2 


9 

10 


5—3 

5—4 


16 


1—5 




17 


2—1 




4 


4—3 


11 


5—5 


18 


2—2 




5 


4—4 


12 


And so on. 




2—3 




6 


4—5 


13 







Station signals must be given before hoisting or lowering signals. Engineer shall 
not move cage, skip, or bucket unless he understands signal. Copies of the code 
shall be posted on the gallows frame, at each station, and before the engineer. Special 
signals may be used if easily distinguishable. 

CALIFORNIA." 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4.^* MINE EXITS. 

It shall be unlawful for the operators of a quartz mine employing 12 men to sink 
any perpendicular shaft to a greater depth than 200 feet without providing a second 

a The safety provisions of the workman's compensation, insurance, and safety act (Session Laws, 1913. 
ctiap. 176, sees. 51-72) are broadly worded so as to include mine workings, whether underground or surface, 
and the Industrial Accident Commission is empowered to make and enforce safety rules and regulations 
and to order the reporting of accidents. Rules and regulations governing mining operations have not as 
yet been promulgated. 

b Hittell's Code and Statutes of California, vol. 2, sees. 15G38-15640, p. 15.j2 (Session Laws, 1871-72, p. 413). 



136 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

exit for such mine by shaft or tunnel to connect Tvith the main shaft at a depth of 
not less than 100 feet frota the surface. It shall be the duty of each operator to pro^'ide 
such mode of egress. Failure so to pro\'ide shall subject the operator to liability for 
damages resulting to any person injured in the mine. In case of loss of life, right of 
action survives to the heirs or relatives of the deceased. 

SIGNAL CODE," 

The following signal code is prescribed: 1 bell, hoist; 1 bell, stop (if in motion); 
2 bells, lower; 3 bells, man to be hoisted (run slow); 4 bells, start pump, if not running, 
or stop pump, if running; 1^ — 3 bells, start or stop air compressor; 5 bells, send down 
tools; 6 bells, send down timbers; 7 bells, foreman wanted; 2 — 1 — 1 bells, done hoisting 
until called; 2—2 bells, done hoisting for the day; 2 — 2 — 2 bells, change buckets from 
ore to water, or Aace versa; 2 — 2 — 1 bells, ready to shoot in the shaft; engineer must 
raise bucket 2 feet and lower again; miners must then give signal "man to be hoisted," 
spit fuse, get into bucket, and give signal to hoist. 

RULES GOYEEXING SIGXALS. 

Make strokes on bells at regular intervals. Tiie bar ( — ) must take same time as 
one stroke of bell. If timber, tools, etc., are wanted to stop at any level, give number 
of level first before gi\^ng signal for timber, etc. Time between signals to be double 
bars ( — — ). 

Getting off or on bucket or cage while in motion is forbidden. \Mien men are to 
be hoisted, give signal for men; man must get on bucket or cage, then give signal to 
hoist; bell cord must be within reach of man on bucket or cage at stations. 

Timbers, tools, etc., projecting above bucket must be securely lashed to cable; 
miners miist make certain such material will ride without catching on rocks or timbers. 

Printed copy of signals to be posted at each level and in engine-room. 

Violation of rules is ground for dismissal; operator not responsible for accidents 
to men disobeying rules and signals. 

An operator failing to carry out the provisions of the act is responsible for all damages 
incurred by persons working in the mine during time of such failure. 

SECTIOXS 1, 2, 3, 4.^ FEXCIXG ABANDONED SHAFTS. 

Abandoned shafts, pits, or excavations dangerous to persons or live stock shall be 
securely covered or fenced and so maintained by the owner of the land, or the person 
in charge of same. Such shafts, pits, or excavations on unoccupied public lands may 
be so covered or fenced by the board of county supervisors, and it shall be the duty 
of such board to keep the same fenced or covered at the expense of the cotinty, when- 
ever proof is submitted that same are dangerous or unsafe. 

SECTIOX l.*^ EXPLOSIVES. 

Defines what shall be embraced by the term "explosives," as em])loyed in the act 
(includes all forms of explosive substances). 

SECTIOX 2. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

The keeping or storing of explosiA-es except in tight wooden or fiber containers, 
and except during period of transportation, is prohibited. Pending delivery to 
assigixee, ex])losives must be ke])t in a magazine, as hereinafter provided. It is 
forbidden to permit grains or particles of explosives to remain on the outside of, 
or about, such containers. 

o Session Laws, 1893, chap. 74, p. 82. 
t Session Laws, lOftJ, chap. 232, p. 283. 

c Session Laws, 1911 chap. 213, p. 391. Sections relating to transportation of explosives by common 
carriers, etc., omitted. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 137 

SECTION 3. MAGAZINES. 

Magazines in which explosives may be kept are of two classes: 
Magazines of the first class shall comprise those containing upward of 50 poimds of 
explosives, and shall be constrncted of brick, wood covered with iron, or other fire- 
proof material; shall be bullet-proof; and shall be kept locked except when explosives 
are being stored or removed. Openings for ventilation must be screened so as to 
prevent the entrance of sparks or fire. A sign marked "MAGAZINE— EXPLO- 
SIVES— DANGEROUS," in letters not less than 6 inches high, shall be posted 
on each side of the magazine. Matches, fire, or lighting devices of any kind shall 
not be permitted therein . Packages of explosives shall not be opened in the magazine, 
nor opened packages kept therein; blasting caps, detonators, or electric fuses shall be 
kept in a separate magazine situated 100 feet from the explosives magazine, which 
latter must be situated at least 100 feet from any other structure. 

Magazines of the second class shall comprise those containing less than 50 pounds 
of explosives, and shall consist of wooden Iwxes covered with sheet ii'on, and shaU 
be kept securely locked. A si.gn marked "MAGAZINE— EXPLOSIVES- 
DANGEROUS," shall be posted on the magazine. Storage of explosives in a tunnel 
is permitted when no persons are employed therein, provided such tunnel shall 
liave fireproof doors, which shall be kept locked, except when explosives are being 
stored or removed; the door of such tunnel magazine shall be marked with the words 
"MAGAZINE— EXPLOSIVES— DANGEROUS." 

SECTION 10. RECORD OF EXPLOSIVES. 

Prescribes in detail the manner in which entries must be made of sale, delivery, 
or other disposition of explosive sul^stances. 

SECTION 11. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES UNDERGROUND. 

Explosives in excess of the amount sufficient for one day's operation shall not be 
taken into any mine. 

SECTIONS 1, 2.^ TELEPHONE SYSTEM. 

In mines operating at a depth greater than 500 feet, a telephone system must be 
established with stations at each working level below 500 feet connecting with a 
station on the surface. 

COLORADO.^ 

SECTIONS 4259, 4261. STATE BUREAU OF MINES. COMMISSIONER OF 

MINES. 

State bureau of mines established. Bureau shall be in charge of a commissioner, 
to be appointed by the governor for a term of four years. Qualifications: Seven 
years' practical mining experience and practical knowledge of metallurgy and geology. 

SECTION 4262. MINING DISTRICTS. INSPECTORS. 

The State shall be divided into four metalliferous districts, the boundaries being 
fixed by the statute. The commissioner, with the consent of the governor, shall 
appoint an inspector for each district. The inspector shall be a citizen of the United 
States, with seven years' practical experience in raining in Colorado; term of office, 
two years. 

a Session laws, 1913, chap. 368, p. 782. 

6 Revised Statutes, 1908, chap. 91 (Mills's Annotated Statutes, 1912, chap. 107, divs. 11 and 13, sees. 
4931-4960 and 49Si:-5002), as amended by Session Laws, 1911, chap. 91, pp. 123, et seq. 



138 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTION 4273. SALARIES. 

The salary of the commissioner shall be $3,000 per annum, with an allowance of 
$1,000 for traveling; expenses; that of the inspectors shall be $1,800 per annum, with 
$1,200 traveling allowance. 

SECTION 4264. DEPUTY INSPECTORS. 

The commissioner is authorized to appoint deputy inspectors in the several dis- 
tricts for special investigations. 

SECTION 4267. INSPECTION OP MINES — RESTRICTIONS ON 
INSPECTORS. 

The commissioner and inspectors are prohibited from acting for any mining or 
other corporation diirmg tenure of office and from making reports as to mineral prop- 
erties to aid in the sale or conveyance thereof, and are required to give their whole 
time to the duties of their office. The commissioner, upon receipt of information 
concerning conditions dangerous to health or safety of workmen, is required to have 
an examination made. Operators are given the right to appeal to the commissioner 
from report of the inspector. Fatal or nonfatal accidents must be investigated. 



SECTION 4269. INSPECTION. 

Operators are required to admit the inspector and to render necessary assistanc 
in the making of investigations. 

SECTION 4270. NOTICE OF DEFECTS. 



I 



Tlie inspector shall give notice to the operator when any matter, thing, or practice 
is found to be dangerous or defective and shall order same to be remedied. The 
operator shall comply with said order within 30 days and notify the commissioner of 
such compliance. The time for compliance may be extended to a period not exceed- 
ing 90 days when necessary. The operator is permitted to enjoin the inspector from 
enforcing such order when he deems same unauthorized or unreasonable, the court 
being empoAvered to vacate or modify the order as deemed proper. 

SECTION 4271. PENALTY FOR DIVULGING RESULTS OF INSPECTION. 

The commissioner and inspectors are prohibited from revealing, otherwise than in 
official reports, information obtained as a result of inspections. 

SECTION 4272. ENFORCEMENT OF INSPECTION ORDERS. 

If an operator fails to comply with the provisions of this act or with any order (if 
the inspector thereunder, a court of competent jurisdiction at the instance of the 
inspector or commissioner may enjoin the further working of the mine or plant until 
Buch i)rovision or order is complied with. 



SECTION 4277. STORAGE OF OILS. 

Oils and other inflammable material shall be stored in a building erected for that' 
purpose at a safe distance from the mine buildings and from powder magazines, and 
ehall be removed only in quantities sufficient to meet the requirements of one day. 

SECTION 4278. CAGER. 

A eager shall l)e employed to load and unload the cage or skip and to give all sig- 
nals to the engineer in mines hoisting material from two or more levels and employing 
steam or other hoisting power. 



I 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 139 

SECTION 4280. EXPLOSIVES. 

Explosives shall be stored in a separate magazine placed far enough from a working 
shaft, tunnel, or incline to insure the same remaining intact in a case of explosion. 
All explosives in excess of the amount required for the work of one shift shall be kept 
in such magazines. Powder or other explosives shall not be stored in underground 
workings where men are employed. Suitable devices for thawing powder shall be 
provided. Oils or other combustible substances shall not be kept in the same maga- 
zine with explosives. 

SECTION 4282. TAMPING BAR. 

The use of a steel or iron tamping bar is forbidden. 

SECTION 4283. REMOVAL OF OLD TIMBERS. 

All old timber removed shall be taken from the mine as soon as practicable and shall 
not be piled up or permitted to decay underground. 

SECTION 4284. HOISTING ENGINEER. 

No person addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors or under 18 years of age shall 
l^e employed as a hoisting engineer. 

SECTION 4285. HOISTING APPARATUS. 

All hoisting machinery employing steam, electricity, air, or hydraulic power for 
the hoisting or lowering of employees or material shall be equipped with an indicator 
placed near to and in clear view or hearing of tlie engineer. 

SECTION 4286. MINE SIGNALS. 

A uniform code of mine signals shall be established by tlie commissioner and shall 
])e adopted in all mines using hoisting machinery. Such code shall be posted in 
clear and legible form in the engine room, at the collar of the shaft, and at each level 
or station. Shafts equipped with cages shall be supplied wherever possible with a 
system of electric signals from cage and stations to engineer. 

SECTION 4287. FIRE PROTECTION. 

A mine having only one exit which is covered by a building containing the mechani- 
cal plant, furnace room, and blacksmith shop, shall have fire protection — water, if 
possible; otherwise, chemical extinguishers or hand grenades. 

SECTION 4288. RIDING WITH TOOLS PROHIBITED. 

All persons shall be prohibited from riding upon any skip, cage, or l)ucket loaded 
with tools, timber, powder, or other material, except for the purpose of assisting in 
passing same through shaft or incline, and then only upon special signal. 

SECTION 4289. FALSE SIGNALS. 

All persons giving or causing to l)e given false signals or riding upon any cage, 
Inicket, or skip upon signals designating that no employees are aboard, shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

SECTION 4290. LADDERWAYS. 

Shafts more than 200 feet in depth equipped with hoisting machinery shall be 
divided into at least two compartments, one of which shall be setaside for a ladderway. 



140 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

In vertical shafts, landings shall 1)e constructed not more than 20 feet apart and closely 
covered, except for an opening large enough to permit the passage of a man. Ladders 
shall be inclined at the most convenient angle, firmly fastened, and kept in good 
repair. In inclined shafts, landings shall be put in as above, but straight ladders 
shall be used on the incline of the shaft. Ladders shall be provided in upraises and 
Avinzes, but where winzes connecting levels are used only for ventilation and exit, 
only one such winze on each level need be so equipped. 

SECTION 4291. EMERGENCY EXITS. 

A shaft equipped •with buildings and machinery with only the working shaft for 
exit shall be divided into two compartments, one of which shall be used as a ladder- 
way, as hereinbefore provided. Said ladderway shall be bulkheaded at least 25 feet 
below the collar of the shaft, below which a drift shall be run to the surface, if the 
location of the shaft is upon the side of the hill; but if the shaft is located upon a level, 
the drift shall be run to a safe distance without the walls of the building and then 
raised to the surface. The ladderway and landings shall be kept in good repair and 
shall afford easy mode of escape in event of fire. 

SECTION 4292. TUNNELS. 

Tunnels or adit levels shall connect with the surface at a safe distance from the 
mouth of same and be provided with safe and suitable ladders. 

SECTION 4293. CHAIN LADDERS. 

Employees engaged in sinking a shaft or incline shall be provided with a chain or 
other ladder arranged to insure safe means of exit. 

SECTION 4294. SHAFT COLLARS, SAFETY CLUTCHES, SHAFT DOORS. 

Collars of shafts shall be protected so that persons or foreign bodies can not fall into 
the shafts. Safety clutches shall be used in all shafts equipped with cages; in shafts 
equipped with buckets shaft doors must be used, so as to prevent material falling into 
the shafts when dumping is being done. 

SECTION 4295. GUARDRAILS. 

All stations or levels shall have a passageway around working shafts when practi 
cable. A guardrail shall be provided at all shaft stations, so as to prevent persons from 
walking, falling, or pushing a car or other conveyance into the shafts. Winzes and 
mill holes shall be covered and protected with guardrails to prevent persons from 
falling into same. 

SECTION 4296. PILLARS. 

A pillar shall be left standing on each side of the shaft of sufficient dimensions to 
protect and secure same. Stoping shall not be permitted to approach within such 
proximity to the shaft as to render same insecure, until the mine is to be abandoned 
and the pillar drawn. 

SECTIONS 4297, 4298. ABANDONED SHAFTS TO BE COVERED. 

All abandoned shafts, pits, or excavations dangerous to life shall be securely covered 
or fenced. 

SECTION 4300. MISREPRESENTATION OF FACTS. 

Willful misrepresentation or withholding of facts or information from an inspector 
with regard to a mine or safety conditions therein is a misdemeanor punishable by fine. 






DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MII^E IIN^SPECTIOX LAWS. 141 

SECTION 4301. VISITORS. 

Visitors shall not be allowed underground unless accompanied by the owner, 
)fficial, or employee deputized to accompany them. 

SECTION 4302. NUMBER OF MEN PERMITTED TO RIDE IN BUCKET. 

Notice of the maximum number of men permitted to ride on cage, bucket, or sldp 
rt one time sliall be posted at the collar of the shaft and at each level. 

SECTION 4304. ENFORCEMENT OF ACT. 

The commissioner and inspectors are empowered to make examination of the con- 
iition of any mine, mill, or metalliferous plant and the machinery and devices therein, 
md to determine whether the provisions of the act are complied with. They are 
luthorized to appear at all coroners' inquests and to call and examine witnesses. 

SECTION 4306. JURISDICTION. 

Justices of the peace are given jurisdiction in prosecutions for violations of the act. 

IDAHO.a 

SECTION 199. INSPECTOR. 

The inspector shall be elected biennially. Salary, $2,400 per annum, and not to 
exceed $1,800 for traveling expenses, and not to exceed §1,200 for clerk hire and 
office expenses. 

SECTION 200. DISQUALIFICATION. 

Disqualification for holding office of inspector substantially the same as the in first 
part of section 4265, Colorado law. 

SECTION 201. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Prescribes in detail the duties of the inspector, examinations to be made, and data 
to be collected. 

SECTION 202. EXAMINATION OF MINES. 

Empowers the inspector to examine all mines, and requires the operator to render 
necessary assistance. If the mine is found to be in an unsafe condition, the inspector 
must serve written notice upon the operator, specifying changes to be made. In case 
of loss of Ufe or serious injury, because of neglect or refusal to comply with the notice, 
a certified copy tliereof is made prima facie evidence of culpable negligence. 

SECTION 204. COMPLAINTS TO INSPECTOR. 

Substantially the same as section 12, Arizona law, except that complaint is required 
to be signed by three or more persons. 

SECTION 206. DEPUTY INSPECTOR. 

The inspector, with the approval of the governor, may appoint such dejnity inspec- 
tors as are deemed necessary; salary, $5 per diem, when actually employed. 

SECTION 208. DUTIES OF DEPUTIES. 
Prescribes in detail the duties of deputy inspectors. 



a Revised Codes, 1908. 



142 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

. SECTIONS 1276-1277. INCLOSUEE OF RESERVOIRS AND DUMPS. 

The operator of a quartz mill must inclose reservoirs or dumps containing mat . 
injurious to stock. 

SECTIONS 1555, 1556, 1557. EXPLOSIVES. 

The sale or use of explosives shall be unlawful, unless the name of the manufacture 
date of manufacture, and percentage of nitroglycerin or other high explosive is stampc 
or printed on the box, package, or wrapper. It is unlawful to have two or moi 
dates on any such box or package or to reuse any such box, package, or wrapper. 

SECTION 27.'^ STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

It is unlawful to store more explosives underground than are required for 24 houri 
use, or to store or thaw powder in a dwelling or in a building in which men are en 
ployed, other than a building for the storing or thawing of same. Powder shall b 
stored only in a properly designed building or underground excavation, used exclu 
sively for that purpose and conspicuously marked as such, which shall be situate 
not less than 200 feet from any building or working place, unless an impregnable na( 
ural object intervenes. 

Thawers using fire, candles, lanterns, or lights of any kind are prohibited in mini 
employing more than 15 men. 

SECTION 28. TAMPING BARS. 

The use of steel, iron, or other metal tamping bars is prohibited. 

SECTION 29. STORAGE OF OILS. 

Substantially the same as section 4227, Colorado law. 

OPERATION AND EQUIPMENT OF MINES. ** 

The following provisions apply to all mines in the State: 

SECTIONS 2, 3. FIRE PROTECTION. 

First part of section same as section 4287, Colorado law. 

A working adit, or crosscut tunnel entrance, with wooden buildings at the portal 
shall be proAided with a fire door, not less than 50 feet from the portal, such doo: 
to be self-closing when released; it shall be held open by a rope terminating out 
side of the building at the mouth; if electric haulage is used, two doors hung fron 
the sides and closing tightly may be used. Such tunnel shall be pro^ided with { 
raise and ladderway to the surface, inside of the fire door, when such tunnel connect* 
with an exit from underground workings. 

SECTION 4. TWO EXITS TO SURFACE. 

Mines emplojing 15 or more men underground shall be ])rovided with more thaij 
one exit where the vein has been driven on and stoping commenced, work thereoi 
to be commenced immediately, if none exists. 

SECTION 5. LADDERWAY. 

Shafts 100 feet or more in dejith shall have two or more compartments, one of whicl 
Bhall be used as a manway and fitted with substantial ladderway having platformi 
at intervals not to exceed 20 feet; ladders shall be inclined at convenient angles, 
and shall be in lengths not to exceed 20 feet. 

a Session Laws, 1009, p. 2C6. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MlNE INSPECTION LAWS. 143 

SECTION 6. EMERGENCY EXIT. 

Substantially the same aa section 4291, Colorado law. 

SECTION 7. BUILDINGS AT MAIN ENTRANCE. 

The constnictiou of new buildings over, or at, the entrance to a mine, is prohibited. 
Frame buildings shall be placed not less than 25 feet from the entrance, except in 
high, snowy countries, where a shed is permitted between the buildings and the main 
io| entrance, of such construction that it can be rapidly destroyed in case of fire. 

i" SECTION 8. PROTECTION OF SHAFT COLLAR AND MINE OPENINGS. 

The collar of a shaft shall be protected so that persons and foreign objects can not 
, , fall in; a winze, chute, timber slide, or mill hole shall be protected by a plank or 
,„ guard rail when not in use for a considerable length of time; abandoned or unused 
1 surface shafts or raises to the surface shall be securely fenced off or covered. 

I SECTION 9. CAGE OR BUCKET. 

at It shall be unlawful to operate a vertical or inclined shaft more than 250 feet in 
' depth without equipping same with cage, skip, or bucket fitted with safety clutches. 

m\ WTiere bucket is used, same must be attached to fixed crosshead by two chains or cables; 
loose crossheads are prohibited. A cage or skip, where used, shall be provided with 
bonnet to be made of boiler sheet iron three-sixteenths of an inch thick, and covering 
the top of the cage so as to afford protection fi-om falling objects. The cage shall also 
be provided with safety clutches. Where skip and cage are used in the same compart- 
ment, the bonnet may be dispensed with, if the skip is placed above the cage. This 
shall not apply to skips, cages, or buckets used solely for hoisting or lowering materials. 

SECTIONS 10, 11. GALLOWS FRAMES. 

Gallows frames shall be equipped with automatic chairs, so placed as to catch the 
cage or skip and prevent its falling in case of overwinding. Such frames shall be not 
i less than 40 feet in height between the collar of the shaft and the sheave wheel if the 
' shaft has reached 250 feet in depth and stoping has commenced. 



SECTION 12. INDICATORS. 



Hoists used in the handling of men shall be equipped with indicators placed in 
clear view of the engineer, positively geared to the shaft or drum, and so adjusted as 
to show the exact location of bucket, cage, or skip. 



SECTION 13. USE OF ELECTRICITY. 



Electric power cables underground shall be thoroughly insulated. Trolley wii'es 
underground must be protected by inverted U-shaped guards i^laced along the trolley 
wires opposite any hand-loading chutes. 

SECTION 14. SHAFT SIGNAL. 

Shafts equipped with bucket, cage, or skip, operated by a hoist, shall be supplied 
with pull bell; also with an electric bell and flash-light signal, where practicable. 

SECTIONS 15, 16. SIGNAL CODE. 

The following signal code is prescribed: 

One bell, hoist; 1 bell, stop (if in motion); 2 bells, lower; 3 bells, hoist men, run 
slowly; 4 bells, blasting signal (engineer must answer by raising bucket or cage a few 
feet and letting it back slowly), then 1 bell, hoist men away from blast; 9 belle, danger 
signal, to be followed by the station call where the danger exists. 



144 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

No person, other than the eager, shall ring the signal bell, except in case of necessity 
and only after giving 7 bells to notify the engineer that some person other than the 
eager is ringing. 

The following station signals are also prescribed: 

Number Station Number Station Number Station 

of bells. No. of bells. No. of bells. No. 

2—5 5 

3—1 - 6 

3—2 7 

3—3 8 



2—1 i 

2 2 2 

2—3 3 

4 



3^ 9 

3—5 10 

4—1 U 

And so on. 

A copy of the entire code shall be posted on the gallows frame, and a copy of the 
bell signals shall be posted before the hoist engineer and at each station. 

SECTIONS 17, 18, 19, 20. CAGER. 

A mine employing more than 15 men, and equipped with cages or skips for hoistin] 
from two or more levels, shall employ a eager to load and unload the cage or skip and 
to give signals to the hoisting engineer. It shall be unlawful for any eager or other 
person to ride upon the cage or skip, except upon signal for the handling of men. 
Private or short signals shall not be allowed when men are to be hoisted or lowered. 
It shall be unlawful for anyone except the eager to ring the hoist bells without first 
giving a stop signal, indicating that some one other than the eager is ringing the bell. 
It shall be unlawful for men to travel on a loaded cage or skip, other than the cage] 
or those assisting him in loading or unloading material. 

SECTION 21. RIDING ON THE BAIL. 

It shall bo unlawful tor any person to ride upon the bail or cable of a hoisting bucket 
cage, or skip. 

SECTIONS 22, 23, 24, 25. HOISTING ENGINEER. 

It shall be unlawful for any person under 21 years of age, or addicted to the use of 
intoxicating liquors, to be employed as a hoisting engineer. It shall be unlawful to 
raise or lower a bucket, cage, or skip, except upon bell signals, or to hoist or lower men 
at a greater speed than 600 feet per minute, or to hoist or lower men after the cage haa 
remained idle several hours, until one round trip has been made with the empty cage. 
Wlien a shaft is equipped with chairs at the several levels, the hoisting engineer must 
slow up in passing stations when men are on the cage or skip. It shall be unlawful 
for the hoisting engineer while on duty to converse with anyone except those assisting 
him, and then onlv when necessary. 

i 

SECTION 2t;. INTOXICATED PERSONS. 

No person under the influence of liquor shall l>e permitted underground. 

MICHIGAN." 

SECTIONS 1, 3, 4, 5. INSPECTOR. 

An inspector shall be elected for a term of two years in any county where working 
iron or copper mines are situated. Qualifications: Must have had at least 10 years' 
actual experience in mining, timbering, and general underground work, or hold the 
degree of mining engineer, or an equivalent degree, and have practiced his profession 
for at least 2 years. 

o Public Acts, 1911, public act 163, p. 263, as amended by Public Acts, 1913, public act 158, p. 275 (Howell's \ 
Annotated Micbigan Statutes, 2d ed., vol. 2, chap. 65, p. 1753). 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 145 

SECTION 6. DEPUTY INSPECTOR. 

The iiispector may appoint not exceeding tliree deputies, their duties to be pre- 
bcribed by him. 

SECTIONS 7, 11. SALARY OF INSPECTOR AND DEPUTIES. 

The board of county supervisors shall fix the compensation of the inspector and 
dt'puties, that of the inspector to be not less than $5 per day, and that of the deputies 
ii:jt less than $3.50 per day when actually employed, mileage in addition to be allowed 
at the rate of 4 cents per mile for actual distance traveled. 

SECTION 8. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Prescribes in detail the examinations to be made by the inspector. The inspector 
i.-^ required to see that shafts and open pits are furnished with safeguards so as to prevent 
the falUng in of persons or foreign matter; he is also required to take the steps pre- 
scribed for providing fences or railings about all shafts and openings in idle or aban- 
doned mines. 

SECTION 9. LIABILITY OF OPERATOR. 

The operator shall be liable for accidents causing injury or death to employees when 
buch employees are permitted to continue work in any place condemned by the 
inspector, save for the purpose of making it safe. 

SECTION 10. ASSISTANCE TO INSPECTOR IN MAKING EXAMINATIONS. 

It is the duty of the operator to furnish the inspector with maps, cbawings, and plans 
of the mine, together with contemplated changes in the manner of working same, and 
to provide all necessary assistance in the making of examination. 

SECTION 12. COMPLAINT TO INSPECTOR. 

The inspector shall make examination of a mine upon receipt of notice, oral or writ- 
ten, that his services are needed. Any such notice shall be forever privileged in any 
court. Making public the name of the person giving such notice is a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 1, 2y 3.* POWER AND MACHINE DRILLS. 

The operator of any iron or copper mine shall arrange the work underground so 
that no employee shall be permitted to operate any power or machine drUl at a distance 
of more than 150 feet in the same drift, stope, opening, or working from where another 
persi-jn is regularly employed, under jienalty of a fine. 

MINNESOTA.?) 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 6, 13. INSPECTORS. 

The board of commissioners of any county where at least five mines are in operation 
is authorized to appoint an insj^ector for a term of three years, and to fix his compensa- 
tion and traveling expenses. The inspector must be 25 years of age, a citizen of the 
State, and resident of the county, and have been employed in the mines of the State 
for at least six years, or have had two years' i:)ractical experience in iron mining as a 
mining engineer, and at least one year's such experience in the State. He is pro- 
hibited from being interested directly or indirectly in any mine. His salary shall 

a Public Acts, 1913, public act 220, p. 436. 

b General Laws, 1905, chap. 166, p. 208, as amended by General Laws, 1911, chap. 133, p. 168 (General 
Statutes of Minnesota, 1913, sees. 3924-3936) 

1G559°— Bull. 75— 1 .5 11 



146 JILLEb AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 






not exceed $2,000 2ier annum, and he shall be allowed not to exceed $G00 traveling 
expenses. He is subject to removal from office for neglect of duty, malie^isance, 
incompetency, drunkenness, or other good cause. X 

SECTION 3. DUTIES OF INSPECTORS. 

The section prescribes in detail the duties of the inspector with reference to the 
examination of mines. He is required to order the men to quit work if a place is found 
to be dangerous, and to serve written notice on the operator specitiying necessary 
changes to be made. The i^rovisions regarding the fencing of shafts or open workings 
of any abandoned or idle mine are substantially the same as section 8 ot^the Mich- 
igan law. 

SECTION 4. employer's LIABILITY. 

Operators requiring employees to work in any place v.hereiu they have been f- - 
bidden to work by the inspector, save for the purpose of making the &ime safe, a: 
made liable for all accidents causing injury or death to any such employee by reas-m 
of noucomi)liance with the inspector's orders. 

SECTION 5. INSPECTION OF MlJfES AND MACHINERY. 

Specifies the powers of the inspect(-)r with reference to the examination of mines, 
and requires the operator to render necessary assistance in making such examination, 
under penalty. 

SECTION 7. DEMAND FOR INSPECTION. 

Whenever 20 or more employees in any mine, or the operator thereof, shall notify 
the inspector in writing that his services are needed, he is required to make an imme^ 
diate inspection, and to see that the provisions of the act are complied with. 

SECTION 9. TIMBER. 

The operator shall keep on hand a sufficient supply of timber and lagging for the 
purpose of rendering mme workings safe. 

SECTION 10. REMOVAL OF FENCES, ETC. 

The opening, removal, or disturbance of any fence, guard, or rail without closing 
or replacing same in front of a shaft, test pit, chute, or excavation, whereby accident, 
injury, or damage results is made a misdemeanor. 

MISSOTJRI.a 

SECTION 8464. STATE BUREAU OF MINES ESTABLISHED. 

The governor shall appoint a chief mine inspector for a term of four years, at an 
annual salary of $2,000. The chief inspector shall appoint, with the approval of the 
governor, four lead, zinc, and other mine inspectors who shall have had five years'" 
practical experience in lead and zinc mining, who shall receive an annual salary of 
$1,800, but who shall not be interested in any mine. The chief inspector shall also 
apix)int a secretary of said bureau, who ahall be a competent draftsman, and receive 
an annual salary of §1,800. Actual and necessary expenses shall be allowed the 
inspectors. 

SECTIONS 8465, 8466. REPORT. 

Requires inspector to see that precautions are tiiken to promote health and safety 
of employees, and that act is complied with; also prescribed tlie contents of annual 
rejxjrt to be submitted to the governor, and of reports to be submitted to the inspector 
by the operator. 



I 



a UeviseJ Statutes, 1909, as amende-,1 by Laws, 1909, pp. 317, 31S, 319, 320, and Law.-, 1913, p. 409. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MIKE INSPECTION LAWS. 147 

SECTIONS 8439, 8440. LUNCH HOUR. 

Operators shall allow one hour in whicli the employees of the mine are permitted 
|m come to the surface to eat their uooii-day meal, and shall run the hoisting apparatus 
fur such jjurpose, 

SECTIONS 8441, 8442. MINE MAPS. 

Every operator employing 10 or more men, at the discretion of the inspector, shall 
make an accurate mine map showing workings, veins, general inclinations of strata, 
natural deflections in workings, and boundary luies of the mines, and shall submit 
annually a further map showing progress of the mine workings. Where the operator 
fails to furnish such maji, the inspector is authorized to have same made at the 
operator's expense. 

SECTION 8455. BORE HOLES. 

Operators must keep bore holes 20 feet in advance of the face of each working 
place, and, if necessary, on both sides when driving toward an abandoned mine, or 
part thereof, suspected to contain inflammable gases, or to be filled with water. 

SECTION 8456. SIGNALING APPARATUS. SAFETY CAGE. 

The operator of a mine operated by a shaft shall pro^■ide suitable means of signal- 
ing between bottom and top, and safe means of hoisting or lowering persons in a cage 
covered with boiler iron. Such cage shall be furnished with guides and with a suffi- 
cient brake on every drum to prevent accident in case of breakmg of machinery. 
Every cage shall be furnished with a spring catch to prevent accident in case of break- 
ing of the cable, or injury to the machinery. Props or rails shall not be lowered in 
the cage while men are being hoisted or lowered. 

SECTION 8457. HOISTING ENGINES. HOISTING PROVISIONS. 

The operator of a mine operated by shaft or slope shall not place any but an ex- 
perienced, competent, and sober jjerson, not under 18 years of age, in charge of a hoist- 
ing engine. Such operator shall not operate the hoisting machinery unless he ia in 
such proximity to the engine and drum as will enable him continuously to have con- 
trol of both. No person shall ride upon a loaded cage or wagon in any shaft or slope, 
and not more than 12 persons shall ride on a cage or car at any one time, the exact 
number to be fixed by tiie inspector. Men shall not be lowered or hoisted at a greater 
speed than 500 feet per mmute. 

SECTION 8467. INSPECTION. 

It shall be lawful for the insi)ector to enter and inspect at any time any mine and 
the machinery belonging thereto, but not to hinder workmgs of such mme. The oper- 
ator is required to furnish all necessary facilities for inspection. If the inspector shall 
find the mine being worked contrary to law, or to be in a condition dangerous or detri- 
mental to life or health by reason of defects in timbering, mining, ventilation, or 
sanitation, he shall, through the county attorney, after giving two days' notice, 
proceed by injunction against the oi)erator, who shall have the right to appear in court; 
if suflicient cause appear, the court shall prohibit tlie further working of the mine until 
the same is made safe and the act complied with. 

SECTION 84C7-A. COMPLAINT. 

Whenever the inspector shall receive a written complaint signed by one or more 
employees of a mine, stating that such mine is being oiJcrated contrary to law, or is 



148 RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

dangerous to life or health, and setting forth the violation of law or the nature of the 
danger, and whether notice thereof has been given to the person in charge of the mine, 
he shall examine such mine as soon as possible. The names of complainants shall not 
be divulged except when necessary in the administration of justice in the courts. 

If the inspector shall find conditions dangerous to life or health he shall serve written 
notice upon the operator and take steps to compel compliance with the law. Com- 
plaints slaall be forwarded to the State bureau of mines for filing. 

SECTION 8469. VENTILATION. 

The inspector is authorized to inspect underground workings as often as deemed 
proper and ascertain conditions with respect to the health of employees. If the in- 
spector shall find that health is impaired by reason vi insufficient circulation of air, 
he shall notify the operator in writing, specifj-ing the underground excavations found 
to be unhealthful, and direct the operator within 15 days after receipt of notice to 
commence to drill a sufficient number of air holes, or to sink a shaft to connect with 
such excavations, or make a drift connection with contiguous mines at a point or points 
to be agreed to by the inspector. The inspector may order all work in the excava- 
tions affected to cease until the work shall have been completed. 

SECTION 8471. EMPLOYER'S LIABILITY. 

For injury to persons or property occasioned by violations or noncompliance with 
the act a right of action shall accrue to the party injured for direct damage sustained; 
in case of loss of life the right of action accrues to the widow, cliildren, or other de- 
pendent persons. Recovery is limited to $10,000. 

SECTION 8472. PROHIBITED PRACTICES. 



I 



Substantially the same as section 31 of Arizona law, save that carrying of open lights 
into places worked by light of safety lamps is prohibited, and violation is made a ^ 
misdemeanor 

SECTION 8473. TIMBERS. 

The operator shall keep a sufficient supply of timber to be used as props, so that ■ 
workmen may secure the workings from caving. It shall be the duty of the operator 
to send down such props when required. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.^ EXPLOSIVES. 

No operator shall permit any blasting powder or high explosive containing nitro- 
glycerin to be stored in a mine in excess of the requirements thereof during the suc- 
ceeding 24 hours. Such temporary supply shall not be kept where its accidental 
discharge would cut off the escape of miners working therein. All blasting powder 
or liigh explosive in excess of such supply shall be stored in a ventilated magazine 
not less than 300 feet distant from any shaft, habitation, public highway, or railway, 
or from the boundary line of any mining property, except that where the location of 
any mining property makes it impossible to comply herewith the inspector may 
grant written permission to place the magazine in some other place on the property 
if it is in his opinion not dangerous to the safety of employees in the mine. 

Detonators or explosive caps shall not be kept in the same magazine with blasting 
powder or high explosives. 

No operator shall permit blasting powder or other high explosive to be prepared for 
firing or blasting in any magazine in which such powder or explosive is stored. 

o Laws, 1911, p. 321; based on previous draft of committe?. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MIXE IXSPECTIOX LAWS. 149 

INSPECTOR TO POST STATEMENTS. CONDITION OP MINES. NUMBER OF MEN TO RIDE 

IN CAGE. SPEED. o 

The inspector shall post in a conspicuous place at the top of a mine inspected by 
liim a statement of the conditions therein, showing what is necessary for better pro- 
tection of the lives and health of the employees. A copy of such notice shall be 
recorded in the record book at the mine. He shall also post notice at the landing, 
slating the number of men permitted to ride on cage car at one time, and at what rate 
of speed men may be hoisted or lowered. 

MONTANA.^ 
SECTION 1710. APPLICATION. 

The provisions of the article apply to mines employing five or more men. 

SECTION 1711. INSPECTOR.'^ 

The inspector is appointed by the governor for a term of four years. Salary, $2,500 
per annum. Qualifications: Must be 30 years of age, a resident of the State one year, 
and theoretically and practically acquainted with mining in all its branches. He is 
proliibited from holding the position while an employee or officer of any mining 
company. 

SECTION 1712. DEPUTY INSPECTOR.'^ 

The deputy inspector is appointed by the governor for four years. The same quali- 
fications as for inspector are required. Salary, $2,400 per annum. 

SECTIONS 1713, 1716. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Prescribes in detail the duties of the inspector with reference to the examination 
of mines. Requires him to serve notice in \vriting upon operator of unsafe condi- 
tions found in the mine and requires same to be remedied. He is authorized to forbid 
the operation of a mine when necessary, save for the purpose of making necessary 
changes to render the mine safe 

SECTIONS 1714, 1715. COMPLAINT. 

The inspector is required to examine a mine upon receipt of written complaint, 
signed by one or more persons, setting forth that the mine is dangerous. If the mine 
is found to be dangerous he is required to notify the operator in writing and require 
necessary changes to be made. Copy of such notice is made prima facie evidence 
of negligence in any action at law for loss of life or injury sustained by any employee 
in consequence of failure to obey such notice. The operator is also made subject to 
criminal prosecution if he neglects or refuses to comply with the notice. 

SECTION 1722. SAFETY CAGE. 

It is unlawful to sink or work through a vertical shaft at greater depth than 200 
feet where a cage is used unless an iron-bonneted safety cage is provided. The safety 
apparatus must be securely fastened to the cage and be of sufficient strength to hold 
same loaded at any depth. The bonnet shall be of good quality boiler sheet iron, at 
least three-sixteenth inch tliick, and shall cover the cage so as to afford the greatest 
protection from falling objects. 

a Laws, 1913, p. 410. 

b Revised Political Code, 1907, pt. 3, title 7, chap. 2, as amended by Session Laws, 1909, chap. 71, p. 94, 
and Session Laws, 1911, chap. 65, p. 128. 

c The inspection department is now a part of the Department of Labor and Industry (see Session Laws, 
1913, chap. 55, p. 100), no other change being made in the laws relating to same. 



150 RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTIONS 1724, 1725. SIGNAL CODE. 



I 



Same as that of Idaho law, except that 5 belles rail for .steam on, 6 bells steam uii, 
7 l)ells, air on, 8 bells, air off, 3 — 2—2 bells, send down drills, and 3 — 2 — 3 bells, send;i 
down picks. i 

Statio7i signals. — Same as prescribed in Idaho law. 

Rules governing signals. — Except in case of danger, or wher- the main shaft is being 
sunk, no one save the station tender shall ring any bell. The engineer mxist slow up 
when passing stations, when men are on the cage. 

Where electric bells are used in connection with other bells, if cage is wanted, ring! 
station signal ; station tender will answer 1 bell ; reply, 1 bell to go up, 2 bells to go down; 
if station is full of ore; and station tender is wanted, ring station signal and do not 
answer back; if 2 — 1 — 2 bells are rung, repeat signal, as the engineer or station tender 
does not understand; in case of danger or accident, ring station signal; station tender 
will reply 1 bell; then ring 9 bells. 

Copy of the code must be jjosted on the gallows frames and before the engineer. 

SECTIONS 1734, 1735. HOISTING ENGINEER. 

It is unlawful for any person to handle or ojierate a hoisting engine at any mine for I 

more than eight hours in each day, except in case of sickness or emergency. The pro- J 

vision applies only to plants in continuous operation or ojjerated more than 16 hours! 

in each 24. I 

SECTION 8635.* MINE SHAFT IN CITY. 

A substantial cover or tight fence must be placed around any .shaft, drift, or cut, 
within the limits of any city, town, or \'illage, or within 1 mile thereof, or within 300 
feet of any public highway. 

SECTION 8536. SAFETY CAGE. 

Is substantially the same as section 1722, save that it applies only to shaft 300 feet 
or more in depth and that casing of sheet iron or steel is requii-ed to be not less than 
one-eighth thick and not less than 5 feet high, v,dth doors of same material to be closed 
when hoisting or lowering men. Wliei-e cage is used for shaft sinking only, doora 
need not be provided. The inspector is required to see that section is comi^lied with. ' 

SECTION 8537. STOPING NEAR SHAFT. 

It is unlawful to .stope within 25 feet of any vertical or inclined shaft when other 
work is being carried on below. 

SECTIONS 8538, 8540. SPEED OF RUNNING CAGE. 

It is unlawful to run any cage with men ui)on .''ame at a greater speed than 800 feet 
per minute. The hoisting engineer is made personally liable if he violates the order 
of the operator in running the cage at a ureater rate of speed. 

SECTIONS 8541, 8542. ESCAPEMENT SHAFTS. 

Substantially the same as section 21, Arizona law, save that the latter applies only . 
to quartz mines employing more than nine men, and does not apply to mines not 
extracting ores by stoi)ing, nor to mines in which the working shaft is not covered 
by nonfirei)rn()f l)uil(luig or has not such a building within 30 feet of the shaft or open- 
ing, nor to mhies where the hoistmg shaft is covered by a fireproof building. 

a This and the following sections are taken from part 1, title 10, Revised Penal Code, 1907, penalties 
being provided for violaiioii. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE IXSPECTION LAWS. 151 

SECTION 8545. SALE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

Requires accurate and complete record to be kej^t of disposition of all explosi^'es, 
the records to be subject to examination by the inspector. 

SECTION 8548. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES IN MINES. 

No greater ciuantity than 3,000 i)ound.s of explosive substances shall be stored in any 
mine, and no explosive whatever shall be stored v'here its accidental explosion vrou Id 
cut off the escape of miners working therein. 

SECTION I.'' VENTILATION. 

Operators of quartz mines when working at a greater depth than 300 feet are required 
to pro\'ide a suitable and practicable method for ventilation, either by separate shaft 
or other mine working, so as to provide for the delivery of air to all portions of the mine 
being worked, and to furnish reaso:iable means of carrying away noxious fumes, 
gases, or smoke. 

SECTION 2. TOILET FACILITIES. 

Operators of mines employing 30 or more men shall provide suitable toilet arrange- 
ments for employees, consisting of properly constructed toilet cars or receptacles, 
which shall be sent to the surface each day for cleansing, ^^^lere toilet apparatus is 
not provided, employees shall be allowed to go to the surface or other suitable sani- 
tary place. Underground stables shall be cleaned daily and waste taken to surface. 

SECTION 3. PROTECTION OF UNDERGROUND OPENINGS, 

Underground shaft, man way, winze, or opening for ventilation or for the removal 

of ore or waste shall be protected by a guardrail or by a grizzly made of substantial 

timbers or metal bars. Shaft stations shall be protected by guardrails. Vertical 

manv.^ays shall be proAdded with landings not more than 30 feet apart in addition to 

ladders. All manways or air courses used as escapement ways must be kept free 

from obstruction. 

NEVADA.f> 

SECTION 4209. APPLICATION. 

The act shall apply to all mines except those vforked exclusively l>y owners or 
lessees, and in which no men are employed for wages. 

SECTIONS 4198, 4199, 4200, 4210, 4239. INSPECTOR. 

The inspector is elected every four years; salary, $3,600 per annum, and not ex- 
ceeding $1,800 per annum for traveling expenses and $1,200 for oflice expensen. 
Qualifications: Practically the same as fixed by sections 4262 and 4267, Colorado law. 

SECTION 4206. DEPUTY INSPECTOR. 

The deputy is apiwinted by the inspector at a salary not to exceed $200 per month 
and traveling exi>enses. 

SECTION 4201. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Requires the inspector to visit each miiiing county at least once a year, and to 
examine into the condition of such mines as in his judgment require exarainalion, 
to collect statistical data, etc. 

o Session Laws, 1911, chap. 72, p. 135. 

6 Revised Laws, Nevada, 1912, as amended by Statutes, l'.ii:5. Follows coinmil tec's previously pn'.)- 
lished code in many respects. 



152 RULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOB METAL MINES. 

SECTIOX 4202. DANGEROUS MINES. 

Prescribes the i)owers of the inspector ■with reference to the examination of mines,! 
and requires the operator to render necessary assistance in making the examination. 
Otherwise, substantially the same as section 11, Arizona law. 

SECTION 4203., RECORDS. 

Prescribes in detail the records to be kept hi the office of the inspector, and require 
operators to submit annually certain specified information. 

. SECTION 4204. COMPLAINT. 
Substantially the same as section 12, Arizona law'. 

SECTION 4205. NONCOMPLIANCE WITH NOTICE. 

Requires inspector to start proceedings through the attorney general or the covmty 
attorney looking to the criminal prosecution of an operator failing to comply with 
the contents of the notice specified in the preceding section. 

SECTION 4211. EXPLOSIVES. 

Substantially the same as sections 1 and 2 of the Missouri law (Laws, 1911). 

SECTION 4212. TAMPING BARS. 

Operators shall furnish wooden tamping bars to be used in charging holes. The 
use of a steel or metal tamping bar is made a misdemeanor. 

SECTION 4213. DEAD TIMBER. 

Same as section 4283, Colorado law. 

SECTION 4214. INDICATOR. 

Same as section 4285, Colorado law, save that indicator is required only to be in 
plain view of the engineer. 

SECTION 4215. RIDING ON LOADED CAGE. 

Same as section 4288, Colorado law. 

SECTION 4216. LADDER COMPARTMENT. 

All shafts shall be equipped \vilh ladders. Shafts more than 200 feet deep, inclined 
more than 45 per cent from the horizontal, and equipped with hoisting machinery shall 
be divided into at least two compartments, one of which shall be set aside for a ladder- 
way. Ladders shall be sufficiently strong for the purpose. Landings shall be not 
more than 30 feet apart, and closely covered, except an opening large enough to permit 
the passage of a man. Landings shall be constructed in manway at working levels. 

Provision regarding ladders in upraises and winzes same as in section 4290, Colo- 
rado law. 

SECTION 4217. EMERGENCY EXITS. 

Is similar to section 4291 of Colorado law, with the exception that it applies only to 
shafts 200 or more feet in depth, and permits the use of a trapdoor in lieu of a bulk- 
head, such door to be closable by a rope from ihe outside. The drift, if any, must be 
run at least 30 feet beyond the walls of the building. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL- MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 153 

SECTION 4218. SIGNBOARDS. 

"Whenever the exit is not in a direct or continuous course, signboards showing the 
direction to be taken must be pU^ced at each departure from a continuous course. 

SECTION 4219. GASOLINE. 

The use of gasoline underground is forbidden, except that gas engines of not more 
than 8 horsepower may be operated not more than 100 feet below the surface if the 
engine exhausts into a pipe extending to the surface, or not more than 250 feet below 
the surface if the exhaust is attached to a pipe through which air is drawn by suction 
fan, or otherwise, to the surface. The engines and metlaod of installation shall be 
subject to the approval of the inspector. 

SECTION 4220. CHAIN LADDERS. 

Same as section 4293, Colorado law. 

SECTION 4221. GUARDRAILS. 

Same as section 4295, Colorado law, save that passageway around working shaft is 
not required. 

SECTION 4222. CAGES. 

Cages in shafts over 350 feet deep shall be provided with sheet-iron or steel casing 
not less than one-eighth inch thick, or with netting of wire not less than one-eighth 
inch in diameter, and with doors of same material as side casing, either hung on hinges 
or working in slides. Doors shall extend at least 4 feet above the bottom of cage, and 
must be closed when men are being hoisted or lowered, except when timbermen are 
riding to attend to timbers being lowered or hoisted. Where the cage is used for sink- 
ing only, doors need not be provided. Cages must have overhead bars so arranged as 
to give every man an easy and secure handhold. 

SECTION 6799. CAGE. 

It shall be unlawful for an operator to work through a vertical shaft more than 
350 feet in depth, unless the same is provided with an iron-bonneted safety cage, 
safety crosshead, or safety skip for hoisting and lowering employees. Safety apparatus 
of sufficient strength to hold the cage loaded at any depth shall be securely fastened 
to the cage. Where safety crossheads are used for other than sinking purposes the same 
shall be equipped mth gates, as required for cages. 

Where a skip is used for other than sinking purposes a platform for men to stand on 
when being hoisted or lowered shall be placed in such skip not less than 4 feet from the 
top, and an overhead handhold provided. 

In shafts of less depth where crossheads are used but no safety cage, safety cross- 
head, or safety skip, platforms for employees to ride upon shall be placed above such 
crossheads. Violation is made a misdemeanor. 

SECTION 4223. PILLARS. 

Same as section 4296, Colorado law. 

SECTION 4224. BUILDING OVER SHAFT. 

Same as in section 23, Arizona law (paragraph 3). 

SECTION 4225. BUILDINGS AT MOUTH OF TUNNEL. 

Similar to section 23 of Arizona law (paragraph 4), except that a raise, inside the 
fire door, to the surface is required. 



154 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

SECTIONS 4226, 4227. HOISTING ROPES. 

It sliull be unlawful to use any rope or cable for hoisting or lowering men by oth| 
than human or animal power, unless same is composed of iron or si eel wire^i, i)rovid« 
that such Avires may be laid around a hemp center. 

The factor of safety of all ropes or cables shall not be less than five, to be calculated 
by dividing the breaking strength of the rope as given in the manufacturer's pub- 
lished tables, by the sum of the maximum load to be hoisted, plus the total weight oi 
the rope when fully let out, plus 10 per cent of such values. 

It shall be unlawful to use any such rope or cable when the number of breaks in any 
running foot exceeds 10 per cent of the total number of ■wires composing same, or when 
the wires on the crown of- the strands are worn down to less than one-half their original 
diameter, or when it shows marked signs of corrosion.. 

SECTION 4228. BOILERS. 

Uoilers for generating steam shall be kept in good order, and the operator shall Imxc 
them inspected by a qualified person once in six months, and oftener if the inspeci 
shall deem it necessary. The result of the examination shall be certified in writing 
to the inspector within .30 days thereafter. 

SECTIONS 4229, 4233, 4234, 4235. HOISTING PROVISIONS. 

Xo hoisting shall be done in any shaft compartment when rej^airs are being made 
therein, except such as is necessary to make repairs. 

When men are in a mine equipped with hoisting machinery, an engineer at all 
times shall be kept on duty to answer signals. It shall be unlawful for any person 
to ride upon the bail or cable of a hoisting bucket, cage, or skip. 

Provision regarding number of men to ride upon cage, etc., is same as that in sec- 
tion 4302, Colorado law. 

Riding upon an overloaded cage, etc., is made a misdemeanor. 

SECTION 4236. SIGNAL CODE. 

The signal code is practically the same as that of Idaho (see sec. 15, Idaho law). 
The station signals are the same, save that the signal 3 — 1 is omitted, which makes 
the signal for six stations 3 — 2, and so on. 

The rules governing signals are the same as for Montana. ' 

SECTION 4230. WAGES, 
Wages shall not be paid on premises used for the sale of intoxicating liquors. 

SECTION 4231. VENTILATION. 

The o])erator of every mine shall maintain a sufficient amount of ventilation for men 
and animals employed therein, and shall cause an adequate amount of fresh air to 
circulate through and into all shafts, winzes, levels, and working places. 

SECTION 4237. SMOKE HELMETS. 

Every mine employing 40 or more men underground shall keep on hand in good 
working condition at least two smoke helmets of design to be approved by the inspec- 
tor. An additional helmet shall be provided for each additional 50 men employed. 

SECTION 6797. SHAFTING. 

It shall be unlawful for an operator to construct any shaft or shafting with collars,, 
sleeves, or pulleys more than 2 feet in diameter attached to such shaft by set screws 
projecting above the hub of such collars. Where such set screws are used the heads 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE IXSPECTIOX LAWS. 155 

shall be countersunk below the surface of such collar, sleeve, or pulley. Violation 
i.s made a misdemeanor. 

SECTION 1.*^ PROTECTION OF SHAFTS. 

Operators shall erect a substantial fence or other safeguard around an excavation, 
shaft, etc., so as to guard against persons or animals falling therein, wliile in process 
of working, or when abandoned. 

SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 6. VIOLATIONS. 

Prescribe penalties for violation of the foregoing provision, and provide for the 
performance of the work, either at the expense of the operator or at the expense of the 
county. 

SECTIONS 3S9S, 3S99, 3900, 3901, 3902, 3903, 3904. STATIONARY AND 

HOISTING ENGINEER. 

The board of county commissioners shall have power to regulate the operation of 
stationary engines, steam apparatus, or other hoisting machinery used for hoisting or 
lowering men or material from a shaft or mine, and to prepare, issue, and revoke licenses 
to operate same. The operation without a license of any such engine or machinery is 
made a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3. 4.^ PASSAGEWAYS BETWEEN CONTIGUOUS MINES. 

Operator shall not place any bulkhead or door in any passageway connecting con- 
tiguous mines, or refuse to allow the use of such outlet in case of accident, but a door 
that can be quickly opened or readily broken may be maintained. 

Where a door has been erected the necessary tools for opening same shall be kei>t in 
a conspicuous place near-by. Violation is made a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5." MACHINE DRILLS. 

Operator shall not cause holes to be drilled by machinery in any stope or raise in 
ground that causes dust, unless a water jet or other means equally efficient to prevent 
escape of dust be provided. Where jets or sprays are used, water free from pollution 
shall be furnished. Where machinery is so equipped it shall be unlawful to drill a 
hole without using such appliance. Violation is made a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.*^ DUST SPRINKLERS. 

Every operator shall equip any chute from which dusty ore or rock is taken with a 
spruikler or other device to prevent the escape of dust into air during removal, pro- 
vided that, where in the opinion of the inspector the installation of such deA'ice ia 
impracticable, he shall ha^-e power to exempt a property. Such device shall be placed 
BO that it can be operated by the workman loaduig cars from such chufe. 

Ore houses in which dusty ore or rock is sorted shall be provided with suitable clean 
water to be used to allay the dust. 

Failure to comply is a misdemeanor. 

The act shall not apply to mines employing less than 10 men or t:) chutes loaded in 
the open air. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3. MINERS MUST SPEAK AND RE.\D ENGLISH. 

It shall be unlawful to employ in underground mines, or in the handling of explo- 
sives in underground or surface mines any person who can not clearly speak and readily 



a statutes, 1907, p. 437. c Statutes, 1913, chap. 12), p. !(;7. 

b Statutes. 1913, chap. 64, p. 53. <J Statutes, 1913, chap. 215, p. 305. 



156 EULES AND EEGUL.1TI0XS FOR METAL MIXES. 

understand tlie English language, or who can not readily read and understand any 
sign, notice, etc., printed in the English language. Violation Ls made a misdemeanor. 

NEW YORK.<! 

SECTION' 119. INDUSTRIAL BOARD REGULATIONS. 

Every necessary precaution shall be taken to insure the safety and health of employ- 
ees in mines and quarries. The industrial board shall have power to adopt rules and 
regulations to enforce this notice. The rules and regulations heretofore prescribed by 
the commissioner of labor shall remain in force until amended or repealed by the indus- 
trial board. • 

SECTION 120. COMMISSIONER OF LABOR. 

Charges the commissioner with the enforcement of the act and prescribes in detail 
the records to be kept and the matters to be examined and inspected; also the contents 
of the annual rejwrt. 

SECTION 121. OUTLET OF MINES. 

^^■hen necessary for the safety of employees, the operator of a mine worked through a 
vertical or inclined shaft, or horizontal tunnel, shall not employ persons therein 
unless tliere are two openmgs from the subterranean workings to the surface, at least 
150 feet apart, connected with each other, and so constructed as to prove a safe means 
of ingress or egress. 

SECTION 122. VENTILATION TIMBERING. 

A ventilating current shall be circulated along the face of working places and through 
roadways in suflicient quantities to msure the safety of employees, and to remove 
smoke and noxious ^ases. The operator shall cause the mine to be properly tim- 
bered, and the roof and sides of each workmg place to be properly secured. No 
person shall be permitted to work in an unsafe place, except to make it secure. 

SECTION 123. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AND INFLAMMABLE MATE- 
RIAL. 

No powder or oils of any description shall be stored in a mine, or in or around shafts, 
engines, or boiler houses. All supplies of an inflammable and destructive nature 
should be stored a safe distance from the mine opening. No person shall ride on 
any loaded car, cage, or bucket. 

SECTION 124, MACHINERY INSPECTION 

Boilers should be kept in good order and be inspected once in six months by a 
competent person approved by the commissioner, the certificate to be filed in the 
main mine office, and a duplicate in the office of the commissioner. Engines, brakes, 
cages, buckets, ropes, and chains shall be kept in good order and inspected daily by 
the superintendent, or a person designated by him. Cars and lifts shall be supplied 
with safety brakes; lifts, ropes, hoists, and other mechanical devices shall be prop- 
erly designed and maintained to sustain the weight intended to be placed thereon. 
Hoist ropes shall have a breaking strength of not less than five times the gross load 
suspended, including the weight of the rope itself. Every boiler or battery of boilera 
shall be pro\'ided with safety valve and steam and water gages; every boiler house 
shall be provided with steam gage connected with the boilers; a steam gage shall be 
attached to the steam pipe in the engine house and so placed that the engineercan 
readily ascertain the pressure carried. 

a Consolidated Laws, 1903, chap. 31, p. 2070, as amended by Laws, 1913, chap. Ho, p. 25S. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 15? 

SECTION 125. EXPLOSIVES. 

High explosives other than gunpowder are to be stored, handled, and fired in 
accordance -with the rules prescribed by the commissioner; the use of an iron or steel- 
pohited tamping bar is prohibited, unless the end is tipped with at least 6 inches of 
copper or other soft material. No person shall be employed to hoist unless the super- 
intendent is satisfied that he is qualified by experience to perform the work with 
ordinary safety . ^^^len a blast is about to be fired, notice shall be given by the person 
in charge thereof to all persons who may be in danger. 

SECTION 126. ACCIDENTS. 

Report of loss of life or serious injury is required to be made within 48 hours to the 
commissioner. Nothing contained in such report is admissible evidence in any 
action arising out of any such accident. A record of all such accidents is required 
to be kept in such form as may be prescribed by the commissioner. 

SECTION 127. NOTICE OF DANGEROUS CONDITION. 

If a mine is found to be in a dangerous condition, written notice specifying the de- 
fects is required to be served upon the operator, who must forthwith remedy same. 

SECTION 128. TRAVELING WAY. 

A traveling way not less than 5 feet high and 3 feet wide must be cut around the sides 
of every hoisting shaft, or driven through the solid strata at the bottom thereof, to 
enable persons to pass around the shaft without crossing through the hoisting com- 
partment. 

SECTION 129. NOTICE OF OPENING NEW MINE, 

The section requires the operator about to engage in the development of new shaft, 
incline, etc., to report same to the commissioner. 

SECTION 130. NOTICE OF ABANDONMENT. 

Operators are required to notify the commissioner of the prompt closing or aban- 
donment of any mine. 

SECTION 131. EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

No child under 16 years of age is permitted to work in or in connection with any 
mine. No woman may be employed in any mine. 

SECTION 132. HEADHOUSE; WASHROOM. 

Every underground working 40 feet in depth shall be equipped with proper head- 
house and trapdoors. Every mine, tunnel, or quarry employing over 25 men shall 
maintain a suitably ecjuipped and heated washroom, wliich shall be accessible at all 
times. 

SECTION 134. BLASTS. 

No blasts shall be exploded by electric current of more than 250 volts. 
SECTION 135. ENFORCEMENT OF ARTICLE. 

The commissioner may serve ^vritten notice on an operator, requiring him to comply 
with any pro^dsion of the article, and shall begin action in the supreme court to 
enforce compliance therewith. Upon such notice as the court directs, an order may be 
granted restraining the working of a mine or tunnel during such time as therein 
specified. 



I 



158 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MINES. 

SECTION 136. ADMISSION OF INSPECTOR. 

An operator shall admit the commissioner or any authorized reprtsentati\-c at n 
time, for the purpose of making examination, ajid shall render necessary assistaj: 
the making thereof. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS PRESCRIBED UNDER SECTIONS 120 AND ilii. 

1. Superintendent. — The superintendent vrill see that all proA-isions of the law and 
of these rules are enforced, and shall watch all work done by contractors, to see that 
they comply therewith. 

2, 3. Inspection by operator. — The superintendent shall designate a competent 
person who shall each day make inspection of all mining appliances, boilers, engines, 
magazijies, etc., and report defects in writing to the superintendent. Boilers shall be 
examined daily, and any imperfections reported to the master mechanic or super-j 
intendent. [ 

4. Timberinrf.- — Timber shall be of mill size and strength, and shall be used freely 
and wherever there is any chance of danger. Onlj^ new and properly seasoned timberl 
shall be used, which shall be carefully inspected before using, and periodicallyt 
thereafter. 

5. Drilling. — The use of air instead of steam for drilling in underground workings 
is advised. 

6. Sig7ials. — Special attention shall })e given to signals, and the keeping of appliances 
therefor in order. The bell line shall be of ample strength aaid be kept free and clear 
from rock and timbers. A shaft of 400 feet or over shall have a speaking tube or 
telephone from the foot of the shaft to the engine room. A code of signals shall be 
posted at different parts of the workings, and at the shaft head. 

7. Ladderways. — Substantially the same as section 4290 Colorado law, save thati 
no depth is specified, and also a handrail is required to be attached to the ladder in' 
inclined shafts. 

8. Shaft.— The shaft head shall be covered and guarded, to prevent persons or foreign 
objects falling therein. Automatic doors should be used. Manways shall be around, 
and not across, the shafthead. The timbering of the shaft shall be sounded and 
examined often . Inside shafts, winzes, and chutes shall be carefully guarded . ^^'hen 
shaft sinking is in progress below levels where mining is being carried on, the collars 
at the lower level shall be covered to prevent objects from falling down, such covering 
to be of timber not loss than 4 inches thick. Where a cage is used a bonnet shall be 
placed over it. 

9. 13. Hoisting engineers. — ^The superintendent shall use extraordinary care to see 
that engineers are mentally and physically qualified; where persons are lowered or 
hoisted, engineers shall not be less than 21, otherwise not less than 18 years of age; 
they shall not delegate the control of the hoisting machineiy to any' other person,! 
and no one shall interfere with them in the discharge of their duties; the hoisting! 
engineer shall be in constant attendance at his engine whenever workmen are under- 
groujid; he shall not permit any one to loiter in the engine room; he shall hold no| 
conversation v.hile the engine is in motion, or while his attention should be occupied, 
with signals; he shall imderstand the signal code, which must be delivered in a clear 
and unmistakable manner; when he receives a men signal, he shall work his engine 
with extra care and at a moderate rate of speed; he, or some designated employee, 
shall keep careful watch over the engine, pumps, ropes, and hoisting apparatus, and 
report defects. 

14, 17. Hoisting machinery.— Rointrng machinery shall be kept in a safe condition 
and inspected every 24 hours by a c(mipetent person; the operator or superintendent 
shall provide a telephone or metal speaking tube from the top to the bottom of every, 
shaft in which persons arc raised or lowered; other modes of signaling from top to| 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE IXSPECTIOX LAWS. 159 

bottom must be provided; each cage for hoisting or lowering persons shall be pro- 
ivided with a proper safety catch and a sufficient overhead covering for protection; 
flanges with a clearance of not less than 4 inches where the whole of the rope is wound 
on the drum shall be attached to the side of the drum; adequate brakes shall be 
attached; safety gates shall be placed at all shafts so as to prevent persons from 
falling in. 

The main governing chain attached to the socket of the wire rope shall be of best 
quality of iion and properly tested . The bridle chain shall be attached to the hoisting 
rope above the socket from the top crosspiece of the carriage or cage, so that iio single 
chain shall be used for lowering or hoisting persons. 

No greater number of persons shall be lowered or hoisted at any one time than may 
be allowed by the commissioner, notice of such maximum number to be kept i:)osted 
in a conspicuous place at the top of the shaft. 

18. Dangerous iiiachinery. — All machinery to which accidents are liable to occur 
shall be suitably guarded or railed off. 

19. Fire ■protection.- — "Waste, candles, etc., shall be at a safe distance from the 
boiler house, engine room, and shaft house, and a quantity of water shall be there 
stored to guard against fire; shafthouses shall have ample fire protection and appliances 
shall be kept in condition for immediate use. Mining plants using steam should 

ihave hose attached to the injector or feed pipe for use in case of fire. 

20. Storage of explosives. — ^Explosives shall be stored in a magazine provided for 
such purpose, located far enough from working shaft, slope, tunnel, boiler house, or 
engine room so that in case of explosion there would be no danger. Explosives in 
excess of tiie requirements for one shaft shall be kept in the magazine, which snail 
be fireproof and bullet-proof. A suitable place for storing powder shall be provided 
and kept in condition for use; a hot- water or steam bath device should be used. Ex- 
plosives and powder shall not be kept in the same room. A suitable place, separate 
from the mine boilers or engine room, shall be provided for preparing charges; one man 
shall have full charge of the magazine. 

21 . Blasting .—All blasting shall be done by one man and his helper, to be designated 
by the superintendent; after blasting no one shall be permitted in that part of the 
mine until the blaster has made a personal examination and pronounced "all over." 
In case of misfire no one except the blaster and his helper shall be allowed within that 
part of the mine within three hours thereafter, until the blaster shall have made a 
personal examination and pronounced all safe. No person addicted to the use of 
intoxicants shall use or handle explosives; tamping shall be done with a wuuden bar; 
sufficient warning shall be given when a blast is about to be fired. 

SECTIONS 1-S. DYNAMITE. 

Dynamite must be stored in a building isolated from other buildings and from traffic. 
Electric exploders and fuses shall not be stored in the same building with powder, but 
kept apart until needed for [jreparing a charge. The greatest care must be used 
when dynamite is hauled in mine cars or similar vehicles. Neither caps, exploders, 
fulminators, friction matches, nor any article of like nature shall be loaded in the same 
car or vehicle with dynamite. 

A separate building for thawing shall be fitted with small steam radiator and only 
exhaust steam be used fur heating it; the temperature of the room to be kept at 80^ E., 
the powder to be placed on racks in the part of the room farthest from the radiator; only 
small quantities shall be thawed; a thawing kettle may be used, consisting of two 
water-tight bottles, one inside the other, the space between to be filled with water 
heated to 120° to 130° F., and the kettle to be fitted with a cover. Never place kettle 
over the fire to heat when more hot water is required ; empty and fill again ; never thaw 
powder by placing it in hot water, or by exposing it tt> the direct action of steam 



IGO EULES AXD EEGUL-\TIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

Powder must not be placed on or near hot steam pipes, steam boilers, stoves, or any 
hot metals, nor exposed to radiated heat therefrom; nor roasted, toasted, or baked, 
or taken near a blacksmith forge; never allow smoking or fire of any description or 
any loose cai)s or fuses near it. 

RULES FOR EMPLOYEES. 

1. Xo employee shall ride on any loaded skip, car, cage, or bucket, nor walk up or 
down any slope or shaft while skip, car, cage, or bucket is above. 

2. The i)it boss shall each day carefully examine and sound hanging v.-all at working 
face, and remove loose rock or ore before drilling. 

3. Machine runners shall sound hanging wall at working face and remove loose rock 
or ore before proceeding to drill. 

4. No employees shall handle explosives nor do any blasting except the person 
designated by the superintendent. 

5. After a blast no one except blaster shall be allowed inside of mine where same was 
fired until blaster has made personal examination and pronounced all safe. 

6. No iron or steel bars, unless tipped with 6 inches of copper or other soft metal shall 
be used for tamping explosives. 

7. The superintendent or person designated shall daily examine all mining api)li- 
ances and see that they are in safe condition. 

8. In case of a misfire no one shall return to that part of the mine in less than three 
hours, or until the blaster, after personal examination, shall have pronounced all safe. 

9. No person addicted to the use of intoxicants shall have charge of any explosives, 
boilers, engines, or hoist, nor shall any person imder the influence of liquor be allowed 
in any part of the mine. 

OREGON." 

SECTIONS 2139, 2149. SALE OF LIQUOR. 

The sale of intoxicating liquors within one mile of a quartz or placer mine in active 
operation shall be unlawful. 

SECTIONS 5152, ,5153 5154, 5155. SIGNAL CODE. M 

The following signal code is prescribed: 1 bell, hoist; 1 bell, stop; 2 bells, lower; 
2 — 2 bells, calls topman to top of shaft; 3 bells, man to be moved, nm slow; 3 — 1 bells, 
man to be hoisted, run slow; 3 — 2 bells, man to be lowered, run slow; 4 bells, move 
bucketorcage very slow; 4 — 1 bells, start pump; 4 — 2 bells, stop pump; 1 — 3 bells, start 
air compressor; 2 — 3 bells, stop air compressor; 5 bells, send down tools; 6 bells, send 
down timbers; 7 bells, accident; 2 — 2 — 2 bells, change bucket from ore to water, or "sice 
versa; 3—2—1 bells, ready to shoot in shaft. 



RULES GOVERNfING SIGNALS. 



I 



Bucket or cage must be raised 6 feet when not in use. 

Employees must not get on or off bucket or cage whUe in motion. Bell cord must 
be within reach of man on bucket or cage. 

Timbers, tools, etc., to be hoisted or lowered, when longer than the depth of bucket 
or cage, must be securely lashed at upper end to the cable; miners must know they 
will ride up or down shaft without catching. 

Violation of above signals is made ground for discharge. 

The operator is not responsible for accidents happening to employees disobeying 
above rules and signals, which must be signed by the superintendent or by the person 
in charge. 

a Lord's Oregon Laws, 1910. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MINE INSPECTION LAWS. 161 

SOUTH DAKOTA.a 
SECTION 146. APPLICATION OF ACT. 

The act shall not apply to niinos in which only the owners or lessees thereof are 
permitted to work. 

SECTIONS 136-139, 149-152. INSPECTOR. 

The inspector shall be appointed by the governor for a term of two years, by and on 
the advice and consent of the senate. Qnalifications: Shall be a citizen of the United 
States, a resident of tjie State, 30 years of age, and practically acquainted with mines 
ai.d mining and all its branches. Disqualification for office is same as in section 4, 
Arizona law. Salary, §1,200 per annum, and not exceeding .$1,000 for traveling 
and office expenses. Form of oath and seal are prescribed. Allowed 10 cents per mile 
traveled. JIaps, plans, records, etc., are required to be turned over to his successor 
in office. 

SECTIONS 140, 142. DUTIES OF INSPECTOR. 

Prescribes in detail the duties of the inspector with reference to examination of 
mines. The operator is required to render necessary assistance in the making of same, 
liut inspection shall not be at his expense. Inspector shall at least once a year visit 
each mining county, examine as many mines as practicable, and make necessary 
r( commendations for safety of Arorkmen. If a mine is found to be in an unsafe con- 
dition, he shall serve notice upon the operator. 

SECTION 141. COMPLAINT. 
Same as section 204, Idaho law. 

SECTIONS 1, 2.'' LADDERWAYS. 

In shafts 50 feet or more in depth containing two or more compartments, ladderways 
!iall be constructed in a compartment separate from that in which the cage or bucket 
1 ins. Platforms shall be built every 12 feet with inclined ladders between. Viola- 
tion shall be a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 1, 2, 3.*^ SIGNAL CODE. 

Same as prescribed by Idaho law, except 5 bells is call for steam on; bells, steam off; 
7 l)clls, air on; 8 bells, air off; 3—2 —2 bells, send down tools. 

STATION SIGNALS. 

Same as prescribed by Idaho law. 

RULES GOVERNING SIGNALS. 

If cage is wanted ring station signal. Station tender will respond in person. If 
station is full of ore and tender wanted, ring station signal. Copy of code shall be 
posted on gallows frames, and before engineer. 

UTAH.rf 

SECTIONS 1538, 1539, 1510. FENCING OF SHAFTS. 

Any ])ersoii sinking a shaft or well on the pubUc domain shall inclose same with a 
.substantial curb or fence at least 4 J feet high. A mine operator who has caused the 

a. Revised Codes, 1903. « Session Laws, 1903, chap. 181, p. 211. 

i> Session Laws, 1903, chap. 179, p. 210. d Compiled Laws, 1907. 

165.o9°— Bull. 75—15 12 



162 EULES AXD EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

surface to cave and form a pit into which persons or animals are likely to fall shall 
cause same to be filled up or be securely fenced. 

SECTION 15. '9 X. FIRE PROTECTION. 

Same as section 4287, Colorado law, except that a hose of sufficient length to reach 
the farthest point of the ])lant is required to be attached to the feed pump, ready for 
immediate use where steam is used. 

SECTION 1540 X-1. SAFETY CAGES. 

Substantially the same as section 1 of Nevada law (statutes, 1905, p. 199), save that 
bonnet is required to be made of boiler sheet iron, at least three-sixteenths of an inch 
in thickness. 

SECTION 1540 X-2. STORAGE OF POWDER. 

It shall be unlawful for any operator employing more than 10 men at one time t-. 
store in any shaft house or covering of an adit, incline, or tunnel more powder or 
other high explosi^-e than is required for 24 hours' work. 

SECTIONS 1540 X-3; 1540 X-4. FIRST-AID SUPPLIES. 

Ojierators of mines employing 10 or more men shall keep readily accessible a properly 
constructed stretcher, woolen blanket, waterpr(X)f blanket, and other specified first- 
aid supplies fur the treatment of persons injured in the mines. 

WASHINGTON." 

SECTION 75. SHAFTS TO BE FENCED. 

Substantially the same as Nevada law. 

SECTION 89. HOISTING CAGE. 

Substantially the same as section 1510 X-1, Uti\h law. 

WYOMING. ?> 
SECTIONS 3843, 208, 215, 216. INSPECTOR. 

The State geologist shall act ex officio as inspector. He shall be appointed by the 
governor and hold ofiice for a term of six years and receive a salary of $2,400 per an- 
num. No person having a pecuniary interest in any mining property in the Stiit' 
shall be eligible. The sections set forth in detail his duties with reference to fh 
examination of mines and authorize him to cross-examine witnesses at coroners' 
inquests. 

SECTION 3484. ADMISSION TO MINES. 

Substantially the same as section 42G9, Colorado law. 

SECTION 3485. DANGEROUS MINES. 

If the inspector shall find any thing or practice in or about a mine to be dangerous 
or defective, he shall give notice in writing thereof and order sime to be remedied. 
Upon compliance with such order the operator shall notify the insi)ector in writing. 

SECTION 3486. WILLFUL MISREPRESENTATION OF CONDITIONS. 

Subslantiully the .same as section 4P,00, Colorado law. 

a I'ierce's Washington Code, 1912, title 3-15. b Compiled Statutes, 1910. 



DIGEST OF STATE METAL-MIXE IXSPECTIOX LAWS. 163 

SECTIONS 2964, 2966. EXPLOSIVES. 

Explosives shall uot be stored withiii 1,000 feet of any house or habitation, except 
with the sanction of the board of county commissioners. 

SECTIOX 296.5. POWDER MAGAZINE. 

Powder magazines shall be constructed so as to maintain the storage room entirely 
below the natural surface of the adjacent ground. Storage of powder or explosives 
in any other room shall be unlawful. 

SECTIOX 2967. SALE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

Nitroglycerin or other high explosives shall not be sold after 12 months from date of 
manufacture, which date must be marked on each stock of powder. 

SECTIOX 2968. STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES. 

Substantially the same as section 4280, Colorado law, save that the provision con- 
cerning storage of oils is omitted. 

SECTIOX 2969. STORAGE OF OILS. 

Substantially the same as section 4277, Colorado law. 

SECTIOX 2970. TAMPIXG BAR. 

Substantially the same as section 4282, Colorado law. 

SECTIOX 5890. INTOXICATING LIQUORS. 

The entry into any mine or metallurgical works of any person under tlie influence 
of liquor, or the carr^v'ing of mtoxicatuig liquor into same, shall be a misdemeanor. 

SECTIONS 3489, 3490. MINE SIGNALS. 

The following signal code is prescribed: 1 bell, hoist; 1 bell, stop (if in motion); 
2 bells, lower; 3 bells, men on, run slowly; 7 bells, accident, hoist or lower by verbal 
orders only; 3 — 2 — 1 bells, ready to shoot — after receiving signal, engineer shall 
raise the bucket or cage 2 feet and lower agam, remainmg at post until final signal is 
given and executed. 

Signals not in conflict with the above may be adopted . The inspector is empowered 
to enforce the adoj^tion of this code. 

RULES GOVERNING SIGNALS. 

Make stroke on bell al regular intervals. Each bar must take the same time as 1 
stroke of bell. 

When men are to be hoisted or lowered give signal of 3 bells; men must then got 
on bucket or cage: then give signal to hoist or lower. 

Timbers, tools, etc., longer than depth of basket must be securel}- lashed before 
being hoisted or lowered. 

SECTION 3491. HOISTING ENGINEER. 
Same as section 4284, Colorado law. 

SECTION 3492. VISITORS. 
Same as section 4301, Colorado law. 



CHAPTER Yll. 

ORGANIZATION OF EXISTING STATE MINE-INSPECTION 

SYSTEMS. 



By L. O. Kellogg. 



As this report is concerned with designing a system of State inspec- 
tion of metal mines that will prove effective, it is a matter of interest 
and concern to inquire as to what provision is made at present for this 
purpose in the several metal-mbiing States. It is found that 
conditions are as various as the number of States. In many 
mines, notably in such important metal-producing States as 
Alabama, California, Kansas, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, 
Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin, there is no permanent 
inspector whatever whose duties include safeguarding the health and 
lives of metal-mine workers, although some of these States, such as 
Alabama, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington, provide with some 
degree of care for the inspection of their coal mines, which arc no 
more dangerous. Of the other States, Temiessee and Oklahoma 
provide for the inspection of metal mines by the coal-mine inspectors, 
and North Carolina makes the commissioner of labor and printing the 
ijispector of mmes. This official has never performed the duties of 
the office because no appropriation has been made therefor. In 
Wyoming the State geologist is ex officio inspector of mines. Oregon 
supports a bureau of mines and geology but mine inspection is not 
one of its duties. In two States, although there is no State inspection 
system, the principal mining counties provide inspectors, whose 
duties are not unlike those of deputies in a State system. These 
States are Minnesota, with three such county inspectors, and Michigan, 
with eight. Systematic State inspection of metal mines is carried on 
by Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New York, 
South Dakota, and Temxessoe. In Alaska there is a Federal mine 
inspector working under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of 
Mines. The California Industrial Accident Commission, acting in 
conjunction with the Federal Bureau of Mines, in January, 1914, 
engaged H. M. Wolflin, mining engineer of the bureau, to make a 
study of minhig conditions in California with especial regard to safety, 
his salary and expenses being borne jomtly by the commission and 
the bureau. 

Notwithstanding the fact that metal muiing had been conducted 
on an extensive scale m many of the States for ycai-s before, it was 
164 



OKGANIZATIOX OF STATE MINE-INSPECTION SYSTEMS. 165 

not until the late eighties that State inspection of metal mines was 
])rovidecl for. Michigan and ^Missouri were the pioneers, their laws 
being enacted in 1887. They were followed by Montana in 1888, 
and by Colorado and Idaho in the next following year. New 
York passed an inspection law in 1890, and South Dakota took similar 
action in 1893. The legislation in other States that now have metal- 
mine inspection departments is of comparatively recent date. Ari- 
zona provided for such inspection as soon as statehood was granted, 
whereas the great mining State of Nevada has had an inspector and 
deputy iiispector of mines only since 1909, and in Minnesota, perhaps 
our most important metal-mining State, inspection dates only from 
1905. 

ARIZONA. 

Arizona provides rather well for her mine inspection, although she 
falls considerably short of the recommendations of this committee. 
In 1913 there was expended for this purpose S12,.571, of which S3,000 
was for the salary of the chief inspector. The number of mines 
inspected was 84, and the total number of inspections made was 266 ; 
that is, the inspection of each mine was made on an average once every 
tour months or somewhat oftener. The law requires that every mine 
employing 50 or more men shall be visited at least every three months 
and that every mine employing between 6 and 50 men shall be 
visited at least once a year. The total number of men employed was 
13,933. These figures represent a cost of about $150 per mine 
inspected and of about 90 cents per employee. 

COLORADO. 

The metal-mine inspection of Colorado is in charge of a bureau of 
mines. The inspection of coal mines is performed by another depart- 
ment of the State government. The appropriation for the bureau is 
made biennially by the legislature. That for the years 1913 and 1914 
was distributed as follows: For salaries of commissioner, four inspec- 
tors, secretary, and stenographer, $24,800; for other expenses, 
810,800; a total of $35,600. For the two-year period, 1911-12, the 
total appropriation was $33,400. No fees are collected except for 
copying reports, and these are of little consequence. The commis- 
sioner is the head of the bureau; each of the four inspectors has 
jurisdiction over a number of counties. Early in 1914 the inspection 
list of the bureau contained the names of 737 mmes. Each inspector 
is required to visit every operatiiig mine in his district at least once 
a year and also to make immediate investigation of all fatal or serious 
accidents occurring in his district. In 1912 there were 23,004 men 
engaged in mining, milling, an<l smelting in the State, and it was 
thought that the number so emph)yed in 1913 was over 24,500. The 
annual unit costs are thus $24 per mine and 70 cents per man. 



166 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

IDAHO. 

The State of Idaho appropriates $5,000 annually for its mining de- 
partment. Of this sum $2,400 is for the salary of the single inspector, 
who has also to act as State geologist. The number of men employed 
in connection with the minmg industry of the State in 1913 was about 
6,200. There are about 900 incorporated development properties 
and operating muies in the State and it is required by law that among 
these all that, ill the judgment of the inspector, require ijispection 
shall be inspected at least once every year. About 50 are judged to 
require mspection. The capital of Idaho is 500 miles frt)m the 
principal mhimg- district, the Coeur d'Alenes. The duties of the 
inspector are numerous and the appropriation small. For that 
reason, the single formal inspection is about all that can be under- 
taken, and serious accidents are seldom investigated unless they occur 
durmg the visit of the inspector. The cost per mine would come to 
about $100 and the cost per man about SO cents. 

MICHIGAN. 

^Michigan, under the county inspection system, is by far the mos 
thoroughly inspected State. However, the salaries paid by tt 
several counties are relatively low. As the number of mines to bi 
inspected is small in proportion tf) the large inspection force, the 
inspection naturally tends to be more frequent. As a result, although 
the law requires that each mine be inspected 3 times a year, in practice 
the mines are inspected 2 to 20 time-s. Of course, as regards 
the safety conditions for which the inspector is responsible, the great 
depth of some of the mines offsets in part their smaller immber. fl 

Eight counties in Michigan maintain mine inspectors. In Baraga 
County, although no active mining is performed, an inspector is found 
necessary to see that the five mining properties and the one quarry 
keep their protecting fences in repair, Thoy are visited for this 
purpose every month. The inspector receives a salary of $250 per 
year. The only mining employees are watchmen. Dickinson 
County pays its inspector $1 ,800 per annum, and allows him 4 cents 
per mile for traveling expenses. The mines in the county employ 
about 2,700 men, there being 16 mines in operation, some that operate 
intermittently and some properties in ]irocess of exploration. These 
are inspected every 30 days. Gogebic County appropriates $3,000 
per year for mine inspection, out of which $5 a day is paid to the chief 
inspector. The 26 mines on the inspection list are visited at least 
once everv' 60 <lays and oftener if necessar}'; 5,256 men are employed. 
In Houghton County the chief inspector receives $150 per month. 
Each shaft in the county is visited once a month. There are 73 shafts 
and about 14,000 employees. Iron County expends $5,000 annually 
for nunc inspection. There are a chief inspector an<l two <leputies, 



ORGAlSriZATION OF STATE MIXE-IXSPECTIOX SYSTEMS. 167 

the former receiving S2,400 per year. There were 36 active and 20 
inactive mines in the county at the time information was given, and 
each of these was inspected at least once a month and some even 
once every 20 days. The average number of men employed was 
3,667. In Keweenaw County the single mine inspector receives a 
salary of $1,700 and visits the four properties on his list at least once 
every 30 days. The number of employees is normally about 2,500. 
The inspector of Marquette County receives an annual salary of 
$2,000, the total ajmual expenditure being about $2,350. He has 43 
mines and 6 quarries on his list, which are visited at least once every 
60 days and frequently oftener. The number of employees is 5,300. 
Ontonagon County appropriates $800 per year for mine inspection. 
The single inspector under normal conditions has about 11 mines to 
visit, the number of employees being about 700. The total number 
of mines and quarries to be inspected in the State is about 241 and 
the number of employees about 34,100. The total expenditure being 
somewhere around $20,200, the costs per mine and per man are 
approximately $84 and 60 cents. 

MINNESOTA. 

Although Minnesota maintains a department of mines and 

minerals, this is concerned solely with the administration of the 

State's ore lands, the work of mspecting the mines as to their safety 

being in the hands of county inspectors. There are three of these 

for the three prmcipal mining counties, St. Louis, Itasca, and Crow 

Wing. The inspector for St. Louis County, comprising the central 

and eastern part of the Mesabi Range and the Vermilion, receives 

$2,000 for salaiy and $600 for traveling expenses. For 1913 he had 

on his list 119 mines, of which 99 were operating and were visited 

eveiy 90 days. The number of employees for that year was 16,048. 

The inspector for Itasca County, the western end of the Mesabi 

Range, receives a salary of $1,200. There were in the county in 1913, 

20 mines, which he visited two or three times a month. In that year 

2,600 men were employed. The inspector for Crow Wing County, 

the Cuyuna Range, receives a salary of $1 ,000. He visits the 16 mines 

on his list every two months or of tenor when necessary. In 1913 

about 1,400 men were employed in and about the mhies of the county. 

The total expenditure for inspection in IMinnesota is probably about 

$5,250, the number of mines inspected 155, and the number of 

employees 20,045. The cost per mine would be about $34 and per 

man about 26 cents. 

MISSOURI. 

Missouri has recently increased the number of lead and ziiic 
inspectors from two to four and created the office of chief insj)ector, 
bringing the State in line with the States of Colorado and Arizona as 



f 

168 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

regards the number of inspectors. She provides Uberally for the 
inspection of her mines and the inspection is thorough. The annual 
appropriation is $17,600. There is a chief inspector receiving a 
salary of $2,000, and six deputies, receiving $1,800 each; two of the 
latter, however, are assigned to coal mines. The inspection list con- 
tains the names of about 650 mines, and each of these is visited from 
two to four times a month. The total number of men employed in 
connection with the metalliferous mines is about 20,000. If the num- 
ber of metal mines, be taken at 500 and the expenditure on this 
inspection put at $11,920, the costs per mine and per man amount to 

$24 and 60 cents. 

MONTANA. 

^Montana appropriates $6,000 for mine inspection. Of this sum, the 
chief inspector receives $2,500 as salary and the single deputy $2,400. 
The inspection list contains the names of 352 mines, each of which is 
required by law to be visited at least once a year; in practice the most 
important are visited three times a year. It is estimated that the 
metal mines of the State employ about 15,500 men. The unit costs 
would be $17 per mine and 39 cents per man. 

NEVADA. 

The annual appropriation in the State of Nevada is $9,500. The 
inspection force consists of the chief inspector and one deputy, the 
former receiving a salary of $3,600 and the latter $2,400. There are 
about 450 mines on the inspection list, each of which is visited at 
least once a year, and oftener if the method of working or the char- 
acter of the ground requires it. The number of men is about 5,000. 
The costs are therefore about $21 })er mine and $1.90 per man. 

NEW YORK. 

Mine inspection in New York is carried on by the State department 
of labor. There is a single inspector whose salary is $1,800 a year 
together with traveling expenses. There are about 45 mines operat- 
ing in the State and requiring visiting, and in the spring, summer, 
and fall over 200 quarries are worked, their inspection falling within 
the province of the department. The number of men employed in 
the mines of the State in 1913 was 3,344 and the number employed 
in quarries 5,156. The annual expenditure is about $2,400; and if 
the quarries be considered equivalent to half a mine each, and the 
quarry employees similarly reduced, the costs would be about $16.50 
per mhio and 40 cents per man. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

South Dakota, whose mijung industry is concentrated in a rela- 
tively small area, appropriates $2,350 for mine inspection. The 
single inspector receives a salary of $1,600 per year and is allowed 10 
cents per mile for traveUng expenses. There are 45 active mines 



ORGANIZATION OF STATE MINE-INSPECTION SYSTEMS. 169 

requiring inspection. Althougli the law stipulates that every mine 
be inspected at least once a year, the inspector endeavors to visit 
once in three months each mine that employs more than 10 men. 
The number of men employed in mining is about 2,800. Hence the 
costs approximate $52 per mine and 84 cents per man. 

TENNESSEE. 

The State of Tennessee has a well-developed system of inspection 
and provides generously for the compensation of the inspectors, but 
the most of their activities are concerned with coal mines. The 
mining department has charge of coal, metal, and other mines, and 
does a good deal of work of a statistical nature in connection with 
the mineral production of the State, besides looking after inspection. 
The staff consists of a chief inspector, receiving a salary of $3,000, two 
field district inspectors, and one office district inspector or statistician, 
receiving salaries of $2,000 each, a clerk, and a stenographer. The 
various mines have to pay fees for their inspection, the income from 
this source helping largely to support the department. In 1912 there 
were 17 iron, copper, phosphate, and zinc mine openings visited. 
One to two inspections were made of each mine. The total number 
of employees was about 1,000. The ratio of coal-mine inspections to 
metal and other mine inspections is about 14 to 1, a fair measure 
probably of the cost of the two classes and their share in the work of 
the bureau. 

NUMBER OF INSPECTORS. 

The inspection forces of Michigan, Missouri, Arizona, and Colorado 
are large as compared with those of Idaho and New York, where one 
inspector is required to cover the entire State, or with that of Nevada, 
where two inspectors are compelled to examine about 450 mines 
between them. Taken in connection with the requirements imposed 
by statute of collecting a large amount of statistical data with little 
or no clerical help, it will be readily seen how impossible of adequate 
accomplishment is the task set the inspector in the States where only 
one such is employed. 

METHODS OF SELECTING INSPECTOR. 

As to the manner of selection for office, the States are evenly divided, 
about half providing for the election of the inspector, the other half 
providing for his appointment, usually by the governor. Michigan 
in 1911 went over to the elective s3^stem after having had the inspector 
for 24 years selected by the county supervisors. With the exception 
of Oklahoma, where the deputy inspectors are also elected, the chief 
inspector is in all cases empowered after election to appoint his own 
deputies. This is also true of all the States where the inspector is 
appointed by the governor, with the exceptio!i of Mojitana, where 
the governor also appoints the deputy. This arrangement is ^\Tong 



170 RULES AND KEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

m principle, inasmuch as the man in charge should unquestionably 
liave the right to select his own suborcUnates if he is to be held respon- 
sible for the proper discharge of the duties of the office. 

SALARIES OF INSPECTORS. 

As regards salaries, there is the greatest disparity in the laws of 
the several States. Nevada pays the maximum, $3,600, while two 
other States allow the chief hispector $3,000, these beuig ^Viizona 
and Colorado. The remainuig States allow ajumal salaries varymg 
between $1,000 and $2,400. The deputies appear to average about 
$1,800 per year, Nevada and Montana payhig the maximum of $2,400. 
A Michigan deputy at $3.50 per day would average between $1,000 
and $1,300 per year. It is somewhat remarkable that with the pres- 
ent scale of salaries the States can attract men as well fitted for their 
positions as many of them are. Nevada has set an excellent example 
of generosity, which could be followed by her sister States to their 
ultimate advantage. 

Although it has not proved possible to obtaui complete data cover- 
ing the first appropriations made for metal-muie inspection, yet 
insofar as such information h:is been obtauied, it shows that the 
amounts have remained practically constant from the beginning, 
the increase, if any, being only thi-ee or four thousand dollars. Not 
only is this true, but the amounts seem entirely inadequate when the 
value of the mijicrai production m these States is taken into consid- 
eration. Even Micliigan, the most generous State, spends only a 
little over $20,000, as against a mineral production that would be 
valued at about $77,000,000 on the most conservative basis. In 
one State, New York, the ainiual appropriation is less than two- 
thirds what it was 24 years ago. The annual appropriations as a 
whole vary between $5,000 and $16,000, with more States under the - 
$10,000 mark than over it. It is apparent, with the number of 
mines rumiing into the hundreds, employing several thousands of 
men m the most hazardous of occupations and adduig annually mil- 
lions to the wealth of State and Nation, that such appropriations are 
wholly insufiicient to care for the responsible work of inspection, and 
are utterly incommensurate with the importance of the industry 
and the severity of the hazards. 

Not alone are the most of the salaries too low to be attractive, but 
the same deficiency exists as regards the length of the term of office, 
tending to prevent its being filled by men who might otherwise be 
induced to accept the place. In only two States is the tenure of 
office indofitute. In throe States it is four yeai-s, Init in the others it 
is only two. 

FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION. 

In the matter of (ho fioquency of inspection there is great variation. 
Michigan's law is the most exact nig, requiring not less than six iu- 



OEGAXIZATIOX OF STATE MIXE-INSPECTIOX SYSTEMS. 171 

s25ectioiis a year. Most of the States require only that each mine 
be inspected at least once a year. Several specify that the iiisjjector 
visit each mining county once a year and inspect such nmies as in 
his judgment require it. It is a fact, however, that almost all the 
inspector are much more dihgent in their inspecting than 'the law 
requires them to be, usually exceeding the stipulated number of 
inspections from two to four fold. 

TABULATED SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF INQUIRY. 

A table summarizmg the results of the mquiry is appeiided. It 
shows m detail the chief features of the inspection systems of the States 
that maintain separate metal-mhie mspection departments. 

It wiU be noted that the cost of mspection per mine ranges from 
$16.50 in Xew York to $150 in Arizona, and the costs per man, from 
26 cents in Mmnesota to $1.90 in Nevada. The averages would be 
about S34 and 53 cents. The generosity or nigo;ardliness of the 
various State or county governments is not the only factor causing 
these extreme variations. Thus a State in which the muring industry 
is concentrated within a small area can conduct efficient uispectiou 
most cheaply. This condition exists in South Dakota and the fact 
that both figures are about an average for that commoiiwealth indi- 
cates that inspection is thorough, measured by the present standards 
of American practice. A State %vith its nmies scattered m all quarters 
or remote fi-om the seat of government must expect to pay more for 
its inspection; such States are Idaho, Nevada, and Aiizona. Again, 
in the more thickly settled commmiities, travel is m general faster 
and cheaper and mspection correspondingly cheaper, as in New 
York. If the mines of the State are large and few, the cost of mspec- 
tion per mine will usually be high and the cost per man be low. How- 
ever, other factors may conflict with the operation of this nile. Thus 
in J^Iumesota, while the mines are xevy large, they are concentrated 
and the appropriations for inspection are not generous; consequently 
both costs are low. In Arizona, on the other hand, although the same 
condition exists, the industry is scattered and generous appropria- 
tions are made, so that both costs are high. Where there are many 
small mines, as m Colorado and ]\Iissouri, the cost per mine is low, 
although both of these Commonwealths make relatively large 
appropriations. 

It should be remarked that too much significance can not be at- 
tached to the figures under discussion, because the number of mines, 
the number of employees, and even the amount expended are esti- 
mated in many cases. The average of 53 cents per man is an excellent 
criterion of the attention that safety work is at present receiving at 
the hands of the State governments. It is ridicidously low; $2 per 
man would not be any too much to pay for inspection ; money wisely 
expended in this work is sure to be ultimately a paying investment. 



172 



RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 



^ 



cm 



a® o 









V; tc t£ A d 

O g- C .S O . 



of 2 



|oii-£ 



3 p,-d 






C^P. 



o^.s o . 
o -J-, i S ^ 



•*- o 



c o c a 



p..._, 



<5 



CO(N<N N W N N « N eOMCOCO-* 



A— 

<1 



ft-S 



d d c d-3 ? 



c;C c It s £ 



^ p;«i ^ 



i-< 1-* »-* C^ CO CO 1-t tH 1-H CO *-H .-I .-H CO »0 



M C^ .-I rt 



rt -H CS rt —. . 






„ ^ _ _H _ .^ ccoco 



0C50 C^CiClOOO OiClClCloO 



.-< ^ o 



oco oooooo ooooo 

o c: o '000*000 o o o "O c^i 

CS QC O CO O I^ CO iC C^l O (M ^ C^ C^ 

-h'co" -9'~>o'.-req"'^ O ^•-^l:ilO-^ 



i 



00 OO OC S CC OO 
00 OO OC OO 00 oo 



t^ i>- r^ t--. r'- r^ r- r^ r— lo >o lO »o t-^ 



00 00 00 00 OC OO 00 c 



o o o o oo 



; CO OC QC 00 00 00 CO O O CS Ci GO 



.2 3 



:S.53 

2a 



o :o go 



11? 



S8 



S ^ !2; 



ORGAXIZATION OF STATE MINE-IXSPECTION SYSTEMS. 



173 



g o 



o o c 3 -2 



a. c » 
g P o 



fj ® H c 2 









c o 



-^ C Ci O O -*• 

c^ ^ cc Ci ■-r «: 



O O <=:■ o o 
c C o c: o 



p r-< o »r: o CO o ; 






: O CO "13 TP Cl I— I -H O C O O O CI O 

I (M t^ O 'C" ^ ^ .-I <N ^ lO »0 ir: o 



> (N CS C^ <?! ^ 

^ ^ ^ "*^ 

•« -i< ^ 






r. t) 

E © g ~ .^ 

5 2 .^ oi ;>> 



P § is 



C t. 3 



f-l ^O'^CQO'^COCOOCO 



oooooooo 



*- = w> x »j : 



3 >. » C 



c o ii'C o c o o 
*oo,^oooco 



—l O"-' INrt (N 









o o o 
X *r t* 



= c; c o o 
o c: c o o 

o o -— cc -^ 



C^ C^ CO-H r-H 






.s .i c £ £ 






illll 

5 'yr-S 



o ,ri ffi 3 



■C C3 



i!:c. 








=^ 


s s* 


P O 






^ fl 


S^ 


— **-• 


"-^xs 







g c 






= c 2 £ 



H." ^ = 3 

C 'il ►= c o 



CHAPTER VIII. 

statisticatj data on jpatal. and nonfatal, 
accidents. 



By C. B. DuTTOx. 



ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

The uccompaDying tables were compiled for the purpose of showii 
by figm-es covering an extended period of yeare the comparati> 
death and injury rates m the metal mines of the United States and ^ - 
foreign countries. It was considered that such a comparison v/oiild 
indicate forcibly the necessity for the adoption of a general code of 
safety rules and regulations such as are contained in the proposed 
draft of a law prepared by the committee. 

Table 6 clearly shows that metal minijig in the United States and 
Canada is a more hazardous occupation than m any other comitry, 
with the sole exception of the Transvaal, where the conditions iwc 
wholly dissimilar and where the bulk of the mme labor is composed 
of the native colored races. 

Tlie excessive death rate in the metal mmes of the United States 
may be readily analyzed by an examination of this talkie. The 
number of men shown to have been employed m the metal mhies of 
the United States for the period 1894-1911 is little in excess of the 
number of meji employed in the metal mines of Australasia for the 
same period, yet nearly two and one-half times as maiiy men were 
killed in the mines of the United States as in those of Australasia. 
In Great Britain, with approximately one-half as many men in the 
metal mines, less than one-fifth as majiy were killed in that period. 
In India, with approximately one-third the number of men in gold 
and mica mines, less than one-fifth as many men were killed as were 
killed in the United States. In Austria, with about one-eighth as many 
men, less than one- twenty-sixth as many were killed. In Russia, 
with approximately two-thirds as many men, less than ojie-fifth as 
many were killed. In Italj^, \viih. a little more than one-half as many 
men, less than one-third as many were killed. 

These showings are significant enough, but when it is token into 
consideration that the total number of lives lost in the Uiiited States 
for this period would j)robably be between nine and ten thousand if 
complete returns wer^^ olUainable, the comi:)arisons shown in the table 
become all the mine strDdng. 
174 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 175 

The high death rate iii the United States and Canada is probably 
to be partly explauied by the fact that nmimg in these two countries 
is only m its infancy as compared with the continental countries 
generally, both countries having only recently passed beyond the 
first stage m the exploitation of their vast virgin resources; this has 
made a high state of discipline and effective mine regulation on the 
part of both the State and the operator extremely difficult in the past. 
Although conditions have changed, many of the objectionable features 
of the earlier days still continue. It must be admitted, however, 
that in comparison %vith Australasia this explanation will not hold, 
inasmuch as those States are even younger than the United States 
and are less developed. Possibly the great proportion of English- 
speaking laborers there employed is largely responsible for the excel- 
lent showing that Australasia makes. The more stable expansion 
and development of the industry, which is bound to come with the 
opening X)f new fields of usefulness for our mineral resources, and 
with improvements in metallurgical practices, will brmg in its train 
a higher degree of intelligent supervision and regulation than the 
past has afforded. The high death rate attendant upon the fii^st 
stage m the development of a new industry so mherently dangerous 
as the mining industry is not peculiar to this country, but has been 
characteristic of the mining industry everywhere. 

In addition to this reason for the high death rate in English- 
speaking North America there is the great difBculty in maintaining 
discipline among mine employees. This is especially true m the 
United States, where a mistaken spirit of independence leads the 
miner to refuse observance to sensible rules devised for his own 
protection. This raatter is discussed more at length elsewhere ui 
this report. 

It should be noted that all the death and mjury rates here listed 
are referred to the mimber of employees. It is often urged that such 
rates should be calculated to the number of tons of product. As 
regards pure theory this method is probably logical. A cold-blooded 
statement would be that a certain sacrifice of human life and limb 
is necessary to produce the world's metal. By working at high 
speed the number of tons of product per shift of work can be increased, 
but the hazards of the work are also mcreased or are likely to be 
increased thereby. If the relative increases of production and acci- 
dents be such that the accident rate per 1,000,000 tons, say, remams 
the same, the result is the same as regards society at large, yet the 
showmg per 1,000 men employed or per 300,000 man-shifts of work 
is worse. Such an increase is actually what ha})pens to a certahi 
extent in this country. 

There are two objections to the eraployme:\t of this, basis of com- 
parison. The first is that it tends to justify unii.ecessary risk on the 



17G RULES AXD EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

ground that Increased production more than compensates for an 
increased hazard. There is thus a tendency to a letting down of the 
bars. Furthermore, humanitarian considerations require that deaths 
and injuries he viewed as a absohite loss to mankind rather than as 
a measure of the cost of the wealth produced. The seoond o])jection 
is of more immediate weight; the rates have not been thus calculated 
at all generally and figures are therefore not available. 

It would be desirable to collect statistics bearhig on the death and 
injury rates per unit of production hereafter and present them along 
with the rates based on the number of employees. Such a practice 
would give a better oi:)portmiity of judging the actual conditions 
existhig and of making comparisons between different countries and 
different districts. On a tonnage basis, the showuig of the United 
States would be greatly improved. Unquestionably, in the United 
States and Canada, a greater tonnage per man is produced than 
anywhere else in the world; it is probably greater even than in Aus- 
tralasia, but probably also is not enough greater to overcome the 
far lower accident rates existing there. The showings of such coun- 
tries as India'and South, Africa would be far worse, where the low 
elTiciency of the native labor results in an extremely low tonnage per 
man. The showuigs of England and continental Europe would also i 
be relatively poorer,.as efficiencies there are admittedly lower. Yet 
it is doubtful whether even the adoption of the tonnage basis of 
comparison would result in actually changing the respective positions 
of the several countries mentioned, arranged in the order of the 
magnitude of their mining death rates. 

With the noticeable and increasing interest in the subject of mine- ; 
accident provention on the part of the average oj^erator and mine . 
manager, and a gro\ving sense of personal responsibility on their i 
part whenever a fatal accident occurs in the mine ujider their charge, | 
we may reasonably expect a gradual reduction in the annual death ^ 
rate in metal mines, which will compare favorably with the steadily 
decreasing death rate in the coal mines of the country. 

COMPARATIVE DEATH RATES IN COAL AND METAL MINES. 

In the United States, the absence of spectacular metal-mine dis- 
asters, which would attract public attention to the loss of life m such 
mines, has caused the occurrence of fatal and nonfatal accidents 
therein to receive far less attention than the number of such accidents 
or the importance of the mctal-mhiing industry demands. Tlni 
figures presented ui Table 7 seem to estabhsh that the loss of hfe in 
metal mines is somewhat higher hi comparison with the number of 
men employed, than is the loss of life in coal mines, and that this is 
true not for any one year only, but for the entire period of eighteen 
years covered by the table. 



i 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 177 

This statement is based on the fact that the yearly rates and total 
average rate for the metal mines of the United States are unquestion- 
ably too low, as some States mclude millmen and smelters in the 
total number of men employed, whereas others include a small number 
of quarrymen, and an estimated number of men engaged in prospectmg, 
without, however, mcludmg the injuries occurring to these classes 
of persons, thus swellmg the total of those engaged in the minmg in- 
dustry, but also lowering the death rate per 1,000 men employed. It 
gives an incorrect value to the occupational hazard of the miner to 
include those engaged m mills and smelting plants in arrivhig at the 
total number of men employed in and about the mines, even where 
the accidents to such employees are reported, as such accidents are 
relatively few compared with true minmg accidents, and the hiclusion 
of such figures results in a more favorable showing in a comparison of 
death and injury rates ui the mines than the State is rightly entitled 
to claim. 

If doubtful figures could be rejected and the Ust of deaths and in- 
juries confined to true mining accidents, there is every reason to 
believe not alone that the annual rates would be higher, but that the 
total average fatahty rate for the period 1894-1911 would not be less 
than 4 per 1,000 men employed in the metal mines of the United 
States, as compared with 3.51 per 1,000 employed m the coal mines 
for the period 1896-1911. 

One other consideration, however, tends to make the case better 
for the metal mines as compared with the coal mines. This is the 
fact that the metal mines work on the average more days in the year 
than do the coal mhies. Thus the metal-mme employees are exposed 
to more risk than the coal-mine employees. The difference is well 
analyzed in Technical Paper 61 of the Bureau of Mines. « If both 
classes of employment are reduced to a common time basis, the 
hijury and death rates for coal minmg are mcreased relative to those 
for metal mming. The most convenient time basis is 300 days. 
Suppose, for example, a mhie with 1,000 employees to have worked 300 
days in the year and to have had 4 accidental deaths. Its rate is 4 
per 1,000. Suppose another mine with 1,000 employees to have 
worked 200 days and to have had 4 deaths. Figured in the ordinary 
way, its rate is also 4 per 1,000. But the miners in the second mine 
were exposed to risk for only two-thirds of the time that the men of 
the first mme were. By reduction to the 300-day basis, the first rate 
is imchanged, the second rate is divided by 200 and multiplied by 
300, with a resulting rate of 6 per 1,000. This is evidently a fairer 
basis of comparison. It amounts to calculathig the rate per 300,000 
man shifts of work. 



a Fay, A. 11. , Metal mine accidents in the United States during the calendar year 1912. 1'J13, 7(i jip. 
1G550°— Bull. 75—15 13 



178 KULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

It is most desirable tliat this basis be adopted for future calculations 
in all States of this country and in other countries as well. It will tend 
to ehniLnate many discrepancies and to show true conditions in the 
industry. When the number of injuries or deaths is calculated merely 
to the 1,000 men employed without regard to the number of days of 
work, the intermittently working mhie is unduly favored and makes a 
better showing than the one working steadily. 

SOUKCE OF STATISTICS. 

The figures contamed in the tables foUowmg were compiled directly 
from the several official reports, save as otherwise mdicated, witii 
the exception of the figures for the continental countries, and the 
British colonies outside of Canada and Australasia, which were taken 
from the reports pubhshed by the British Home Department. The 
figures relate to metal and miscellaneous mineral mmes only. 
All quarry and coal mmhig figures have been excluded, as well as 
figures for cement plants, fimekihis, brick works, etc., which are 
included by some countries. This selection has resulted m the rejec- 
tion of figures for some countries where the coal and metal minhig 
figures have been lumped together 

FATALITY RATE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

It has proved impossible to obtain complete and accurate figures 
for the entire United States for the period 1894-1911. Many of the 
States did not have official mme inspection until within the last 
decade. Other important mming States, such as California, Alabama, 
and Utah have had no mine inspection up to the present time, except 
that California has just made a survey of conthtions m her muiing in- 
dustry as regards safety; hence statistics for these States are unpro- 
curable. At the time the figures were obtamed, furthermore, i^rizona 
had not organized an inspection system and no statistics were available 
from that State. In other instances it has been impossible to obtain 
the desired data for some of the early years, no record either having 
been kept or being now available. The figures given are therefore 
for those States bi which there was iiispection service. 

It is discreditable that such meager returns should be available 
for the metal-muiijig mdustry m the States generally. Even when 
official reports arc published, the results for the entire State ar(^ 
usually lumped together, so that no difterentiation can be mack^ 
among the several mdustries, such as copper mmmg, iron mining, 
and precious-metal mining. In this respect the corresponding reports 
for the Canadian Provinces and Australian Colonies are m striking 
contrast. There is no satisfactory reason why returns should b<- 
made of the accidents occurring in the coal mines of Alabama and 
Utah, for example, and not in the metal mmes of those States; and 



I 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 179 

why no returns at all should bo made for such an important mmuig 
State as California. Now that the Bui'eau of Mines has started to 
collect annual statistics concerning metal-mining accidents it will 
be possible hereafter to present the data in as great detail as is custom- 
ary in some of the other countries. 

It is shown by the data available that the death rate in the metal 
mmes of the United States is 3.28 per 1,000 men employed for the 
total period. As suggested, if accurate and complete figures were 
obtainable, the average for the period would unquestionably be closer 
to 4 per 1,000. 

Table 8 gives the deaths by years and States for the entire United 
States so far as statistics are available. There was no official inspec- 
tion of mines in Mimiesota until the latter part of 1905, and none 
in Nevada until 1909. Figures for Idaho are available only from 1903 
onward, as the first inspector did not publish accident statistics. In 
Tennessee metal mines are inspected by the coal-mine inspectors. 
Both Michigan and Minnesota have the comity-inspection system, 
and the returns of those States are made by counties for that reason. 
The first mine inspector in Michigan was appointed in 1887. 
Although, as previously stated, the figures are necessarily incomplete, 
they show that a total of 5,764 deaths occurred in the metal mines 
of the United States for the period 1894-1911. If complete figures 
were available it is probable that the true total would be between 
9,000 and 10,000. 

The pubfication of the figures of metal-mine accidents for 1911 
by the Bureau of Mmes affords an interesting check on the results 
recorded in this table. The figures gathered directly from the oper- 
ators show a total of 695 deaths, as compared with 427 deaths for 
the States represented in Table 8. This is a difference of over 250 
for the year and accounts for the difi'ercnce in the death rates of 4.19 
and 3.46 for this particular year. Assuming that this difference 
held throughout the entire period covered it would make a difference 
in the total of over 4,000 deaths. 

Table 9 gives the numbers killed per 1,000 men employed in the 
mines of the United States for the period 1894-1911. The highest 
single death rate recorded is 82,35 for iron mining in New York State 
for 1895. This is extremely high, but the report shows that out of the 
total of 340 men employed, 28 deaths occurred, 26 of these deaths 
bemgdue to falls of rock. The next highest rate is that of 14.72 for the 
iron mines of Iron County, Mich., for the year 1904. The highest 
average rate for the States included in the table is 4.67 for the u-on 
mines of Minnesota. Michigan has the next highest rate, 3.83. The 
lowest rate for any State is that for Tennessee, which is 0.80; this 
extremely low rate is probably due to the large number of men 
engaged in phosphate mining, in wdiich the hazards are slight. The 



180 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

rates for the miscellaneous nujieral mines of Tennessee for the jx^riod 
is only 0.66, only two deaths being recorded for the entire period. 
The average rate for Colorado, 2.79, is nndoiibtedly low because of 
the inclusion of figures covering the men employed in mills and 
smelting plants. It is probable that the true rate for the miners and 
mine workers alone would approximate 3.50. The highest rate for 
Colorado is shown to be 4.03, whereas the lowest is 1.96 for 1908. 
Idaho has a low average rate of 2.51, its highest rate being 3.50 for 
the year 1905. The iron mines of Michigan show for the period the 
very high average rate of 4.70. This is much higher than the corre- 
sponding rate for ,the copper mines of Houghton County, which is 
3.05. The highest average rate for any of the Micliigan counties 
is that for Iron County, which is 7.55. The highest rate for Minne- 
sota is 7.25 for the year 1906, and the lowest rate is 2.76 for 1904. 
The lead and zinc mines of Missouri make a favorable showing with 
an average of 3.1 1, as compared with the general average for the mines 
of Michigan, Minnesota, and Montana. The highest rate for Missouri 
is 4.52 for the year 1905, and the lowest rate is 1.29 for the year 1903. 
The iron mines of New York show the high death rate of 5, which 
is 0.30 higher than the rate for the iron mines of Michigan. South 
Dakota shows the relatively low death rate of 2.49, the lowest rate 
being that for the year 1910, which was 1.20. The copper mines 
of Tennessee show for the entire period a death rate of 4.36, which, 
is 1.31 higher than the rate for the deep copper mines of Houghton 
County, Mich. The iron mines of Tennessee show the low average 
death rate of 0.36, as compared with 4.70 for Michigan and 5 for New 
York. 

The highest death rate for any one year for the entire United States 
as shown by this table is 5.91 for the year 1895, and that for the yearj 
1S99 is the lowest, 2.19. The average rate for the decade 1894-1903, 
inclusive, is 3.28, and the rate for 1904-1911 is the same, so that the 
average is consistently high for the entire period. For the purpose 
of comparison Table 10 is inserted showing the number of men 
employed and the number of men killed and the death rate perl 
1,000 men employed for the calendar year 1911. This show^s a death j 
rate of 4.29 for the iron mines of the United States, as compared with' 
4.70 for the iron mines of Michigan for the entire period. Precious- 
metal mines show an average death rate of 3.95 for the year, which isj 
not far from what the true average death rate would be for the! 
precious-metal mines of some of the western States if the list of J 
accidents were confined to those employed in the mines solely. 

FATALITY RATES IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 

Tables 11 and 12 show the number of men killed in the metal and 
nonmetal mhiesof British North America for the period 1S94 to 1911, 



feTATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 181 

inclusive, classified by years and industries. The rates for Ontario 
and British Columbia are shown to be extremely high, or 3.98 and 
4.23, respectively. The highest death rate for any one year is that 
of 32.61 for gold mining in Ontario during 1894. This does not give 
a true idea of the hazards of that industry owing to the very small 
number of men employed. The figures for British North America 
fluctuate greatly, being extremely high for one year and running very 
low for another year. For example, the highest rate for Ontario 
is 8.94 for the year 1894, while the lowest rate is 1 .07 for 1905. Silver 
mining in Ontario gives the high average death rate of G.8G for the 
entire period. 

FATALITY RATES IN GREAT BRITAIN AND BRITISH COLONIES. 

Tables 13 and 14 show the number of men killed in the metal and 
nonmetal mines of Great Britain, Australasia, and other British colonies 
for the period 1894-1911, together with the death rates per 1,000 men 
employed. Two sets of figures are presented for Great Britain for 
the reason that the mine inspection law makes an arbitrary distinction 
between metalliferous and coal mines. Mines where associated min- 
erals are found in connection with the coal come under the coal mines 
regulation act. The figures for iron and other mines, therefore, repre- 
sent the fatalities in all mines other than coal, and show approxi- 
mately twice as many deaths as occurred in the mines covered by the 
metalliferous mines regulation act. Approximately two-thirds of 
the deaths occurring in the mines covered by Table 13 occurred in the 
gold mines of the Transvaal, the annual high death rate for which 
has already been commented upon. 

The most striking thing in connection with Table 13 is tlie consist- 
ently low death rates for the mines of Great Britain and Australasia. 
There is not the fluctuation observed in the death rates for the mines 
of the United States and British North America. The highest death 
rate for all Australasia is that of 3.65, for the silver mines of New 
South Wales for the year 1901. The total average for Australasia 
of 1.38 for the entire period is extremely low and shows the result of 
intelligent supervision, rigorous inspection, strict discipline, and 
painstaking effort to reduce the number of fatalities and injuries in tlie 
mines. 

FATALITY RATES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

Tables 15 and 16 show the number of men killed in and about the 
metal and nonmetal mines in various foreign countries together with 
the relative death rate per 1,000 men employed. The same con- 
sistently low death rate commented upon in the case of Australasia 
and some of the other British colonies is exhibited in these tables and 
makes it evident that intelligent effort and cooperation can reduce 



182 RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

the death rate in American metal mines to a comparably low fif^n-e. 
The ore and other mines of Anuria show a low average of 0.90 for 
the period. The iron mines of Austria have a total average of 1.35 
for the period, the iron mines of Prussia 1.09, and the iron mines of 
Saxony 0.87, as compared with 4.70 for the iron mines of Michigan, 
and '). 10 for the iron mines of Ontario. 

INJURY RATES IN THE METAL MINES OF THE WORLD. 

Ta])los 17, 18, 19,. 20, 21, and 22 give the number of men injured 
in and about the metal mines of the United States, British North 
America, Great Britain, Australasia, and other foreign countries for 
tlie period 1894-1911 together with the number injured per 1,000 men 
employed. Comparisons of injury rates are extremely unsatisfactory 
because of the lack of uniformity in the reporting of injuries and 
because of the absence of any accepted standard as to what constitutes 
a serious injury or a shght injury. A number of the States in the 
United States report only serious injuries and ignore slight injuries. 
For example, in the biennial report of the commissioner of labor of 
IMinnesota for the years 1909 and 1910 it is stated that from August 1, 
1909, to July 31, 1910, 4,425 accidents occurred in the iron min6)s of 
the State, of which about 1,500 were serious or severe mjuries. The 
reports of the county inspectors of mines for St. Louis and Itasca 
Counties for the years 1909 and 1910 shovr approximately only 1.000 
injuries as having occurred in the mines under their jurisdiction for 
these two years as against the one-year figures of the commissioner. 

Great Britain reported 307 mjuries in mines coming under the 
metalliferous mines act, for the year 1907, whereas for the following 
year 1,497 serious injuries were reported. The reason for the marked 
increase was that beginning with 1908, an injury occasioning the loss 
of seven days' time was classed as a serious injury and operators were 
compelled to report it as such, whereas prior to that time it was 
apparently left to the judgment of the operator to report what he 
considered a serious accident. 

An examination of the reports of the inspectors for Houghton and 
Dickinson Counties, Mich., which incidentally are the only reports 
giving the number of mjuries in the metal mines of that State, makes 
it apparent that only a very small percentage of injuries are brought 
to the inspectors' attention. It will hardly be credited that only five 
or SLX accidents resulting in the injury of employees happened in the 
mines of Houghton County when 30 or 40 men were killed during 
the same year. Over any extended period of years the mjuries must 
greatly exceed the deaths, and yet if these figures are to be accepted 
the opposite is true. 

The foregoing discussion is sufficient to make it evident that the 
figures presented are both unsatisfactory and unreliable. In many 
cases the reports do not distinguish between serious and slight acci- 



STATISTICAL. DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 183 

dents and therefore both serious and sUght injuries have had to be 
lumped together. 

Notwithstandmg these facts, the figures presented in the accom- 
panying tabk^s clearly show that even with the incomplete returns 
at hand and the lack of uniformity in the method of reporting acci- 
dents, the injury rates for the United States and for British North 
America are relatively higher than the corresponding rates for 
Australasia and other European countries, and if correct figures were 
available, w^ould undoubtedly be shown to bo as much higher as the 
death rates for both are higher than the death rates for the rest of the 
world. It seems to be apparent from a perusal of the reports of acci- 
dents for Australasia that a much higher degree of regulation of 
mming practices is possible there, and that a more rigid compliance 
with the provisions of the law is insisted upon than is the case in the 
United States. This in all probability accounts in considerable 
measure for the differences both in the fatality and nonfatality rates. 

Table 17 shows that over 9,350 men were mjured m the metal mines 
of the United States (States having mine-inspection service only) 
during the period 1894-1911, and it is probable that if the complete 
figures were at hand more than twice that number of men would be 
shown to have been mjured. Practically all of the hijuries included 
in Table 17 are of a serious character, involving loss of limb, destruc- 
tion of eyesight, etc. Two-thirds of the injuries reported are shown 
to have occurred m the mmes of Colorado. The figures are therefore 
necessarily unsatisfactory, but they are as complete as it is possible 
to get them. 

Table 18 gives the relative injury xates per 1,000 men employed 
in the mines of the United States. An interesting comparison is 
afforded by the rates for St. Louis and Itasca Counties, Mmn., for 
the years 1909, 1910, and 1911. The reports for Itasca County 
include slight injuries, whereas the figures for St. Louis County give 
serious injuries only; therefore the injury rates for the former are 
greatly in excess of those for St. Louis County. In 1898 and 1899 
the commissioner of labor of IMinnesota reported both serious and 
slight mjuries, which accounts for the high mjury rate for those two 
years and the low mjury rates thereafter. 

Tables 21 and 22, Western Australia, show the largest number of 
injuries for Australasia, the total of 3,839 amounting to more than 
one-third of the total injuries in all Australasia. The total injuries 
for Queensland and Western Australia amount to almost two-thirds 
of the injuries for Australasia, whereas the injury rates are from two 
to five times as high as for the other States. 

Tables 23, 24, 25, and 26 give the number of men employed by 
years in the metal mines of the world from 1894-1911. The tables 
show a gradual decrease hi the number of men engaged in mining 
from 1907 on throughout all the minmg countries generally. 



184 



RULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 



Table 6. — Number of men employed, deaiJis, and death rate per 1,000 men employed in 
and about the principal metal and nonmetal {except coal) mines of the world/or the period 
1S94-1911, indusive. 



Country. 


Total 

number 

employed. 


Number 

of 
deaths.. 


Doeth 
rale per 
1,000 men 

em- 
ployed. 




1,748.002 
200,414 

827..'jf.4 

1,638.017 

580.80.5 

1,778,351 

5,510,808 

290,851 

300,120 

980.391 

701,. 500 

1,127,491 


5.704 
672 

1,143 

2,255 

1,110 

8,475 

13.080 

217 

043 

1,.'>82 

1,081 

1,151 


3 28 




3.35 


(ireal Britain and certain British Colonies: 


1 38 




1.38 




1.80 




4.77 


Total d . . . . : 


2.50 




.90 




2.14 


Italy 


1.00 




1.73 




1.02 







o Figures incomplete; include only States having mine inspection. 

1> Figures include all mines except coal mines. 

c Gold and mica mines only, and for period 1898-1911, including Mysore gold mines. 

d Includes Australasia, India, Ceylon, Gold Coast, and Transvaal. 

< 1902-1910, inclusive. 

/ 1901-1910, inclusive. 



Table 7. 



-Comparative death rates per 1,000 men employed in and about the metal and 
coal mines of the United States,"' 1894-1911. 



Year. 


Metal 
mines.'' 


Coal 
mines'^. 


Year. 


Metal 
mines. *> 


Conl 
mines, c 


1894 


3.58 
5.91 
4.30 
3.57 
3.47 
2.19 
3.08 
3.36 
2.85 
2.82 




1904 


2.88 
3.44 
3.62 
3.42 
2.64 
3.41 
3.34 
rf3.46 


3.50 


1.S95 




1905 


3.63 


1896 


2.84 
2.53 
2.72 
3.07 
3.45 
•3. 25 
3.71 
3.20 


1906 


3.35 


1897 


1907 


4.88 


1898 


U)08 


3.64 


1899 


1909 


4.00 


1900. .. 


1910 


3.92 


1901 


1911 . 


3.73 


190^ 


Average 




1903 


3.28 


3.51 









o Figures cover only States having mine inspection. 

i> Figures reprcseiU "death rates for States inckided in Table 4. 

c Figures selected from ('oal-mine accidents in tlie United Stales, 1890-1912, with montlilv statistics for 
1912: Ilorton, F. W., Technical Paper 48, Bureau of Mines, 1913, 74 pp., 10 fjgs. 

"^ Fay A. H., Metal-mine accidents in the United Statesduring the calendar year 1911: Technical 
I'aper 40, 1913, p. 5, gives 4.19. 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 185 



C< OiO CO 



T-H CO rH CN 



CD t^ C5 CO I ^O 



O 05 •* Oi 
.-• CI .-t C^ 



S.3 



lO • lO 



3 C— ' O 



g§ 



C3 o ^ 5 i^ 



Ol-H 



cjj-— < o c rt 



P E 



..'So 

5 ° c3 



cm* 






S i: a 



.— OJ 



o ^^ 



is 



65 



.: C 



ft 



■3 CT3 •- 

„.i; o 13 

®^ ftS i3 

'O c ■-'- 13 c3 

•r-. b r- o 









cS 



Sp. 



;|a 

^ a 



S§ 



gad 
^: oj <u 



£5:5- 



o c o a 

c3 n n <» 

© a; c, g 

ssia 



rt i:! c) is 

a; a> d^ 



>^ t> "^^ "O !/i -25 J 



-•1.S3 



O 05 



.s.S'c 3 



- ,.'te a 

b^ C S C3 • 
O"-- 0:5*-. , 



5 P5 M I' O 



e .0 w .0 



■g.S c o 
'"§ c c ^^ -S c .: 



.Hoc 



rr. — — — o 



:£c;CCH 



186 



EL'LES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 



1 


- 






c- 


5 




^cccq 




-r 

U7 




3 




c^ 


e a 


ooo 




CCINO 

ao a 


o 
a 


§ 


o 


lOCO 


oo-*- 


inoo 


U5 




i 


I^O 


Cl«3 


00 oo 


00 


o 


i 


e<ie^ 


■*00 


<NO-H 


CO 


CO 

■ 


1 


S3. 




l^<NO 


OS 

o 


s 


1 


cs«o 


OC OS 


ooo 




1 


(MN 


'^ 00 


ooo 


o 


O 
CO 


i 


COIN 


ooo 


rtOO 


"-* 


r- 


1 


r-lO 


ooo 


.-lOO 


'^ 




i 


(NO 


iNm 


OOO 


o 


i 


1 


oo 


o^ 


ooo 


o 


^ 


i 










cooo 


CO 


s 


00 








",-~. 
o u 


ooo 


o 


i 


00 








tHOO 


'-' 


1 


1 








t^o 


^<NO 


CO 




i 










c<sc<io 


la 


t^ 

s 


00 


?5 




Sc 


MO.-< 


-^ 


s 


i 








00 


.^OO 


-' 


OS 
OS 




C 

r 


V 

c 

i 

c 




c 


5 

c 

w 




si 




B 

5 




"c 
c 

E- 




c 

c 





r:; -S a 



.^ -2 



s*"- -^5 



T3 d 




iS 


•a 


c. 


o 




r 


» 


c: 


•s 




o 




ffl 


v; 






o 


c 






rt 


•^3 


£ 




li-rj 


00 






4/ 




r^ 








is 












0. 


i^ 


* 




^ 






















1 ; 




c 


i> 


.a 






3 










o-^ 


<; 


-3 
3 


2 


S:S 




3 


n 


eJ 


ri 




01; 




a) 


fe 


fe 


r- 


q 


a 


.o 


o 


■W 


« 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 187 



i 

< 


2.79 
2.51 

• 3.56 

e5.03 

7.55 

4.37 




O O) 


CO 


4.74 
3.5S 


4.67 
3.11 
3.54 

4.4S 


s-s 


CO 


03 


I^ — 1 IM O OO — 1 

t^ CO ^ CO CN O 


o 
^' 


lOO 
C-) -JO 

CO CM 


CO 


CM O 
CT.CM 

CO'CM 


O O -<l~ 
OC t^ CO o 

CO CM co" I-; 


CM O 
CM CI 

co'c< 

S g 


CM 


o 
en 


-HO o a^roiro 
coo oio o ^ 

c< c^ cq O ■^' .TtJ 


CM 


co'-4 


co' 


■^" CO 


— OOCM — 1 
O CM »r3 1^ 

■*' co" CO -•' 


■^ CO 

I -cm' 


o 
o 


1 


r-l t^ CO Th O >0 
10.-I 1^ r-H C>0O 

<N «■ O ■^' CO Tf' 


co' 


CO'-H 


^ i t^ CO 
lO 1 moo 

co" 1 rji* TJH 


r- lO t^CO 

CO C<j CM CO 

■•a'' CO* CO CO 


Its 

CO ■<*' 


^ 

-^ 


1 


COO •*< t- t^co 
CI o CO cr. c#o c^ 

l-I <N r-' CO Tl-' !N 


CO 

co' 




CO C5 

CO co' 




.-* t^ m 

co"ci-5 






3 

CO 


1 


CO t^ CO OM cn 

CO "5 O l- .-1 ■* 


CO 
CM 


CO „ 
CM^^ 


S g 




o xoo 
uicMpi 






•o 


1 


coco ooco t^ 

00 -*l CO CnI o t^ 

IN CM r)<' CO r-; co' 


CO 


CM "-^ 


s 


C) 




tOCOI^ 
CM TT •* 

t-^ Tf" co' 




OO 

r-00 

CO* CO 


o 

co" 




00 O O O O lO 

.-( >o CO o c:i ro 

Co' CO CM TT rH ^' 


00 

00 

'J"' 


co^^ 




■a 




,_co ^ 
^^coco 




r-Ico" -^" 




CDt^ lOCON (M 
00 CO OJ l^ t^ t~ 

(M' r-< CM ■«>■ ^' co' 


CM 

CO 

■*■ 


CO -^ 


s 

^ 


CO 




CM cJci 


- 


CO « 
C-3 i-O 

Qo'-a' 


co' 


1 


CM Oj ^' co' «' CO 


CO 


cm'^^ 


CO 


o" 




to r^ci 


S2 


co' 


1 


CO 
CM 


Ti> C-, r^ iO 

lO O Oi c-i 

CM t~' 00 '6 


CO 




'^" 


'a] 




„CM— < 

5~co-«< 
^^-4co' 




coo 

CMO 

. -h'C3 


QO 

o' 


1 


co' 


O ■'i* CO DO o 
I^ CO lO lO CO 

t-^ lO t^ »o 1 CO 


CM^ 


CO 


1 ~" 




-^co'cm" 




, 88 

oo" 


s 


i 


CD 


S52 

^co 


'b 


1>' 


CM'-^ 


S 2 

2 1 -'i? 




O^iO 








o 


00 


CM 


2S 

CO'CM 




CO 

co" 


c^i"-' 


S5 


3 




•* -f a> 

CM CO 00 
■OCM'*' 








lo 

lO 

1 ° 


i 


co' 




CO 


CO 


CM- 


CO 

o 

CO 


C^l 

o 




CM — lO 

ox x> 
in CO*-* 








1 ;* 

o 


t^ 


co" 


CM lO 
col~ 

^'tiJ 


o 
o 

'J* 


OC 1 X CO 
M 1 S^.^ O 










.-4 t^ 

>oo 

CM'iO 










t~ 


i 


s 


5S 


00 
CO 

o 


'^ 1 CO ^ 


o 




















c-i 


ob 






CO ^r 


CO 

CO 

co' 


CO 

co" 


CO'£ 












■^' CO 




I 










i 






C<)Ti< 
CO-H 

CO cm' 


00 


co" 


co"B 


2" 










?-s'co 
















-3 

o 


i 


Is 

>':i 

i 

■•.5!H 

III 


s 

a 
. p 

c 
c 

s 

k— 1 


■J- 

'e 

o 

o 

a) 

« 

3 
D 
c. 


^ 


s 

1 

b 




■ V 

o = 

p 

p 
ll 

3 S 




E 
p 


o 

c 
o 

c 
? 


) 


B 

1 

> 

o 

03 O 

ex 
c 


£ 

1 

> 

o 

ci 




i 

< 


3 
o 


c 

1 


ci 
C3 
41 




4> 

c 
55 


o 




s 

i 





.l_i 


^ 


a> 


<.'■. 


C.) 


o 


c-^ 










c 


i; 


Ol 


tn 






c 


c 


a 


> 


c3 


^ 



w 



a 



o 



O t, 



^- rr CO 









■g S E^ 



PiO-Xi 

pas 

r O 4> 



°^.S s 5 



^seI 



-n j::- 



a;."2._- = 



E.S 

■^ cj;:::; ^- 5 >, 

5 6=: .22 2 

<t OP 03 K '^ 
3 D.= « 3 S 
e - f: '5 ^' OT 

.5 .— C O i^ ry, 

CO toCq cn.E 0) 
CJ o ^ tu *j'C 



ti":^«E-= 

3 > i 3 " 

O C^i Q ^ ^ 

iS > s ^ S 

&- £ o E <a 

o'Li 3 ■;: c 

•3 =' 5 

- t, 3 c o 

^ 3 3 3 ^ 



P.3 

t s ■" 



Jl 


& 


P 


B 


jx 


3 


"1 


a; 


^* 


c 


1= 


>, 















■-• 




3 


a 




C3 




& 





ee 


ci 



c w =a E £ ^ 






188 



EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



a. 

^3 
















r-i eo 








^ 


coco 


tc o 






£ 


C-4 


Ti<0 


^o 


O 


CO 


<v 
























< 














^ 




\r^^ 


^_^ 






























IM 


oc^' 




CM 




r-4 












O 


S 






ir 










^ o 


CO 


CO 




'" 


oo 


CMO 


-' 


|CO 


S 


s 


c:io 


c o 




_ 




oo 




t^ 


1< 




'^ 


oo 


CO o 


rH 


CO 


00 


s 


oo 








Q 




too 


fx; CO 


to 


o 


-< 


c. 


C>J o 


oo 


o 


cs 


s 


^ 


CM h- 






^, 


*"* 




CJIO 




>f 




^ 


050 


CO o 


-■ 


CO 


g 


JS 


oo 




^ 










o 




'"' 


(N 


oo 


o'd 


o 


CO 


§ 


ID 


CO 


oo 








O O 






■^ 


r^ 


CM 


o o 


o o 


o 


ro 


S 


S 


-f o 












lOO 






■^ 


CI 


■-■c 


oo 


o 


CM 


s 


02 


— ' o 












coo 






'^ 


?;' 


•-1 o 


o'o 


o 


CM 


cq 


CO 


oo 


o o 






I 




o o 


oo 








oo 


oo 


d 


CM 




-^ 


oo 


oo 


o 




g 


^ — 








CO 




oo 


oo' 


c 


ro 


(_, 










OC 




e^ 










s 


cc'o 


.-h'o 


o 
















i 


^ 


cio 


CJO 


o' 


CM 


00 


.c 








r- 


2 






>o 


Tt* 


"■"^ 


UOO 


—1 o 


^~^ 


CO 






OC' »o 








00 






oo 


^ 






CO ^ 


rtO 


^-' 


CO 


00 




--- ~ 






o 














w>— ' 






■«< 






o o 






^ 




,,— ^ 


o o 


/^^^~x 


^^ 


CTJ 


s 


o 


s= 




^ 


lO 


s 


s 


8 


_8 




00 


s 


1 


2^o 


e.o 


A 


CO 














« 
























c 
















































s 
















































o 
























(X 
























c 
























o 
















































•r 




o 


















c 




c: 


















c; 
c 
o 




s 


ai 




























^_ 




u;<i 


t~l 










C o- 




£ S 








5 


E§ 






C3 




o 




a 








S fee 
o o 2 


9;^ 

<!0 


< 


p 

s 
















3 


c 






















CO 




E- 























CJ 

o 


c 


o 


















t. 








s 


c 


03 






t: 


0^ 


OT 






n 


?; 






-d 




















CO 


". 


C 










r 








p; 


p. 






§ 


c 

E 


fc 
o 


o 




OJ 




Pi 














Al 


C3 -1^ 


d 






















"S 

o 


E 

o 


Si 

,c 


2 




.i:: 






o 












^ 


s 


en 


tl 




? 


<r 




Oi 




E 


a 




« 


































r: 




^ 


r/l 




CJ 




•l 






















IB 


2 


C3 


5 




^ 


H 




t^ 


ClJ 

IS 




oo 


O 


is 


Ft 


■". 


C3 


^ 
O 




>. 


■~ 


>-. 


c 






ttf 


a 




1-U 






3 




fcifi 


*^ 


rt 


g 


c 


o 


F 


M 


p^ 


y. 


^ 


ceq 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 189 

Table 10.— Number o/nun emploijed and number of men killed per 1,000 em ployed m and 
about all metal and miscellaneous mineral (except coal) mines of tlie United States for the 
calendar year 1911.<^ 



'opper mines 

Iron mines 

Lead and zinc mines (Mississippi vallej') 

Gold and miscellaneous metal mines 

^Miscellaneous mineral mines 

Total 



Total 
. number 
employed. 



44.693 
45. 9.53 
12, 521 
48.919 
13, 893 



165, 979 



Number of 
deaths. 



238 
197 

43 
193 

24 



Death rate 
per 1,000 
men em- 
ployed. 



5.33 
4.29 
3.43 
3.95 
1.73 



4.19 



o Fay, A. II., Metal-mine accidents in the United States during the calendar year 1911, Technical Taper 
40, Bureau of Mines, 1913. 



190 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 






^ 



■3 ■ 


o 


3§ = 




lO oo lO CO 




e 


m 


r^ 










'^ 


■o -^ O lO 


lOCO 


a 


o 


M 


»H (N O 


CO—I 


(M OCOO 
. l-H C^ 


^2 


? 


1 


- 


O^O 


tH C 


CO ^ -^ 00 


05 CO ' 


ao 


00 

g 


oj 1 - ~- o 


o o 


1 


s 


s 


o 


O rt -o ^ 


00 (M 


TTOOiQ 


CI Ol 
CI 


1 _ 




h- C-^ .H O 


COO 


TT OCOIM 


l-H l^ 


•^ 


i 


•* 


O « CO 


0.-I 


OOOO 


OJ o 


CI 
CO 


1 


■^ 


N rH O 


coo ^ ooo 


t^TI> 


?5 


o 


- 


'"^'^ 


to O CI C^l CO o 


l^-H 


CO 


8 


m 


"^ "^ '^ 


O ^ 1- O CO o 


OC4 


?3 


p 


I'D 


O^O 


^,-1 


C-. O CO C CO [^ 


t^ 


i 


C-3 


COOO 


coo 


WOOO 


l^Cl 


CO 




- 












o 


-n OOO 


"^ ^v 


n 


33 


to 












-^ 


(M C^ O 1-1 O 00 CO 


1^ 
















"^ 


O-HO 




^ 


1- 

1 


















C<l 


r-l IM O 




CO 


o 


















^ 


O-M 




N 


CO 


1 
















o 


T CO 




1^ 




^- 


1 






£ 


■| 


a 

e 

c 

C 




"3 
o 

i- 


« 
o 


1 


c 

.. o 

o a 

P 

a 

O 


"'3 
C 


1 




o 

c 
a 

a 

M 






o 

3 

o 




'c 
O 





STATISTICAL DATA OK FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 191 



«^ 



13 



s 



1 

S3 
> 


ts 


U5 r~co 

oo -.o 

c>i ci ^ 


(Moi 


4.43 
6.82 
6.10 

6.86 


oo— 1 
co.-i 


3 

CO 


CT> 


CO 










■ CO 


SoS?3 
d d t^ Tji 


CO-H 

oo 00 
cod 


CO 


O 
O 


■o 






•^ O CO 00 

od'ot-: 


00 CM 


s 


i 


3 


o o o 
dod 


oo 

U3 o 

do 
o 


n- oco-H 

(M OCM CO 

t-^d d 00 


00 CO 
I^ CO 

■O CO 


oo 


1 


o 


o -r o 

o o o 

d CD d 


en o 
^'o 


CO coco t^ 

00 oo^i d 


^ OJ 

d rt 


CO 


1 


o 


CO t^ CO 
1— 1 -J* io 

CO CO d 


CO o 

t- o 


288S? 
c-i d d t^ 


•O CO 
CO CM 


o 

CO 




1^ 


'f coo 
M>" do 


CO rx 
1-H CO 


QC O 1- 00 
(NO-l^^ 


cooo 

C-\ CM 


s 

CO 


s 


00 


o OJ -^ 
O CO o 

d cj CO 


o o> 

COt-< 


O OOO 
rt OO O 

■oddd 


OM 

r-Jd 


ci 


-rf 


o 


^ r>3 o 
■O iXO 

CO dd 


— c o 

lO o 

■-i d 


•r o o o 
Ol o o o 

oddd 




ci 


i 


00 
CO 


■* rH O 
CD r-i .^ 


^8 

cod 


r^ CD CD o 
lOOtMO 

t-H .-a^ d d 


CM d 


00 

ci 


o 


CO 
CO 


CO o -^ 


O —1 
-H CO 


-»• ocoo 
00 OI^ o 


C^l 1^ 

c-id 


CM 


o 


CO 


O lO o 

oo o 
d-id 


CO CO 

drt 


-* oco o 
o> O CO o 

CO d 00 d 


o w 

UO lO 


ci 


1 


o 

CO 


cooo 

-cf O O 

t-dd 


t^ O 

CO O 

oi d 


S??88 

1- CO dd 


O 00 

lod 


c5 

CO 


<5 


CO 










8 

d 


{^§88 

■* '.o dd 




2 


c 
c^ 












'O 


rf o o lO 

^ rt- O Cn 

CO CO d d 


— c 00 
COCO 


CM 
■■O 


C/0 














-1^ 


O OOO 
OC-IO 

d<Nd 




00 

d 




§ 


CO 

3b 














00 
CO 


CO 00 O 

ou:. o 




05 

CD 

CO 




CO 


i 














s 


O-J" • 
o ^ . 

dod '. 




to 
ci 




CI 

ci 


1 














s 

d 


-H CO '• 

CD CJ '. 
CO ■ 


en 

00 




So 


o 

.3 

o 
u, 


_c 

o 
p 




c 

_c3 
3 C 

£ 
'A 


o 

c 


Cf 

c 

o 


g 

C3 


"o 
b< 

■♦- 
o 

73 

ci 
o 

2; 




•C o o £ = 

o 




a 
c 

C 


1 




s 

2 
? 
ca 
■a 


) 



ftp « 
^ S-ft 

° si 
as ® 



oS^ O « 

•S .S ^' i5 
-.■^■K J, to 
« ® OigcC 



192 



RULES AXD EEGULATIOKS FOR METAL MINES. 



^ 



<^ 



C5 






'^^ 



'3 
o 


M' 






(M 




CO 




25 




ggss 




": 




CM Ol 




c5 




to 00 




CO 




00 o 
10U3 




cm' 




g§3§ 

t>- CM C". 


s 


CO 




s 


O-H 


r-( O ro^ 


^ 


coco 


to 








CO 


2^ 


1 




s i 


55 


•■r 


i-H '^ 




CM C<1 




s 


CM OJ 


^ 


CM to 


00 




05 


CMOtO 
CO CM CO 


§ 

en 


o 


^ 00 


CD 


T-ICO 


-^ TJ* r-l i-H 


o 


»o 00 


CO 


?"' 


CM 


3S? 


2 


S2g 


00 

1 


I^ 


CD''*' 


s 


o^ 


'J' tOCRCO 

■a 


?3 


lO —1 


to 


^" 


o 


C50 


CM 


SSS 


1 


CO 


CO O 


CO 


COIN 


lO ^ t/^ o 


S 


M* I— 1 • 




cr. to 


;3 




CM 


05 ^ CM 
tOCM -3- 


to 
o 


o 


ss; 


to 


r-H CO 


'J- CO o>co 
"a 


^ 


i^ to 


CO 


lO o 


CM 


i^^ 


O 
CO 


lo r^ CO 


1 


ID 


^ to 


r^ 


!N X 


OrHOrH 


CM 

CO 


CO 00 


s 


to t^ 


S5 


o-^ 

CM CO 


§ 


OCM CM 


1 


M 


1-1 CO 


to 


•rji t^ 


— 1 CO-r -H 

•a 


CM 


o to 


■o 


^^ 


o 

CO 


T-H M* 


CM 

CO 


CM OOTt< 
CO— 1 ^ 


1 


M 


?5g 


5; 


,-< to 


t3 


S 


OOS 


o^ 


00 05 


?5 


CM -tf 


CO 


to 

CM 


:2 


CI 

o 

T-H 




2S 


00 


•* tH 


lO O N CM 


cn 


CM C^ 


^ 


COCO 


to 


CO CO 


s 


in t^ ■ 


o 


O 


SS? 


to 


toio 


WCO^- 


^ 


00 to 


■^ 


to "f 


o 

CM 


00 lO 


'i 


CO 




i 


00 


CS CO 


"5 


(M O 


^^^o 


-■J^ 


00 ^r< 


CM 




00 


CO -^ 


CM 


^s I 


1 


to 


coco 


to 


1^ ^ 


CO -* lOCM 


CO 


to >o 


CM 


GOO 


00 


TJ1 -^ 


s 


S?5 I 


00 




otto 

^ CO 




oo 


omorH 


CO 


CM O 


CM 


00 -H 


o 


•<*' CO 


o 


CM 




1^ 

5 


£35 


o to 

1- CO 


to 


00 t~ 


lO CM rr -^ 


CO 


.o;^; 


o 


too 


to 


CO CM 


^ CM '• 

CO— 1 1 


to 






ooo 

<NCO 


00 


00 -* 


CM .-1 C-1 O 


CO 


o-r 


■^ 


00 o 


oo 


00 00 
CO— 1 


CO 


to 




00 






(MiO 


g 


l^iO 


c^^oco 


to 

CO 


^o 


'-' 








•o 


^=^ 


00 

o 


S2 ; 

1 : 


1 






ss 


s 


t^lN 


050C10 


s 


OCM 


CM 


■tf-O 




o 




•»*' 


■o 

"5 




c 
o 

o 

3 

o 


e 

11 

I- c- 

o 




i 

c 
c 


a 

c 

i 

a 




c 




A 

1 


'i 

a 

't: 
c 
C 




a 

i 

"c 

u 

c 
ir 


1 

a 
c 

i 

c 
c 

c 
C 




c 
E 

u 


S 

c 




c 




a 

c 
E 

1" 

<0 


a 
C 

1 

a 

c 


' 


I 

B 
1 

c 





ll 

p 


a 
c 

1 

a 
j: 

C 




"c; 
c 




a 

C 

B 
2 

"c 

c 
c 
t 

> 


<1- 
c 

e 

a 

_o 

< 

a 
t~ 

1 





c- 

£ 
p 

a 
> 

tt: 
c 


ll 


e 
c 

'e 

c 
c 

1 

> 

1 

> 

i 

c 

a 
C 
cs 


c 

c 

a 

O 


.g 
a 

"o 
bi, 

1 
O 

2 

o 



I 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 193 



lO 


o 


o 


lO 


o 


1 


o o 




1- 


v: 






^ 








- 




" 




oc 


CO 




o 


o 


CO 


CO 








o 


s 


t^iO 


(M O 


CR 




00 " 


CM 




O 


c-l 


o t^ 


1^ o 


s 




C<J CO 


2 




.-1 o 


CO 










r' 


^ 


(MM 


■c 


00 


_ 








o 






i> 


o 


»-t« 


^ t^ 


IM 


t^--l 


00 cs 


O) 




00 








'^'' 




r^ o 


■^ I.O 


CO 






00 










00 


S- 


r^ -rr 


^ -^ 


M 




CO 1^ 


-^ 




1 




<D(M 


00 


CO 


IM 






o> 


CO 






CO 


CO 


-H05 


o o 


f_ 


t~ 


00 —1 


00 




CO 


"5 


Old 


<-l « 


l<° 


lO 


CO "^ 


o 




" 


lO" 


•rsoo 


CO 


Oi 


S5 


t^—l 


05 










CO 


■"J" 00 


(N 


^ 


<D 


o 


t^ 


— 


s 


TO 


-,■ \\r- 


CO 


■O c 


'"11- 

1 1! 


CO 
CO 


lO 1-1 


to 1 f 


CO 


o 


O 1 o 


-r 




»-( 1 '<r 


t'* 








Ol 


on 










CO 








CO 


"5 








00 


1^ 








CO 


CM 








CO 


"3 








g 


OS 








cs 


i<l< 








'ff 


CO 










CO 






L 


C-l 


CO 






«' 












w 










OJ 










.a : 










a 










e« : 










o 




















a i 










1 1 










•O g 










o .g 










^ a 






\ 




"3 


■o 







O— I C3 
to =2 fe 

gc^ -t- p 
o m o 

:3 Qt3 >.'^ 

o 05 >- '=^ 

.3 d^ 2 

O S m^ CO 

^-^ ^j i;:; 03 ^ 



r •a.Cid'Cl 



u 



II 

(U-Ti 

.9& 



.5 2 



■s-l ;^ 
aa 3 



-r ^ 



nC cu o "^ 

P'T 1> "^ fe! 
•^ ■'^ O 5 w 

C3 ^ W C3 0) 
C'O cA (73 CO 

W W QJ QJ <P 

fin to M (-H n 
O .0 ^ T3 V 



16550°— Bull. 75—15 14 



194 



KULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES, 



Pq 



c ?> 



:ft5 










r/ 


c- 


•^ 


1 L- 


^ 


'^ C* 


IM 


oci.-: 






(^ 


,_! 




Ol 
















»r 


-0 CO li - ?: 1 


a 






oc 


Oi-*<NC 




O.H 




i-lC 




rH 01 r- 


CO 001 








_j 


<=--; 


1 -M .C -. iC i ^ 


II cocol^ 






1 2 lis? is II i::? :| 


•-< 






CC 










2 




'^ ■-< 


*" 


CO o-rc^ o — 


CO c 






i 


.-< 01 •- 


' h'^ I 








^ 


uo c; o s CO '-C 


1 c II co.ao 1 « 










- 










o 






- 


do d CO «-) d 1 ■- 

1 "a 1 


\ ^^ - 


-:d r-;i|d- ^ «d^ 






»1< <M 


_, 


ci -r "M 00 1^ to cs 


1 CO ■o 1 c 


01 -J oil 00 <-< Ico — -J- 




■^ 




^ 






-^ 




W-H 


- 


c c 


|c-^d|- 


II --1- 


cod oi j! d Ol j •- 


MH=" 






1 O: O 


'>. 


O -5' C^ C-. -< - 


o" 




U 




2 










»-" 




LO -r rH C-. 1 rH ci -^ 1 




-O-H 


'■ 


C -< O (M C-l C 


- 


r-1 C C 


> cod oi doj|.-iioidoi 


, 


o- 


,-4 IC 




C<l t^ 


i i^r-c c 


Ol 








g 


c 


« M 




C» -!• :C IM X C 




t^M ■£ 




- ..- 


3 Ol -H CO t^ 




1 '-" 


■'- 


CO C C — 1 C 
1 'C 


c 


a':: c 


« d 1 d II ^0 


) 1 i-l CO C Ol 




o- 


ocas 


,, 


-^ -^ 


iO » Ol c 




>o Ol o 


01 o- 




! r, 01 — 1 


o 






I.' 








^ o ir 


•00 


-3" II oc 


: CO wco r-i 1 




-^rt 


- 


o c 


O OOl c 
■a 


^ 


-"^ - 


^-. 


- 


II 00 




1 oi d '-•5 


vr 


(/■ 


CIO 


^ 
















3 


*-'" 








o -r »o o 






•0 


-^ 


I~C 


^ UOCOO 




-'-' 


'- 


c^ 


COOIC 


- 


Ol Ol o 


■-H .- 


- 


CO 


-H CO Ol 


-1- 


o- 


Ol t~ 


o- 


<^- 


CO CM 00 -^ 


o 


























•<1« Ol c^ 


l^ c 






rf CI '^ OC 


-^ 




-"^ 


- 


Or- 


^^^c 


- 


^^ - 


OIC 





CO 




;||oidd| 


CO 






t 


I^ c^ 


01 C Ol c 










■^ 




- ^\'-^ :- 1 


2 






'~ 


»-*.^ 












c 




: T^ 1, .0. 1 


c 


"> d 


- 


1 '=''" 


d-Hoi c 


c 


^o 


- 


^0 





00 


1 1- 


. Il Ol ;01 1 


(N 


-» 


lO « 




i -f - 


r-o -^ 3- 


o 










«: c 




O 






c 




T O Ol C 


c- 







rr •- 






CO »~rt . 1 


c 


^^ 


- 


cc 


OC oic 


c 


-hC 




-- 


'- 


-<o 


1 -( coo • 1 


^ 


c 


o o 


e 


.-1 u- 


---HOir 


1- 


00 T- 






,, 


.-1 0( 


sii?i : ; I 


























































^rt 


"" 


1 -HC 


c-coc 


'" 






rt ,- 


■" 


rtO 


1 - 


M" : :| 


o 


c: 


c-r 


cr 


-r-t 


^ O r^c 


c 




CT 




tc 


u- 




> 00 r^ ^ 


2 








Ol c 


C O M c 


c 


00 c- 


oc 




^ 




^ 


Olrt . 




-HrH 


"" 


c c 


c ^^c 


'- 


CC 


c 


-hC 


- 


rtO 


' " 


' ^° : 




o~ 


o tc 








^ 












^, 




cc 












o 


oc c 




OC c 


^ 


CO t> 




: —!■.).• 




C<|rH 




c c 


o^-c 


- 


1 """ 




rt c 


- 


-HO 


1 •- 


< ICO ; 




1= 


Tf 31 


TT 






















2 






»— 








coo- 




50r- 


>-' 


•^ c' 


1-- 


Ol 'CO 


c 


-"-' 


'- 


cc 


O Ol Ol c 


'- 


^r- 




-"- 


- 


rH 


•- 


< ■«• .0 


,^ 




■M O 


_j 


c t^ 






lO ir 










lo 




g 




CC C^l 


^ 








»o 1^ 


c 


o>c 


c 




1 *■' 


01 ^ • 




1 oirH 


- 


1 


C^Ol- 


- 


o o 


r- 


^c 


'- 


!'-"- 


< 1 1- 


* eoo 1 


o 




m CO 


^ 


C cr 


cco-^c 


1 "- 


OT 






<T 


■rn 


1 -1 




^ 






'-' 






1 " 




0- 


r-c 


»-'" 




1 C 


t^ . . 


'-' 




'--' 


" 


c — 


^ .1 Ol c 




o c 


c 


l-H C 


- 


-HC 


- 


4 -ij* . . 


ir- 




r-'OI 


^ 


! Ol- 


tr >- C5 c- 


.r 


r- C 


o- 




l-t 


r^r. 


1" 


Ix^ : 


00 






's;- 


C L- 




Ol 












1 = 






-"-' 


-- 


.= •= 


d rt-x^ 


- 


c c 


c 




- 


-H C 


1- 


" COi-l ■ 


^ 




-r oc 


t^ 


CO 


rt ,-. -r c 


o 


C CO 


1 r. 







0; 





■» 




CrO 










— C rt c 












t- 





CO 






rH^ 


" 


1 °'~ 


.-lOO^C 


" 


1 ^"^ 


1 c 


t-lC 


- 


-^ 




'^ 








































V 








6>. 












c 














c 








; J 


c 


£ 




"o 
a 






1 






c 

1 

•3 






c 

'i 






'c 







IS 

c 
S 


: E 


c 
p 
c 


E 
.2 










"c- 


l-^s 


a 






rt 


•Si 


■f- 




c 


es 


M til 


- c: 






-^ 






u 


I^E 


.— ,^ 








S-= 






-; 


E 


C.2 








D 








c: S y 


ffl 


^ 







^ 




F S 


^ 


^ 


c 


O 






t 

% 


s:S-2 




a. 
c 
o 


J. §5 

£■5.1 


1 

c 


- Ill 




c = 


c 




2 






O w 

















fs 












< 


•Pll 


^o.-^g 


<; 


tjco 


<; 


1°l 


<; 


c' 












OccC 










2- 




C 




C 






< 

































> 


5 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 195 



oj m 


<s> 














(MO 




^ 


f>\ 



oio 



coo 






CO CI 

c-id 



>-< d 



M d 



oi d 



(NO —f 



: 



U 



r3 w 


C3 c3 


bi ® 


t;^ =t 








O 3 




» 3 


S2 o 






^" 


^"^ 








0/ o 


<cS . 




» >- ^ 


^^ 


o £ £ 


■2:3 




^ B r-^. 


o '•■' 



II i I i 



.!= P, •;: o 

*-2 Si a 
.E ^ . ••™ ^ 
So ~^ o* 

n'^S §■§ 
p S ;; ii o 

o -3 -^ .,, ^ 

M x a, aj o 

fc 3 = 3 m 
&. bto o § 



•SOS 



196 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



"3 
o 
in 


sg 


217 

14 

643 

138 

1.582 






1^ 




c 


'^ 




00 c^ 

CO -^ 
C^ lO 




o 




toio 




B° 




to 




Ol 


























































o 

s 


<N— 1 


COf-4 to C3 Oi 

rt 00 >o 


|S 


OOl-H 


00 to 


Tj* 










'^ 


^ 1 

"* 1 


g 

en 


t^OS 


tOOCC «JC» 
T-( t^r-i to 




00>-l 

CO-H 


CMOl 

lOCO 


ai 










"^ 


C<l . 


g 


cc -< 


00'-<05CO 

« lo I~ 


S"' 


OOS 


t~->I> 


>o 


ooo 

■V CO 


00 to 




1 


C5 00 


^°S.?5S 


to r^ 

o 


coo 


woo 
o-<r 


lO 


t^oo 


ION 


CO 

to 


2 


>oo> 


i-l lOrt to 


S2 


g(N 


S5 


Oi 


^g 


g=^ 


to 


1 


(O-H 


t^-HOCMTI< 


o^ 




tO-H 

«^eo 


o 


>oo 


tO<N 




§ 


too 


IMO — MO 
1-1 ^ rHC^ 


gs 


00 CS 


— lit) 
toco 


g 


0<31 
*o 00 


CO 


o 


1 


c^ to 


00 —l ic CO o 


S"' 


05 


2S 


Ol 


ss? 


CO 


i 




<M t^ 


OiOt- 


to 

00 


t^to 


s^ 


tc n 


OJ 


loFi 


3"" 




o 
en 


OCiO 


00 CJOlOltC 
^ (M CM 










05 


rt o 
00 "O 


CO 


CO o 


s" 


i 












CO 


ai 














K?; 


2 










•«• 


05 


CO 


05 0S 


2^S"| 










W 


s§ 


2 










■<>. 


1 


CO 










^s'-g 














^£ 


s 










CO 


■^ 


i 


too 


S^?5 


g 














ss 


133 










« 


■»*« 

s 


i 


co>o 


S3°g 


s 
















s 














CM 




00 00 


<Oi-l<0 


§ 














ss 


g 














00 


1 










COOOIOC 
l-H to 














tcS 


s 












CO 


.i 

a 

s 


( 

c 

£ 


c 

1 






i 
'i 

c 
c 

£ 

PC 


r 


a 

t 

I 






e 

c 

1 


C 

£ 

a 

I 

c 
2 






C 
k 

c 

p- 





c 

E 

.2 £ 


C 
C 




c 




c 
E 
E 
B 

* 

•c 

c 

ca'c 

■^'^ 

3 

Pi 


1 

1 

c 




c 




c 
£ 

> 

i 

1 


' 


c 

c 

c- 
1- 


i 

1 



i 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 197 










198 



EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOK METAL MIXES. 



o 


CO 

o 


s?5 


^ 




00 CM «J -- t- 
IC CM CO OS —1 
t~ -V lO rH 


i 

Os" 


m 




■a "^ 


Ol 


■SS 


00 t~ 00 30 CO 


o 


o 


s 


ICO 


in 


o-o 

OS CD 
CM 


CO CMO _,CO 
OCOCO^^-. 


i 


g 


CO 


t^t^ 


N 


CMOS 


g:2gs^ 


g 


i 


CO coco 

CO 


"^l 


s 




•^ COO 


|CM 


00 
GC 


1 


o co>o 


00 


CO 

«o 




CON CM 
OCMCM 


■ CO 


TT 


i 


CO 


(N 


o 




O^ CM 
kCCO-^ 


: s 


-rf 






C: 


■o 




^^■^ OS 
~J -"CO 




O 
O 
O 


2 


a cooo 


CO 
CO 


03 




05«0 
"3 


I CM 


o 

1 




1 "^ 


CO 

CO 


CM 

CO 




CMrtO 
COCMiO 


jo 


i 


i 


U3 


50 
CO 


•? 




^CMrr 


OS 


o 


1 


i ^°^ 


CO 


■o 




_,■* CM 
^CMCO 


s~ 














'^?i^ 


^ 


CM 


00 


—1 ■«■ t- 

00 rt rt 


CO 


CO 




£2?3 

CO -^ 


£ 


o 

5 


00 

1 


SI °"^^ 


CM 


00 




|2a 


■a^ 




1 


o ot^ 


CO 










IC— 1 
CM 


t~ 


U5 


to 


o 


CO 










OS— 1 


■a 


s 


oo 




l~l^ 


CO 










CM OS 


^1 


s 






■»S* i-H 


«n 










S2 


la 


00 




o 

•a 

3 




c 

'i 

L. 
C 
C 

c 
c 
c 
► 
c 
c 

c 
c 

"S 

3 


c 









"i 

1 

c 
3 


C 

o 
c 

3 
p 

o 

1 




O 


3 
O 




1^ 


c 
c 

Q 

: 
o 
w 




c 

•3 

c 

C3 

a 





■T eg 
» ® m 



Si2 a 






.a i--:: ••=.'2 






3 3^ j; 5 , 
o ~ .2 - =: ' 

•S .5 ~ s r " 

3353^ 

8 .0 <- -o ♦^ 



B-^ 



^ 3 2 c >> 5 ~ 





^ 


^ 










^ 


>. 




t: 






c 




Oco 






c 










c 




~ 


3 


i2 





















































s 


r: 


k^ 




c 


•g 




C5 


.3 











aj 






.5 


c: 


— 


3 


.a 




s 


c^ 






4- 






»^ 


,^ 





a 


» 


-^ 


c 


— 


CM 






~ 




^ 


■^ 


3 




c 




3 


rt 


s> 




























a 




X 


,^ 


71 


3 






:S 


=t 


p; 


'J 


3 












C 


4-> 




— 


— 


J 



~ £ 3 '5 ^ 3 '3 '^, '3 3 
c Si-SfS i: o ■£ 'S» a» 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND XONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 199 



Si, 



";?> 





'— 


— . -* 


1 ^"^ 


c 




CO CM 


,^ 


1 "« 


1 


o 
C3 




55?: 




rt cs uo I * i - 


1 X 


c> 


O'T 


=*'?, 


CO CM CM t-^ CO 


to* 








oc 






CJ 




•a 




















< 
















X 


~ — 


■^ »o-^ C<J 1- 


!':: 


Ci 


ir 


tj 




«CO CM « CM 

CO* w ^ to* CO 


i p 


^ 






i> 




1 ' 


o 


G 


,-H(N 


i-t ^ 


^ iCl^ o 


! o 


O 


coe< 


t-H O 


CO coo ^c- 


1 CI 


CS 




OCO 


ujr; 


■tr CM oi ^--co 


U-^ 








to 


•"■ 


1 


g 


cr 


0:(N 


^u- 


'T O O ^ CO 


1 -N 


c 


M^ 


tocc 


>-o o: O o ^ 


1 it 


Ci 


t-- 


o tc 


^ -^ 


c* o* cs* csi c- 


x 










CM 


1 












1 


-y 


,^ 


^_ — 


1 ^ 


CO — "- 


o:_ 


Oi 


o 




CO X 


1 '-' 


C 1--H 






x; 


=- 


CCS 


•^ 


' « '^ 


lit 


-*■ 


r* 


c 


rfCM 


■* 


■* to t^ 




, o 


o 


c 


^^ Tf- 


CM 


CM ^ -^ 








o- 


o-* 


■* 


•■ji*-;^ 


— 


' ■*■ 


o 


CO 


ir IT 


Ci 


a^-^ o 


~ 


CM 


o 


to 


>«■* 


00 


occooB 


t-: 


o: 


o 
















c- 


o'cc 


cz 


C^ CM CM 


C-) 


■*■ 


o 


t^ 


to-* 




C) to 


to 


i 00 




-a-t- 


^ 


^^to 


CM 


l^ 


c- 


■^ 


OC^ 


^^ 


■—-.-; CM 


CM 


to 


o 


Ol 


^ ^ 


Tt< 


Tf ir: o 


CO 


»o 




OS- 


C«l 


CM ICOO 


■* 


CM 




x: 


Ou- 




rt'ocO 


CO 


'"^ 


i 




LOlf" 


00 


ococo 




o 


a 


OiCS 


00 


Q0l~>O 


'— 


•^ 




ir 


0-* 


CO 


CO'-HCO 


"- 


' '"^ 


i 


u- 


03 t-- 




'i'trs 


_, 


GO 




crs ir 


'^ 


^c:-.CM 


o- 


CM 


o 


a 


0-* 


^^ 


-^-<co 


co 


00 




o- 


M -H 




or. 40 




o 


o 


c- 


OCC 


■^ 


c-.^". 


-^ 


- CO 


C". 


e 


^O) 


' 


--'CM CM 


"" 


05 


o 




r-cc 


CI 


OiOJCn 




-i* 




c t-- 


o 


oo;-* 


'^ 


- CM 


s 


cr 


-^co 




Cm'-h'cm 


■■- 


' '^" 




jT 


r^ r- 


r^ 


r^co ■^< 




- S5 


c^ 


oo- 


to 


tcSS 


tr 


00 


c> 


rt m: 


o! 


c:.*-:cM 


^ 






V? 


U5 •» 




'-' 




c- 


OOi 


00 


CC O-H 




U5 


i 


o 
to 




o 


C5»-' CO 
t^CMCO* 


■*-^ 


- CO 


,, 


X 


o-* 








CJ: O 




to 




t- 


to CM 








t-00 


c; 


~ 1 00 


2 




O C^ 








c C-; 


^ 


CO 


to 


<r 


<Ji a- 








to en 




« 


s 




c. o- 








O 00 


■^ 


' 




-^ 


o — 








coco 


"^ 


CO 


S' 




M-1-. 








a; o^ 




^ 


i 




c6 '■- 








CMQC 


^ 


' o 






c4 oc 








to CM 


^~ 


' ■♦ 


^ 




T- C- 








CO X 


"Hi 


1^ 


§ 




O 1-- 








i^ >o 


J^ 


i ^ 






-h' c 








ir 


m 


CO 


CO 






v. 






















o 






















s ^ 






















'e ^ 


ci 














1 




l_~ 


— ' y 


















c ^ 


Eg 


















g £ 


is 














o 






t- 








































>. 3 














-Z- 




















•J-, 




^ ? 


c"r 


















o c 


p"^ 










"rt 






c c 


^ B 








e 


1 






o c 


-Z s 










■3 




.o 


..£ c 


e? o c5 


" O 




■3 




■c 

c 


111 


c5 _■ £ 


O— CJ -A- 

5 C3-T3 ^ 






c 


^ — ^ 


CCC w 


? - "C 








c 


•y. ^ > r- 












— . O c> ;r 




) 








1— 4 U^ ^ O 






o 


•< 


^ 






i< 


r^<, 


M 




' 






£ c 

-^ © 

oi 

CST) 

^ C 
— 03 

>-Sci 
o C rt 

O «3" . 



'CJ o P ^ 
oSOs 

Si 1= ? 3 
§ >-'H =1 

3 O ^~ ^ 
.2 t/;-3 c ; 
i; -= =3 — / 



■JITi ^ o ^^ ^ ■■^- - 



c c 






cr. o:t/^rT-;CJo^^ 
p p p'S^'S = £. 



200 



EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 



►g 



cioocn 



"5000 



■«r lO^H o 



t^lOi-H O 



.-I .-I ccr^oo 



S 

c3t3 

So 

3 cS 



1-1^ « 



1-1 O 



toe* o 

1-H c<3 






I. c c « 
i ■= E i- 

•- 0° £ — 

c3 w !^ i-H M 



^S" -^ 



Kl 



KZ, O 



— • >~i 





cs 


,_, 




^ 


^ 








a 


^H .^ 




00 CO 


a> 


C3 


C-. c^ 


Tf O— • t^ 


lOtO 


to 










o 




















< 












00 CO 


f O OtO 




OS 


,—1 


rt CO 


t^ -J- O i-O 


coo 






a>co 


lO CO to OJ 


Ot- 


(M 








i "-^ 


-^ 


o 


^ o 


-< -r oi> 


-r 00 






t^ lO CO t^ 


t~ 00 






to IM 


M C-4 o ao 


tO-H 


c^ 










'^ 


o 


CO o 


-H OtOtO 


■.oo 


-J- 




-H O Tl- 


r<co 


t-^ 




coo 


-°g2 


toco 


•^ 


00 

2 


oo 


O) 00 — OS 




o 




CO ^'j CJj t'j 








to o 


WX—iO 


>0-H 


■^ 


^ 


t- o 


05 00M 






o 






o-^ 


o 




00^ 


^oo^ 


CO 1-1 


t~ 


5R 


Ot- 


















on 


rt ooo c^ 


CO-H 


lO 


lO 


lO o 


c5g§S 




























^ o o o 


— lO 


(N 




rr o 


ooo o 


-<ffg 




























■S-OOO 


"■^ 


CO 


CO 


oc c: 




00 CO 


c^ 




C^-H d c 




00 


^ 


too 


toooo 


■»o 


CO 


<M 








^^ 
























1" CO 


CO XN o 


<Nrt 


to 




CO CO 


r^ 'T ^ o 


J^t^ 




o 






too 




s 


OO-H 


to to to o 

CO 


00 -H 


to 


i 


g 


{^5SS 


CO • 


to 

05 


a 


e-) toMo 


Tj< . 


OS 


» 




■^ -^ CI o 
coo •«• 5 


o I 


^^ 




■<r • 


•-< 


CO 


Oi« 


00t--cO 


to ■ 


^ 






















s 


ox 


-H r^ O O 










coco 






?- 


TTM OO 


too 


cq 








00 ^ o 
f » 5 


g ; 


g 








t^ 00 o 


00 . 


00 






























































?? 










N '• 


N 










TJ» . 


■f 








.-1 CO 




05 ; 


OS 


■^ 






— !-.< 




"J" : 


^ 




















to IN 

CO 




00 • 


00 






































c : 
































^ 








E • 






oi 






c 






o ■ 






s 




2 


E 




£ 


s ■ 






O 




c 


"3 




a ■ 






> 

o 




E 


^ 




c* 


o : 


to 


ea~ 


c 




c 


s '. 


















2 f 

3 c< 


§.S.Sc 

' ° S2 g ? 
. -^ o° £= 
! c3 i, c h; y 


c : 


C3 
•3 

c 

C3 




■5"' 


f- g o 












"C c 


n 


3 




PC 


r^ 


, o 










c 




1 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 201 



k; 



b; 



to 








CO 


? 


(^ 


CO 


^H 


'O 


CI 


,_, 


^_ 


CO 


■^ 


Cs 




Oi 




^ 














"rt 


?i 




n Pt orj ^' 


-r 


O 'O 


CO 


§!oS 


CI O 


^<S 


TT »0 


c 


o-r 






^ 






cm'i-Tco 


oTco" 




t-T'^f 


Eh 
























•n- 


o to 


to lOO-H 


CI 


t^to 


CO 










■ 




1 










CM 


CO 




C) 


Otor- 


en 














03 


'\ 




.c 








■»r -^r 


en 














































-■O 


e-1 irj 


t^05 OO 


& 


c>>o 


^ 


M tot^ 


00 OS 


to h* 


CO »o 


o 


i5 




CI 


CO 






CO too 


'OtO 


CO t^ 


Sc) 


^ 


»c 




.o 








1-1 U3 


t^o 






'"' 


^ 






















Tl- 


^c 


O -r t^ C) 


CO 


C> lO 


,^ 


iocs— 1 


«tO 1 OCO 


lO O 




CO 






M* 






OC^-H 


tote 


Ot/5 


O O 


s 


"1 




« 








T-< -V 


to^ 






" 


'^ 




















t ^-jz 


t^ClOOr-l 


lo 


CI CO 


"5 


-H I^^ 


OiO 


05 


f-4 lO 




C --H 




lO 






^ ooto 




"OOO 


■TO 


o 


"^> 


•O 








1-1 CO 


to r-< 






'"^ 


" 


















t^ 


t^ 


c-i o 


CI -^ CO o 


Oi 


CO-H 


tr 


Cirt CM 


com 


O 00 


oc* o 


o 


o 




r-1 CI CO 


to 






o en 1^ 


CO o 


■o c 


■o en 


en 


CO 




•o 








rt CO 


to CO 






to 


s? 


CO -^ 


1-co-r -H 


'O 


CO CM 


"5 


CO en xr to 'C 


00 CO 


-^CO 


o 


CI 




rt rt CO 


to 






CO 05 "<r ^ CO 


U5 00 






C-J 












1-H -^ W CO 






^ 




















ira 


'O 


(N r^ 


o>->r 00-H 


CM 


1^ to 


1 


1-H 1-H O I^ 00 


»-< c 


coos 




to 




—li-c CI 


to 






02 oc i^ -H r. 


T oc 


CI 'O 


2 


N 












c> iracM 






^ 


to 


05 O 


CI 1^ »o o 


~ 


.-H t-- 


CO 


•O CO o to oc 


CO c 


»o to 






C) 


C»rt <D 








CJ O -r -j; CO 


O OC 


o to 


2 


C-1 






'"' 






r-1 -r CM 






n 


to 


cot^ 


OOC'tOO 


-r 


I~00 


lO 


o to t^ CI o 


-r c 


to 00 




to 




C) rt ira 


c» 


rH CI 


■<r 


oocto eno 


cocc 




2 


CI 








•e 








T-H 1— t 


c^ 


"* 


CO-H 


■0" ClOCl 


■.f 


CO ^ 


■^ 


C35 r^"*** C/j ^H 


^ ^ 


CI CO 


§ 


o 




-H rt CM 


»o 


rt CM 


CO 


OOt^C) l-O 


cot^ 


O CO 


CM 












1-1 COO 


























^_, 


t^ 


C-1 — 1 


CO I^IOO 


W3 


0.-I 


^ 


.-1 00 CO OOO 


WI-. 


T CO 


o 


lO 




^ tn 


b- 


rt CO 


tr 


C 05 O CO » 


IT cc 


1-1 CO 


en 


(M 
















^H 1-H 


^ 


rr 


o r- 


t^ CM CO b- 


c^ 


iO "^ 


o 


^ r^ r-^ r^ o 








tO 




Ol 


CO 


CO CI CO 


a 






O OC' CO o t^ 












<N 












r-1 lO 










^ 
























Oi 


C^) 


r-H -r 


»C F-t -.f CO 


CO 


CO oa 


CM 


o o> to CO 


i<or- 


O "3 


o 


to 


CO 


coo en 


■c 


CM 


CO 


00 00 OS '.O to 


COU- 


o r^ 


C«J 


n 












■<f y-i 






.-4 




















00 


lO 


CO to 


Ol to -»• CI 


^ 


1 CI to 


00 


to CO r^ o o 








^ 


o 


M 




— (rH t^ 




CM 


CM 


OCO t^ OO 










cc 


CO 












M- CI 










'^ 
























r>- 


00 


-a- 00 


cioot^c 


!>. 


•^ TJ« 


00 


U5rt-H 


CI o II 






CO 


CT> 


o 




CM -9. 


t> 


N 


CM 


too t^ 


CO-H 










OO 


CO 
























'^ 


























to 




M- -^ 


OOOOJd 


oc 


^^ 




t^ 05 03 


CO.-C 


-H O- 


OO 


en 








oc 




o<n>o 


-roi 


o c 


to to 


00 










~-^^ 


' "- 




CO 




^ 


»c 




■o^ 


to C) l~ c 


■r 


O to 


to 


lOO _, 


00 to 


ooc 


O CO 


Cl 






—1 CO 


■r: 






O 00 o 


*c »o 


•— t "<r 


too 


or; 
















o 






-.r 




,-H -H 


C1-HC6<= 


^ 


o a- 


o 


lO CO • 


oen 








-r 


05 














O 00 • 


•O CO 








to 


00 
















o 






















1 




















































































c' 


.3 






































_g 








































'3 


3 








































-3 










■§ 

8 

1 
a 

3 
O 


» 

.s 

s 

s 




C 


.g 

B 

1 


:r 

c 
E 


a 

c 
B 


_ 
" 


§■2 


s 

.E 

E 

•o 




B 

2 
o 

Ml 

"3 


■a 
a 


V 

c 

"3 


•a 
2" I 

a 1 

■^ IS 

1 1 


a 
o 

B 
.S2 
■o 
>> 

o 
1 










O 


•9 ..3T3-C 
^ C3 <P 




1 


§22 

S3 o o 
<p 


" 2 -isa -i? -se 

^agfeag bS 
i.o| ^o .2g| 


c 
E- 








^ -^ 






;^ 


0?>;S: ^ t^O 


K 1 




o 


3 






























3 

< 






rt 


1 



•§ a 



epJ2 

O C >-c 

.321 
c 3*j 



to^^ 

ci|= a 

>. C3 M 



C © o 

OSft 



S2^ 



202 



KULE5 AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 



r; 






S s 



-^ 8 



•5 S 









1^ 




■o 




oc 


---0 


00 


oc 


ocn 


?f 


So 


■^.o 


L-: o o ci 
















OCM 


-^soc 


« 


or' 


-< X CO -r 


iO CO 


t~c 


OCM 


s 












" 








<; 






















c 


^^ -^ 




■X. 


i^t- 


.-1 -r CO ..•; 11 - : 










,_i 






o 


—1 z 


-• I-O c 












cs 


s 


CN 




CM 


CMC 


■■ CO CO 


-r • 


















S 




C CClt^ 




CM r- 


O) 


O 


o 


OCl~ 














~ 


g 




« «e^ = 


^ 


OC 


CMC CO CM 


CL-5 




CM 


'"' 




^ 


















J^_ 


c. eo >r; c 


^ 




COX c» 


C3 X 




1,^ = 


Oi 




-r » 










— CM 






8 




OM 


r-l ;C CM c 


CM 


o — 


c xino 


05 — 


■^ t>- 


— 








•* 


















L-ois 


i-i»x-* 


M 


-»• ~- 




^ 


CI C 


X 


oc 




co-o 






f l^ 


X r-< 


00 CM 




CO X 


§ 




o -^ 


SOtOM C 


CM 


oc 




I^CM 


Ot- 


X-H 




^-. 




A 








*"* 










Ml^ 


t^ OOSiC 


^ 






-1<CM 








t^ 


o« 




» 


•OCM 


■<r rr 03 ^^ 


035 








05 


0<N 


^o«o 


CM 


oc 


Otoeoco 


oco 


03 0- 


05C0 






1-* t^ 


-vi^-ia; 














§ 


CO 


t^ O 


^ CM -C •-< 




Ou- 




X 






t>; 


cm 


•— t ^ '^ o 


cq 


o c 


Ct^coo 


t^-^ 


w 


X — 


















^^ 




L- 






u- u-3 u- re 


.? 


*^ r^ 


C:^C=-* !=,=. 1 


— l- 






o 








^ — — 


^ f— ( 


10 X 










CM 


1-H w-< 






























_ 




^ -1 


.J -,^ _ 


=5 


cst- 


LO -O CM 1-0 


35-1 






c 

C3 


eo 


1^ t^ 


— '— t T » 










■^ l^ 




00 


.I n 


CM3-. 02C 


■^ 


f-H i-H 


<-l<OCO00 


uOO 


»o c 


OCM 




















C" 


N 


^ y: 


X — 1 » o 


^ 


t^ X 


— «— i-r 




r~c^ 


■:r 3> 












































00 


OM 




-(I* 




■» t-coos 


IC :D 


occ 


OCM 






L-^ -^ 
















a: 


e^ 


iO -H 




as 




c =-. 


COO 


l^-T 


'.O 


00 


CC^ 


— 1 t^TP c 


CM 


-"-" 


CMt-CMO 


■^ 


•n't 


10 CM 


^^ 






X r^ tc — 


_ 


r-.- 








ir- — 


1 


CI 


MO 


" c; i^ w 


»— ' 






00 


ocs 


^^ 1 - 


t^ 


C-H 


-HC»X3 


CO 


-c 


CO xcot^ 


■^ c 


OOU- 


CM 








•^ Om ?5 






rt-5C-1> 






















■^ CO C C3 








• ^ 


X 


c ?0 


<^-H=^ 


O 


occ 


-- t^cooo 


ot^ 






•CM 


^ 


o 


cqc^i 


— 1 o— 1 cq 




i--5C<l 


-^ CM -0 t~ 


-~^ 










X30^.'-t 




CO CM 


^ CO OJ 






3!l~ 


oc 


o 


CTO 


— 1 x---< 


Tf 


c-^ 


CMCDCMl-O 


Tt<CM 


■«■ 


■•J- CM 






•"^ 
















OJ 


O 00 


!-■; S t^ 3! 


as 


CM— 1 


U7 32 X 


































































































(^ 


o 


-r 1^ 


m 3C 00 C 


t^ 


I'-H 


t-l^t^ t^ 


CMO 








3c 










-«. t^ 










•0 


o 


O-H 


rt T t~ o 


CM 


0-* 


•^TfCMCO 


COO 






•CM 


.. 




035 


I^— 4 M ~ 














K 










« « 




—1 CO 


coc 






O— 1 


^ - --C = 


CM 


^— 's— 


' -ooeo CM 


C0C3 


•<r c 


COCO 






^3j 


iM o-r = 


O 




c c-r ■ 








55 




rr o 












c 6i 


-f X 




o-< 


o CM t~ c: 


- 


oa; 


-J XCM ■ 


CM1« 


TJ" C^ 


CO CM 


-V 




^ -r 


-r -- cso 


M 




X ■.-; X I 


>-o 








y 






















-" 




OT 


c-i — -r c; 


CM 


o^ 


C I^CM • 


CO'O 






■CO 




























'■i 






















































■ 
















' '7^ 


















1 














■F 


■ s 










• 








■5 
















:-3 










_^ 


: 


Ivi 


bi 














l_o 


' 










g 


=■ 


E.S 


2 














^% 












1 


1 ^-2 


"5 






5 - 






I'd 


c3 








































V. 


•5 


^^^■.■f 




1 S" 






■■3 












.s 




U* '--• "'-3 


»•= c c 


O 




. K- 


a - 










c 


i 


'^ u t- 


«: = £ 

fc i 1. u 


C3 


£■5.- 


K 2 S< 




S 


1 


a 




c 










^ =3 -Tr- 
















< 


2; 








> 

"3 






^^ 


<; 






















<; 












s^ 



"3 3 



S^ 



— 23 
o C 9, 



— "2"" 
"3 3.3, 

" ■>; t- 
[« * » 

a — js 
t = « 

S£2 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 203 





Oi o 


0> '» t~ 


00 


CI 


— 1 o 


CO 


coo 


■s 


-f. 


31 CI 


f 


CI X 


CD CD 


CI r^ 


O 00 


I^ 1 


Cl 








CO 'Cn C-. rt 






CO 31 


•c CO c; CO 


C. 31 


1- GO 


o ^ 


O -r o 1 


CO 


5 


o i^ 


CO O Ol 31 


CO t~c 


CI 


O 01 




O CO 


coco 


>^. 


;=-c Cl 


ci 


-!•"'-£ 


crar.-r-r' 


rfS"^ 


cd" 


cfoo 


c-o'-o-t-T 


cd'sT 


31~3^ 


cTci 


cfo i>r 


GO 


o 




iO »0 IM CD 






CO 


-1.0 —.-H 




T CI 


*-« Cl 


CO CO CD 




el 


Tf 




C) CI 


't' 




-HCI d 










^- 






■O O 


CO 31 01 lO 


31 -< ^ 




00 o 


00 -T O O 




~ci *r 


GO CO 


-1* -T GO 








O O 


00 30O » 


•O CD M- 


CO 


T-H CO 




CO CO 


O ti 


lO 31 


O Cl ■ I— 






irao 


O -r GC CO 


CO CO 1-1 


00 


OlO 


diS ^ CI 


occo 


ci^3i 


t~31 


t- Cl 31 


co 1 


























Ol 


JO -XI 


C<!^ O CO 


COOd 


i 


31 CO 


CI CI -r CD 

Cl^ .-^..^ 


t— < .-4 


co'co 




1-H d j CO 


t 






oc o 


T i.O lO CO 


OO lO 






■X GO O =■ 




0^ CO 


CD QO 1 -r 






o 


o o 


O 3s -r -I' 


31 U5 Ol 




r-l -.O 


I- CI o o 


-< O i O CO 


31 O 


Ol O 1 c 


31 


lO o 


^ oo-o 


t^C) c 


CO 


CD O 


cocD'O c» 


oci coco 






ir, 






















Oi 


Oi '-O 


CO »o CO CD 


t-TcD-N 


CO 


t^ CO 


O CO ^ »o 


CI r-l CO CO 




d i-i CO 


CO 


'^ 








^ 


"^ 


Cl-H^^ 








CI 




-M O 


32 -r C3-. O 


'^ TI. ^ 


31 




'O O C CI 1 


O -r 1 (3: CD 


GO O 


M- CI 1 -o 


o 


o o 


^ GO CO CO 


»o 1^ t^ 


31 


CO CD 




00' CO 


— x 


'^I ^1 


■o n ' yj 




«o 


CO lO lO CO 


-T 31 t- 




CO c 


'i- CD O lO 


00' o 




t'^o 


CO -H 1 T 


o 


S 


cT^ 


(N'TlTc-rio" 


to-t-'ci 


'~S 


coc 


iO^cd'o^'o" 


t-Tr-T 


cfco 


^ 


d^cf 1 1^ 


co" 




s 






CO 
























T3 












1 








o o 


■O 1~ GO O) 


C) ■»< 


CO 


J-t 


T.H O O 




CD O 


^ o 


Xi 31 


r- -^ 


^ 


~o 




o 






•rr Tj. 


GO 


CO 


coc o 




O 1- 


-r CO 




Cl CO' 








•* c~i c^^ CO 


CO C4 






COiO lO 




CIl- 


O lO 


I~ o 


CO CO 


o 
































c^i »o 


C-l •<T' CI O 














CI CO 




CI Cl 


■o 


CO 




CO 






CO 


















CI 










■C3 




0-. 




















^ o 


oi GO O -r 


-r 31 




■o 


iiii 




LO -O 




CO r- 


c= C C 1 








^ o 


05 31 I- -r 


o r- 










CO. 


-r o 






CO 


9 


O C: 


"'■^^t.'^ 


CO'O 










CO o 




t^ CO 


O -D 




CO 




























Oi 




co^-^'c-fco" 




^ 


■o 


lO IQ 'O 




d -M 


CO .— 


CI 


CO CO 


■o 


o 


■"^ 


M 




-HrH 


'a 






















o o 


Ol CO CO o 


rt CD 


t^ 


OO 






CI —1 1 CO o 


00 31 


I-Cl , O 1 


o 




o o 


00 Ol CO ^ 


C3 O 


C] 


CO 






c:i I-- CO o 


Cl 00 


-H CO 


Ol 


CO 


CO 




n- Ol CO 00 


■OO 


c 


00 


GC CI O 




I^ 30 


coo 


CO 31 


CO Cl 


00 


-r 


^ t>- 


CO "V T-1 lO 


io'cd" 


cf 


cT 


cfco-xi" 




^ 


cT-r 


^ 


d^Cl 


.^^ 


co" 


"^ 


co 






s 


















23 






C-1 r^ Ol O 


CO lO 


CO 




CD O 




CO CO 


"ot; 




o o 


"o~ 






GO O 


;J cooco 


-H d 


•^ 




>0 GO 








o o 






CO 


s 


C) o 


(M rr rr o 




CO 




^.^rr CO 




>o CO 




lO 1. 


cr. o 




T 












^c^-r 
















CS 


^ CO 


CO CO »M lO 


co>o 


oo" 








CI CO 




r-i d 


CO 


s 


'^ 








o 




rtrH 














o 




CO O 


GO -n' »0 I^ 




■o 


.^ 


-r ooo 




2 — 


-J o 


r-< O 




"o~ 


"o~ 




P- o 




-f CI 


CO 


CO 


CO O CO 






CO O 


—1 CO 


-f CO 






s 


« o 


Si-H GO & 


O CO 


CO 


CI 


CI CO •!»< 




I^ .^ 




CO CI 


00-1 




I~ 






























•o"-o 


CO CO ■^ 




>o 


t~- 


t^co -r 






-H CO 




-iCl 


-1. 


o 


'^ 


CO 




^rH 


c< 






















I^ o 


f 'M GO O 


-r 31 


CO 


o 


O'O -o 






"ci 


CO o 


CO 31 LO j 






CO o 




O CI 


CO 




-r 1»1- 




CD — 




00 GO 




'.'^ 


s 


!MO 


o 5p --0 S 


rt CO 




CJ 


Cl co^ 




CO CD 




OIO 


o ^ 


o 


t- 






























cft- 


'^'^1-^zO 


coco 


Ol 


00 


OOCl 1- 










Cl Cl 


o' 


s 


'^ 


co 






CI 




«,-l 














o 




CO 


coon c^ cc 


310 


Ol 


CO 


CD co-r 




-r CO 


O I^ 


o o 


-H ^ 


to 


I^ 






-cr GO CO rt 


O CO 




lO 


>0 i-o CO 




31 O 


o c 








CI 


o 


.—1 


<3J O -O 'O 




CI 


CI 


CI CO I^ 




lO CD 




-I* o 


31 C 


^_ 


Cl 




"O^ 


CO ■^'^■-rto" 


urTrjT 


oT 


od" 


oo-f-rco 




,_J^ 


cTco 


^ 


r-Tco" 


o 


go" 


*"* 


CO 






CI 


















o 




o 




CO GO 






lO GO 




lO o 




OICO 


Cl o 








CO 


CO t^ »o o 


31 31 




-^^ 


.-vO> Ir 




^^'^ 




O Cl 






o 


o 


(M 


■^ CO ^ (M 


T n* 




u O^ O 




Ol 1-- 




OIC 






o 


o> 


r-T 


co"co'th"»o" 


C»5"co' 


cd" 


■"^ 


■^o'ci" 






-h"^ 




d^d" 


■^ 


ss" 


— 


CO 








CI 














1 


31 




CO "^ 


t^ 




»o 


CD 


CO CO CO 








lO 


coc 


00 o 


00 




o 

8 




rf U2 


CI 


31 t^ 


o 


00 


00 M^ -f 








31 _ 










.— ( 


C-l CO 


CD 


.^ 31 


.^ 


«> 


COiO CI 








■o-r 


^ 00 C£ 


O CO 


■31 


CD 


o" 


co'co^ 


cd~ 


c<fco' 


r^ 


lo" 


'^'^^ 








L-f- 




cfco" 


o' 


,_- 


1-H 










CI 












s 








o 




o 


CO t^ 




to •-! 


CO 


CO 


CDI-CO 










CO 


O Cl 












lO 


o»o 




00 


00 31 -H 








-f 


O CO 




CD 




i 


CI 


X, rt 


•.o 


t-o 




.^ 


-!• CTj 00 








o^ 


t~- -r 


Cl ci 


-r 


CO 
































CI' 


Oi 


CI CO 


»o 






CO 


coo 31 








lO .- 




Cl o 


t^ 




'"' 


CO 






■""^ 


CI 












s 








o 






o 


31 


31 t^ 


00 




1^(3; 31 










o -r 




"g~ 




00 


CO 




■GO 


•O CO 


CI 


CO 


CO o »o 










GO Cl 








s 


c^ 




CO 


00^ 




•o 


oco 1^ 








CD^y 


-H CD 




00 


Gl 


00 


o" 


CQ^-' 


■a"" 


co'o' 


IC 


oi" 


co't^oo" 








l- 




•-^ 




cf 




CO 






























»o 




CO 


~f CO 


o 






-r 00 








Xl 


■00 -H 


31 






r^ 




o^^ 


•o 


-ICl 


.^ 








CO CO 








O _ 


O C: 




-r 


CO 


S 


CJ 






CO t^ 


o 








CO ^ 










Cl c 






CO 


00 


cT 


of'-' 


^" 


co^oo" 


■o" 








co'tC 








i"" 




~ i-T^.' 


^■■ 


C"" 




(M 






























CO 




lo 


■o t~ 


"o" 


"cTo 


cr 








TT4 t^ 








CI 








c 


o 


■n* 






00 t^ 










•-H .<t. 


















s 


lO 


lO I^ 


CO 


00 .-1 


s 








CI r^ 








CO r 










GO 








































(N O 


.cti 


OlOO 


00 








CO I-^ 








s" 








Q 




o 






























o 








•V o 


.*t 


CO 31 


^ t^^ 








l^ -r 




o • 


O 


o 




"c~ 


y 


iO 






(yj ^ 














GOW 




-r . 


-I' ^ 


13 ■Q 






CD 


s 






Ol CO 




00 CI 










OiO 




CO I 


CO u 








00 






rt cT 


co"" 


w tc 


ts 








iO^cd" 










' ^^ ! 




^i 








r^ CI 


To" 


CI GO 


o 








"O CI 






, 












'X) 








00 31 


o 


31 rr 


■n' 








CO OO 










^ 








CD 


"5 






CO CO 


■o 


■oco 


31 








OO 










CI 










c« 
















































CO 


CD t^ 


CO 






















' I ' 
























.« 














. 1 . 














































J :': 


















^s 


1 
^1 


























•S : • 






o 
rt 






6.2 

fc-. c ■- 


.a 

s 

a 
o 

>> 




.s-= 

II 


2 

c 

s 

c 
c 

> 
























B : : 

fe : : 

^ ', : 
Q, , : 

8 : : 

■a I : 

§ ; ; 






M 






gi-sg 


c S = 


a 


■4- »- 
*"" 






















c : • 








c 


3 ^ 


...ill 

ills 


o 
3 


c 

c 
ir 


2^ 

o S 


.§ 

.2 

"a 

o 


c 

03 C 

It 


c 
r 


— 

z 


c 

i 


1 


r 

c- 
> 
a 
2 




o c 

CU 


.g 

6 
.a 

o 


"c 
c 


c 
c 

o 

c 


a 

c 
B 

» o 

§ 

E- 


c 

I 


^1 


B 
o 

E- 


"c 
c 

1 





e 

o 



B.9 



Cm 



03 



Xi -VI c " ® en 
.2 2 O t, g-^ a;.^ 

S-.2 -S 2 s » o g. 
S ;§ £ g ■= ^.-p 3 

-73 a To i..I3 



Sow P^ h:" 



is 

"O-S 



Si 

Cl tJ 

s a 

|.i 

£ I* 

2 w r: t-- "^ "a 

> S .— o 
.rC' u o = _ 

;: ojo; ^ c3 
° *^« = o 

— T! C3=! ., 
3 3 > C3 M 

ti Si & c^.S ewDt; y 

0.0 C'O VVsCfc-C 



oc= 3 

.sS.a 
as-r. 

■5 s h' 



C3 .. g 



204 



RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 




STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 205 



pq 



oq 



to 



c 


>-l 






^ 


OS 


'W 


■^1 
1 


R 


--1- 


O 


OJ 


"~s 


^ 



sgsg 



'^ CD 



o -^ 

CC 00 



»oeO 



00 00 
M 00 
'.0<M 

to'oo"' 



o c^ 

>oo 

tco" 



CC c 
w c 

t- OS 

ceo' 



IN Ol 
(M CM 

r-'o 



r-'oT 






00 Oi 



-r to 

lOO" 






00 o 



rt 00 

en —1 

O (M 



1^ CD Ci 1^ 

t" cr, o CO 
C^ (N Ci 00 



CO -r CD — ( 



CD C<l t^ -n' 



(M CO 

cc"-^' 



00 TT .-^ Oi 

COCO !N -1< 

■q- 1- o — I 
t>^co~o""^ 



C5 ^ t^ oc 



O (Mt^-^ 



00 O i-H (M I r-^ 

-^ to 1^ cs cn 



CI 00 O CO 

i-Tf-Tco'-'i^ 



O lO 
■» CO 

io'cd" 



CO »o 

oo'oT 



O Ci c^ o 

*-H O 00 03 
CD CO CO CC 

o"T-<'uoci' 



»0 CO O^ CO 



O 00' 
CO-H 
O CO 

oo"-^" 



O -H 
COCO 

oo'-h" 



oo^oo 



X Oi CO t^ 
■^ CO OiOC 
CO CO » CO 



05 CO CO O 
rH I^ 05 (N 

Oi Oi coo 

or-H^coN 



Ol t^ (MO 



O — "O o 



I - »o oc. :/: 

O T O Ol 
(M CO (M O 



o oo 

00 "O 
lOCO 



CO 1^ 
CO lO 

tcm 



O -X' 

OOi 
.-lO 



I^ C31 

CO o 

oc~->r 



OS CO 
ID lO 

oc to 
oc'c-f 



<MO 

(Mro 

to" to 



(M C5 

c/JOl 

cTco 



CKO 
CM Ci 

cTeo" 



CD CD 






CM-^ « 



•-(rt -H CO 



(N CO ^ h CO 

■n* to t' ^ 

CO to -^00 

c^^cc^ to ^ 



C: CO C 

CO to CO 

— 40 -H 

-r o" 



-H IN — 



CDOl to 



2?5 



CO o o 
a: CO CO 



CO irT 



M —I 

y:; CO 

O CO 



rt CS T-t 



O lO cs 



f-H CO ^-1 



»-l CO "-H 



^CO i-H 



CO CT> ^ 



S-3 



i-a 

0° 



cS « ■= 
>. c^ ® 
^* C3 -O 

c'o 



— a O — — 






CO 



c= c B o) 
S " >- t- 

o ^'^ * 





te^ 






•c ca-o 


C 


cLH 






g-CT3 






M 




^ 


oo 


<E 




^2; 





H » u 



fe.a 
s:a 



2 ^a° 






— eg 
co-c-2 

• c a 

c: a> a> 
S — "O 

«■=.-• 
c ^ M 
■- CO 



^- ^ c; 



t- <D rt 



O o 



o c 
2 






•; < 



3 '5 2 

"S.^a 

■a CO 

BhB 

O 0) N 






206 



EULES A^D EEGULATI0X3 FOE METAL MI^'ES. 



f 







STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 207 





(M Cft 


-< oo 00 


,_! 


2 


(-„ 


CO I3> 


1 CM t^ 


o 


(^ 


-^ 


,_^ 


1^ 


>o 






o -r 


>0 O N Tf o> 






CM X 




-t* -T 


o -r 


CO 


^ 


o o 


GO CO ^ CC CO 


TH o 


to ^ 




o 


O LO 


^ CO 


•* 


o 


o cri 


co^'o C^*-0 


CM oT 


^^ 


co^a<r 


^ 


CM ^ 


t^t-T 


co" 


GO O 




coco 


OO 


coco 




o t^ 


CM LO 


CM 




tN CO w 05 


CO 


l^ 




-p 


to ^ 
















•"• 


"^ 




■^ 


10" 




t, -r 


1-H -t< CO CO »o 


to Cil 


00 f 


o <o 


lO 












e 


O Oi 


etc QOCO O 
O) CO-H 3^ » 


COCJ! 


CM lO 


-i* ^ 


00 










00 


CO^ 


l^Ol 


r- o 


t^ o 


to 








OS 


LO 


S 


I.* o 


o' t-'coo" 


-r ai 


^'co 


-r'oo 


CO 








r-T 


1^ 


"^ 




rt c^ -* 


t^ 


oo 


tOC<l 


en 










CM 






T X ^ Oi OC^ 




"~CM'00 


o-/:rs" 










oT 


CM 


03 

o 


CO 50 


(M O CO 00 ^ 


oo 




X CO 












S 


^t^ 


C^ I^ TJH CO o 


i-l CM 


CO oc 


CM CO 


o 








CO 


o 


»o o 


■sT tt oo(>f 


-r fC 


r2 t^ 


■s'f-; 


co~ 








ci 


f^ 


'^ 




.-1 <N "5 


r- 


00 


COC^l 


o 










88 




:0 t^ 


CO "O Oj 00 ^ 




O C:: 


CO o 


'^ 


tp,-H 


COCO 






t-H Oi 


t— t O 1^ 00 o 


•r lO 




LO 


CM CO 


uo I^ 




00 

o 


■'J'CO 


OOOO-HC^f 


tf <-l 


CO o 


oo CM 




COCO 


-.CO 


00 


o; 


iCTi-H 


O rr O '-O 


oco" 


lo'co 


X 'Oo' 


f>r 


rt o 


-<"cm' 


^ 


'^ 




1=. Ni=<iO 


to 


1^ 


CO CM 


o 


00 LO 


^ 


CO 1 








,-c to 


~ I- oc 






O CO 


CM f 






■^ Ol 


CD CS OJ CS CI 


CM -i* 


O CM 


ot^ 




Ol- 


X o 


CM 


o 


CN en 




r-o 


too 




-Jl 


OCM 






cr. 


lO T-H 


i-^r^'^^'^'oi* 


CO 00 


>o'co 


f-H l^' 


CO 


CO'CM 


>o'c^" 


0" 






r-( (M rt O 


t^ 


00 


t^CM 


o 


t^cD 






















—f 


-t. 




.-< lO 


O CO :0 CO CC 


■1 CM 


* "co'co 


coo 


~ "ST 




-V o 






Oi CI 


OTi CD -^ O 'O 


»0 GO 










CO Ol 





i 


i-H 00 


O 00 CO o o 


t^>o 


C^OCC 


00 CO 


CM 


OO 


o to 







lO'i-H 


t^ o '-^'c^f 


CO t^ 


^"t 


o'to 


'O 


co'o 


CO cm" 


0' 






rt CTr-(CO 


l^ 


00 


to CM 


o 






r- 


CM 

-J. 

CO 






uo :o w ^ CO 


CM CO 


STF^ 


O CM 


" ^cm" 


TP (- 




o 


Ci tC 


O 3^ -D lO O 


cot^ 


O'O 


CM "O 




o c 


"S =2 


^ 


l^C^ 


O CD C^ O Ci 




—1 UO 


lO T-> 


to 


lO i-H 


CO "O 


»o 


a 


''J^^CS 


t~r odcTco 


O^co 


co'-k' 


00 CO 


._r 


CO"'!- 


rt"eM" 


to" 


^ 




rt ,-1 CO 


& 


I- 


CD CM 


o 


t^ ir 


CO 


TT 




Oi -^ 


•O 00 »0 CO »o 


CO »o 


'00 o 


-r ^ 


lO 


00 X 


CD CM 


I^ 




^p; 


CM(M005 00 


na> 


CM 00 


CM O 


CM 


S3 


oco 


S 


o 


(N O 


CO x; lO 00 CO 


—1 CO 


■o ^ 


00 rr 


CM 


00 oc 


t^ rH 





K 


■^ci 


CO l-^CiC^ 


C5 I^ 


to CO 


CO ^ 


oj 


o' — 


CM CO 


.-T 


'^ 




,-< ,-1 CO 


to 




CO CM 


00 


1 001- 




T 




o t* 


-rfi CO I^ "O -^ 


oToi 


ob"o 


to 'X 


-r 


co u- 




■vo 




^^ 


o -r- --^ CO to 


lO CM 


CC >o 


coco 


o 


O r; 


I- o 




o 


't* cs 


1^ c^ to ^ Ol 


00 CO 




t^ CO 






■^ CO 


-r 


o 


'«t< c^ 


CO co'o'im' 


-f t-^ 


CM -a"' 


in '^ 


LO 


o-t 


-r'co* 


co" 


'^ 




,-1 .-H ^ CO 


CD 




CD rf 


00 


00 L- 


T 


^ 






CC ■-' 


CTi O 00 


o 


0> CO 


ira a> 


CO in 


~"oo 


coc 


o »o 


^0 




CM 

O 


o o 


O CO '1^ 




CO o 


-r 00 




s 


1^ 1- 


CM CO 


CO 


coo 


OOO '00 


s 


CO t^ 


OI^ 


00 -^ 


lO -* 


O LO 




a> 


lO cs 


00 lO 


co' 


O'l^ 


00 CO 


to' 00 


ir> 


Oo'l- 


^CO 


cm" 


'^ 






to 


to 


to 


to-< 


00 


00 tc 




^ 




.-H r^ 
















CO 


lO c 


uoT^ 


00 




t-, -^ 


-H cno 












COiO 


00 


«* c 


CM O 




S 


oo c^ 


coinO) 










O 


^ CO 


-^ 


t^ir 






iO"CN 


X f-^'cO 


t-^ 








^ 


o'oo 


[C 


QO-if 


•^n 


co' 


'"' 






CO 










tO-H 


00 


00 tc 

'a 


>o 


1 CO 




o o 


O t^ to O 00 






1 




00".^ 


^ 






•~1 


<-H 


a 


1 




^ CO '-I O T 










CD CO 


CM 








CD 


CO 


O IN 


(JO ^ 00 »o t^ 










00 lO 


■^ 








00 


to 




io c*: 


odrt co'o2i~-" 










c>t-: 


r-^ 








co' 


■0' 


^ 




r-l ,-1 CO 










CO rt 


GO 










°_ 




C<1 ■-< 


CO CO X CO o 








6i 


OOCM 


o 












8 


CO 'O 


•J =n .-o -f o 








c^ 




o 










C^ 


«.-( 


lO 't* O CO CO 










TJ" CM 


t^ 








■-^ 


'' 


>r.- 


lO CC 


o6 ^" -^^ si -T 








-p 


i-Tco' 


r^ 








-f 


r-H 


'^ 




rt ,-1 CO 










to -1 


00 










__^, 






CO CO 


CO S-. -o o ctj 










^ lO 


CD 








■3 






00 


c^ o 


oo t~ t^ Ol ^ 










O CO 


C-1 








-M 




CO 00 


rt o ^ o oo 










■^ CO 













1^ 


00 


»o <>i 


00 ^' co" oi" t-' 










lO i.O 


o' 








-^ 


lO 


'^ 




.-^ .-H lO 










to r- 


X 










CO 




Ol 'f 


CO -^ CO 


CO 










-H t» 


~ 00 








01 


CO 




o t- 


-1" CO o 














^ 












oi 


C^Ci 


(N03-H 


lO 










o c^ 










-- 


CM 


^j 


IOCS 


oot-Tco 


t; 










to r-H 


p- 








»o 


i;:; 




Ol T-H 


O t^ .-H 


CM 










t^ CM 


o 








~^ 




s 


?1 r-H 


-f ^ 'O 


lO 










O CO 


CO 








CO 


CO 


00 o 


X ocn 


CO 










cot-; 


o 








«o 


t^ 


Vj 


•^c^. 


r-'csr-I 


to 










CO C< 


to 








lO 


o"" 


^ 






^ 










1 to -1 


t^ 










lO 




(M O 


<N rt CO 


~o 










t-"0 
















Oco 


CO 3 CM 


c 










00 en 


CO 










■^ 


o 


•lOO 














00 o 


X 













lyn 


Tji'C^ 


r-.' Ci T^^ 


CO 










CM—I 


-fl 










00 


r-H 






t 










tDr-( 


t- 










tP 




1-H (M 


CO O O I^ t- 










' COCM 
















CO o 


»0 --< CO o c:> 










O 00 












CM 


coo 










t-00 


"^ 










X 




■^'cr 


l-"ciiM'co'— 1 










r-4 F-H 


CO 










CO 






^ rt LO 










CO-H 


I-- 










to 






















j^ 







— ' 


































i 




































!•- 






































ai 






































c 










C 




























a- 










o 
















c 












St 
H 1 


3 

a 

s 

a 








2 


1 




■3 : 
a : 






7 






a 


r 




C3 1 


:1 


1 




a: 


l^i 




at 

. . ® c 


3 


: .ga 

.3 25 


1 


1; 




r3 

1 




.2 ol 


H 1*4 




^ 


c 


yli 


S o 
5 c 


^ 




-t,!:; C 




. ^^'^ 




SOO 




•«oc 






s 


©S £~ 


§< 


1 


> e 




3 


g 






-< 






p 


f^C 


k~i 


t-3 






p- 


Ph 






Ph 






M 




1 



Q« 



15-T-LO— o 



* o 



208 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 

CLASSIFICATION BY CAUSES. 

Tables 27 to 39 (pp. 217-245) give a summary of some 1 2,000 fatali- 
ties and 32,000 injuries in and about the metal mines of the world. 
The figm-es for these tables were compiled so far as possible from the 
official reports of the several States, Provinces, and countries. The 
statistics for the continental countries and for the British colonies 
outside of British North America and Australasia were taken from 
the general report and statistics published annually by the British 
Home Department. Though the figures for the United States do 
not represent the total number of accidents in the metal and non- 
metal mines, due to the fact that complete figures are unavailable, 
yet of the 5,764 deaths reported in the list of fatalities by years in 
Table 8, 5,066 deaths have here been classified according to causes. 
Substantially all the deaths and injuries reported in the tables show- 
ing deaths and injuries by years for the other countries are repre- 
sented in the summary of such deaths and injuries by causes. 

These tables have been compiled for the purpose of showing, by 
means of figures covering a considerable number of years and as m.any 
States and countries as possible, where the operator and superintend- 
ent must look for the causes of injury in and about the mines, of 
directing attention to the principal causes of injury, and of showing 
the need of a comprehensive set of statutory rules and regulations, 
such as are contained in the proposed code of regulations forming 
the basis of this report. It was considered that figures covering acci- 
dents in the metal mines of the world for approximately two decades 
would be representative and would fairly apportion the various risks 
and hazards in the mines, since any unusual number of deaths or 
injuries from a particular cause for any one year would be counter- 
balanced by the other causes in the other years. 

A careful study of the provisions of the committee's proposed code 
of safety rules and regulations leaves little room for doubt that many 
accidents in and about the metal mines would be prevented by rigid 
enforcement of the code. All important recurring causes of injury, as 
shown by these tables, are guarded against by adequate provision so 
far as possible. The most elaborate set of rules and regulations will 
accomplish little, ho\/ever, without the maintenance of an intelligent' 
and effective supervisory system on the part of the operator, and 
without the feeling of respect for the law on the part of both operator 
and miner, which result in a higher standard of discipline. 

CAUSES OF MINE ACCIDENTS. 

The causes of mine accidents are many and varied. Any extended 
study of such accidents, however, leads to the conclusion that they 
naturally fall into two groups or classes. The first group includes 
those that might be termed preventable. That is to say, the acci- 
dents coming under this head might have been prevented by the exer- 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 209 

cise of ordinary care, prudence, or foresight. The accidents in the 
second group, which for want of a better name may be designated 
as nonpreventable accidents, inchide those resulting from the inher- 
ent dangers and hazards of the work itself, and against which human 
foresight, skill, and care seem powerless to guard. Such accidents 
probably amount to less than haK of the total number. 

It has been stated that accidents are the inevitable accompaniment 
of mining, but granting that this is true to the extent indicated by 
the above classification, no valid reason exists why the number of 
preventable accidents can not be materially reduced, and particu- 
larly in the mines of the United States and British North America. 
The summation of accidents by causes in these tables does not show 
the vastly higher rate in the metal mines of these two countries as 
compared with other and older mining countries. The tables do 
show, however, that the causes of injury are about the same over the 
whole world, the difference being that more men are killed proportion- 
ately from these causes in the metal mmes of the United States and Brit- 
ish North America than is the case elsewhere, save in the Transvaal. 

CONTRIBUTING CAUSES. 

In the examination of the various reports and in the perusal of the 
detailed accounts of the accidents included in these tables, several 
facts stand out prominently. The first is that the experienced miner 
is not at all exempt from underground accident. In many cases 
constant exposure to risk makes the miner forgetful or heedless of the 
dangers confronting him. The old hand is furthermore likely to 
evince considerable unwillingness to employ the safety devices fur- 
nished by the operator. The second fact is that the relatively safe 
parts of the mine are responsible for an unduly high proportion of 
accidents. This, of course, is to be accounted for by the fact that 
when the men are in dangerous places they exercise a higher degree 
of care to avoid danger, and when they are in less dangerous places 
they become heedless or forgetful. The third is that in times of 
scarcity of labor when the operator is compelled to employ anyone 
willing to engage in this line of work, the lack of a common language 
between the supervisor and the workman in which instructions can be 
given and warnings issued is a constant menace and source of injury. 

The fourth is that the spirit of restlessness and desire for change, 
characteristic of the m.etal miner in the United States, is responsible 
for many injuries. The shifting character of the working force in the 
mine and the necessity of keepmg the men as long as possible has 
brought about a state of lax disciphne. Wlien the men are con- 
stantly changing from one mine to another it requires some little 
time before they can learn the dangerous places, and doubtless many 
accidents can bo attributed to the lack of familiarity with conditions 
in the particular mine. Youth is also a factor in mine accidents, 
16559°— Bull. 75—15 15 



210 EULES AND KEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

generally in tlu> form of inexperience and willingness to take umiec- 
essary risks. 

It is hoped that it may be possible at some time in the future for 
a qualified inquiry to be undertaken which will show the relative fre- 
quency of accidents with respect to the experienced and inexperienced 
miner, and which will show the number of years experience in the 
mines of each miner killed or seriously injured. It is also to be 
hoped that it may -be possible to show at the same time the compar- 
ative death and injury rates among the English and non-English 
speaking miners and mine laborers. 

A factor of great influence on the safety of underground work is 
the state of health of the mmers. It is a matter about which little 
is known specifically, although it is entirely obvious that the mental 
find physical effect on anybody subject to sickness or disease wiU be 
to make him much more prone to accident. It seems probable that 
one result of the more drastic workmen's compensatioji, laws that are 
being adopted by one State after another will be an increased study 
of this unportant subject. 

RESPONSIBILITY FOB, MINE ACCIDENTS. 
RESPONSIBILITY OF OPERATOR AND SI'PEKIXTEXDENT. 

The first responsibility must rest with the operator. It is his duty 
to provide adequat-e safety devices for the protection of the miners. 
It is his duty to select a careful and experienced superintendent who 
can enforce discipline and compel compliance with safety rules and 
regulations. If the superintendent can not enforce wholesome and 
desnable rules, it is the duty of the operator to replace him with one 
who wiU and can. 

The responsibihty rests next w4th the mme superintendent. He is 
responsible for the management of the mbie, for the enforcement of 
disciphne, and the selection of his suborduiates. It frequently 
appears m the annual reports of the various State mme inspectoi-s, 
that the inquest held over the body of a deceased mmer develops the 
fact that such muier had violated some rule of the mine. This indi- 
cates a lamentable lack of discipline. Many uijuries can thus be 
traced to the failure to enforce important rules. It is futile, for ex- 
ample, to warn a mmer that failure to bar down all loose rock from 
the back of his working place is dangerous, to call his attention to a 
rule of the mme forbidding such a practice, and then permit him to 
go ahead and do the very act forbidden. The frequent repetition of 
such bistances creates the impression that rules of this character are 
not intended to be enforced and are designed only for the protection 
of the company in case a suit for damages is brought for injuries 
resulting from doing this particular act, when the defense would be 
made that the miner knowhigly violated a rule of the mme. The 
operator or superintendent can not evade the responsibihty resting 
upon him by taking refuge behind a plea of this character. 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 211 

The handling of a large body of men requires the adoption of a set 
of strict rules and regulations entirely aside from the laws of the State. 
Wliere the character and disposition of individual miners differ so 
greatly there must of necessity be but one standard of conduct, and 
individual plans and methods must be subordmated to a general and 
well-ordered system. The safety of an mdividual mmer largely 
depends upon the care and prudence exercised by his fellow workers. 
Unless he can know with some degree of certainty the extent with 
which he may rely upon their properly dischargmg their duties, it will 
be impossible for him properly to perform the duties assigned to him, 
and the natural hazards of his occupation will be enormously mcreased. 

The operator or supermtendent may not always be cognizant of the 
continual violation of an important rule, yet it must be apparent that 
if proper efforts had been made to see that the rules were obeyed and 
comphed with a contmual violation must have been discovered and 
prevented. The unchecked violation of a rule or the constant per- 
formance of a forbidden action inevitably breeds contempt on the part 
of the mmer toward the reciuirements of such rules or of the mming 
laws of the State. The superintendent who is miable to enforce 
wholesome and necessary safety rule-s is unfit for the responsible 
position he holds. 

The duty of the operator or supermtendent does not cease when he 
has furnished means of safety and issued general mstructions. He 
should see to it that the one is properly used and the other imphcitly 
obeyed. Under no circumstances should the mmer be permitted to 
jeopardize the hves of his fellow workmen, nor should a foreman or 
other suborduiate official of the mine be permitted to jeopardize the 
hves of those m his charge. The miner who persists m violating a 
rule uitended for his own protection and that of his fellow workmen 
should be immechately discharged, and a subordmate who is unwilhng 
or unable to see that wholesome rules are comphed with should be 
forthwith removed. It is possible that if the supermtendent or fore- 
man will not discharge men who decluie to obey rules promulgated 
for their safety laws may be passed making such action compulsory. 

The supermtendent and mine foreman must be actuated with a 
feeling of resj>oct toward the provisions of the law, as well as toward 
the rules of their own company, before they can hope to mculcate a 
hke feehng in their men. A careless foreman means careless work- 
men. A laxity in complymg with the provisions of the law or the 
terms of company niles is responsible for loose practices and care- 
lessness on the part of the men. If the men in charge of particular 
parts of work m the mme are made to feel that they pei"sonally are 
responsible whenever an accident happens to the men unmcdiately 
under then- charge, this wiU necessarily induce a more painstakmg 
attention to details on their part, and a far higher degree of caution 
and prudence. 



212 RULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIKES. 

EFFECT OF LABOR CONDITIONS. 

Some reasons for the failure to maiiitain a higher degree of disci- 
pline m the mme and for the failure of the operator or superhitendcnt 
to discharge the responsibihty restmg upon him m this respect are to 
be found in labor conditions. It is a common sayuig in times of 
scarcity of muie help that every man is a miner. This may be attrib- 
uted perhaps to two causes: First, the rapid development of the 
industry, and, second, the constant and increasmg competition with 
other mdustries. The combination of these causes has undoubtedly 
compelled operators to take unskilled and mexperienced men. Again, 
the necessity for keeping the men has probably brought about a 
laxity of mme discipline and, m consequence, loss of life. It is 
unquestionably true that in minmg districts where a considerable 
number of foreign laborers are employed much of the alleged lack of 
intelligence on the part of the workmen is due to a lack of compre- 
hension which the possession of a common language would remove. 

It seems to be a frequent practice for men who have been employed 
underground as trammers or laborers to go to another district or mine 
and apply for a job as mmer. If labor is scarce the exammation as 
to the qualifications of the applicant for the position sought is apt to 
be a supei'ficial one, and while doubt might exist as to the knowledge 
and experience of the apphcant, yet he will be assigned to work of 
which he is almost entirely ignorant, without further questioning. A 
shght mcrease in wages is thus sufficient to mduce men to assume the 
increased dangers incident to the use of explosives and the mining of 
the ore. 

It is understood, however, that many large companies now require 
the apphcant for the position of miner to submit a written apphcation 
giving in detail his previous experience and the names of the mines 
in which that experience has been acquired. This system if rightly 
carried out, and if the investigation of the applicant's experience is 
thorough, would greatly tend to reduce the number of accidents result- 
ing from the employment of inexperienced men for dangerous work. 

If experienced men can not be emploj^ed, then it devolves upon 
the operator to use not ordinary precaution, but extraordinary pre- 
caution. Only experienced men with a reputation for prudence and 
carefulness should be assigned to the more dangerous places, and every 
effort should be made to instruct the workers in their duties, and in the 
means of avoiding the dangers to which they are of necessity exposed. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF MIXER. 

Finally the responsibihty rests upon the miner to exercise care in 
the face of danger, and not to neglect simple precautions merely 
because injury has not happened through their neglect in the past. 
If miners were held to a high standard of care, if they were given to 
understand that a failure to comply with the rules of the mine would 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 213 

result in dismissal, and if this step were taken in a few instances, the 
miner would soon recognize the necessity of compliance. 

The prevention of accidents from fall of rock and from explosives 
largely depends upon the caution of the individual miner. The vast 
majority of accidents under the head of explosives could be pre- 
vented by reasonable care. Such things as returning to a shot 
Avithin a few minutes after the fuse has been lighted, and when all 
the charges are known not to have exploded, tamping explosives with 
an iron bar, crowding explosives into a tight hole, drilling into an 
old hole after a misfire, and bending over a powder box with a lighted 
lamp or candle in the cap are wholly inexcusable. Ten to 30 per cent 
of the accidents in mines are due to such causes. Accidents from 
failure to replace timbers broken by a shot, or to sound the roof after 
blasting or after taking down the drilling machine are due to care- 
lessness. Likevase with accidents resulting from failure to use the 
ladder compartment instead of the sldp road, from crawling up a 
mill hole from below to dislodge rocks that have become stuck and 
being smothered in the dirt and ore released by the dislodging of the 
rock, and from jumping on the cage while in motion. Numerous 
other instances of this sort might be mentioned, but the point is that 
these causes of injury are entirely within the control of the individual 
miner; they are some of the things that must be left to his prudence 
and judgment. 

The code presented in this report tries to fix responsibility in every 
case and the miner is made subject to penalities for violations as well 
as the operator and the company officers. This is only fair and it 
may be said that one of the most baffling problems in work along 
safety lines is the unwillingness of the miner to submit to necessary 
rules, an unwilhngness based more on ignorance than on anything 
else. To educate employees to an adequate appreciation of the risks 
of their calhng and the need of observing certain precautions to 
diminish these risks, is vastly more difficult than to frame safety 
rules, to adopt safety appliances, or to establish safety inspection 
systems. The existing laws of many States recognize the joint 
responsibihty of the employee with his employer and prescribe penal- 
ties for violations of safety regulations by the former. To enact laws 
and to enforce them are two different matters. The committee has 
no record of the conviction of a miner for violation of a safety regu- 
lation in this country. It is unfortunate that this is true. It does not 
obtain in other countries. In Australasia, for example, such con- 
victions are not at all infrequent. In the reports of Australian niuie 
inspectors one not infrequently reads of the prosecution and convic- 
tion of miners guilty of violating safety provisions applyuig to the 
setting of timbers, the handhng of explosives, etc. Unquestionably, 
this has much to do with the excellent showing of the Australasian 
States in regard to mining death rates. 



214 RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 

COOPERATION NECESSARY. 

There can be no such thing as placing the responsibiUty for mining 
accidents entirely upon the shoulders of the mine operator, the mine 
superintendent, or the individual miner. The responsibility rests 
upon them all, each must assume his share and each must discharge 
it to the best of his abihty. It is the duty, as it is probably the 
desire, of the operators to furnish every known safeguard to life 
and limb and to' provide every safety device that promises to de- 
crease the dangers of mining. It is the duty of the miner to use 
them whenever possible and it is the dutj' of the superintendent and 
foreman to see that they are used. 

In order to bring about a reduction in the number of fatal and 
nonfatal accidents in metal mines, there must be a helpful spirit of 
cooperation between the mine superintendent and the mine foreman, 
between the mine foreman and the miners, and lastly among the mine 
superintendent, foremen and miners, and the mine inspector. Some 
operators in the past have been inclined to look upon the inspector 
in somewhat the same manner that a criminal would look upon a 
police officer. They felt it necessaiy to conceal everything possible 
from him and to give absolutely no assistance toward shomng the 
true conditions existing in the mine, ^^Hth the result that oftentimes 
important violations or evasions of the law were overlooked. The 
mining laws are enacted for the mutual protection of operators and 
miners, and if properly and rigidly enforced the result would do 
much to lessen the constant danger attending the miners in their 
hazardous work, and in the betterment of the physical conditions of 
the miner. The miner himself is in the best position to determine 
the relative safety of his working place, and he is naturally held 
responsible therefor, but he is likewise in the best position to point 
out the dangerous places to the inspector. He is also constantly 
subjected to a risk of injury at the hands of others, and should not 
hesitate to call the attention either of the mine foreman or of the 
mine inspector to violations of the law or of the mine rules. 

Whatever may have been the tendency in the past, there can be 
no doubt that the average operator and superintendent is to-day 
keenly interested in the prevention of accidents, and is both willing 
and anxious to use every available means that will assist in accom- 
plishing that end. Fatal accidents are regarded %v'ith horror, and 
the loss of life is taken to heart. Too frequently, however, the lesson 
is soon forgotten before steps have been taken to remedy the cause 
and prevent another loss of life therefrom. 

The average operator furnishes ample supplies of timber, sees that 
the powder is thawed and distributed by a man employed for that 
purpose, has the shafts, cages, guides, and brakes, regularly examined 
and tested, employ's cagers who are the only ones allowed to give 
signals to the engineer, and employs a competent hoisting engineer; 
winzes and raises are protected; yet in spite of all this accidents con- 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 215 

tinuo to happen. Lax mine discipline, failure to provide adequate 
safety devices, inexperienced workmen, scarcity of help, non-English 
speaking laborers, heedlessness or forgetfulness on the part of the 
miners, all contribute i:o swell the number of accidents. 

The remedy for these conditions must be sought along the Une of 
the general education of the miner as to the requirements of his 
work and an inteUigent supervision of such work on the part of the 
operator and superintendent, as well as a rigid enforcement of safety 
rules and regulations. 

Perhaps the placing of a suggestion box at the shaft house, such as 
is now generally employed in mercantile establishments, in which 
miners might drop either signed or unsigned communications and 
suggestions regarding the possible improvement of conditions in the 
mine might be helpful if these suggestions were examined daily by 
the superintendent, and the payment of a slight cash reward for 
suggestions adopted might contribute to the betterment of conditions. 

Most mine foremen are probably doing all that they can in the way 
of instructing those under them, but the constant pressure from above 
to get out increasing quantities of ore at decreasing costs, renders 
them unable to meet the demand for instruction which inexperienced 
help requires. This pressure is felt by the men also, so that in their 
desire to make a showing they are led to neglect simple precautions. 
This pressure should not be exerted to the extent of inducing careless or 
dangerous practices if the number of mining accidents is to be lowercnl. 

CAUSES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTS. 

The foregoing general discussion relates to what might be termed 
the underlying causes of accidents. The tables which follow give in de- 
tail the physical nature of the causes resulting either in injury or death. 

Table 27 shows that four causes, namely, fall of rock or ore from 
roof or wall, explosives, falling down shaft, and hoisting accidents, 
constitute approximately two-thirds of the fatal accidents in and about 
the mines. The remaining 31 or 32 causes constitute only one-third 
of the total number. TMs table shows further that the relati\e 
percentage of these causes with reference to the total number of 
deaths and injuries remains practically constant for the mining in- 
dustry generally throughout the w^orld, the total average for all the 
countries represented in the table for these causes being 62 per cent, 
while the total for the same causes for the United States is 66 per cent. 

Tables 28 and 29 give the total number of deaths by causes for the 
United States and various foreign countries, together with the relative 
percentages thereof for the years 1894-1911. It is noticeable that 
the deaths by explosives in Canada are twice as high as in any other 
mining country, the accidents caused by drilling or picldng into 
misfires and other unexploded product being unusually high and 
about four or five times as high as for any other country. The tables 
further show that the underground accidents, wiiich represent the 



216 



RULES AXD EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 



true mining accidents, constitute about eight-tenths of the deaths in 
and about the mines. 

Figure 1 shows the relative percentages of the principal causes of 
death in and about the metal mmes of the United States for 18 years, 
or for the period 1894-1911. The chart exhibits in strildng manner 
the relative importance of falls of rock, explosives, falls down shaft, 
and cage accidents, as compared with the remaining causes. 

Tables 30 and 31 show the deaths by States and causes for the 
United States for the 18-year period, with the percentages of such 
causes. The figures. are given by counties where county inspection 
is maintained. These tables show that deaths by falls of rock are 
greater in the lead and zinc mines of Missouri than in the mines of 
any other State. The accidents from explosives underground repre- 
sent about 19 per cent of the entire number. The accidents from 



Cause. 



All causns 

Underground accidents, total 

Falls of roof 

Explosives 

Falls down raise, etc 

Mine fires 

Ilaulagc accidents 

O ther causes 

Shaft accidents, total 

Falls down shaft 

Objects falling down shaft 

Cage accidents 

other causes 

Surface accidents, total 

Surface accidents where surface 
mining is employed, total 



Number 
kiUed. 



5,000 

3,302 

1,438 

9G1 

205 
111 
101 
390 
l,2-t-4 
547 
1S7 
3S9 
121 
280 



Percent- 
age of 
total 

number 
killed. 



100.00 
Co. 18 
28.39 
18.97 

5.82 
2.19 
1.97 
7.84 
21.56 
10.80 
3.09 
7.08 
2.39 
5. 53 

4.73 



10 20 30 40 50 fO 70 SO PO 100 




Figure 1.— Relative percentages of causes of 5,066 deaths occurring in the metal mines of the United 
States for the period 1894-1911. The figures include only those States havmg mine inspection service. 

electricity constitute but a small percentage of the total number, but 
it has been noticeable that the electrical accidents have on the whole 
been increasing in the past few years, this, of course, being due to the 
increased use of electricity in and about the mines. Surface mining 
accidents constitute but a small portion of the total number, Anth the^ 
exception of the State of Mmnesota, in which State they constitute 
nearly one-haK of the total number of accidents for the period covered, 
probably due to the great amount of open-pit mining there conducted. 
Mne fires constitute but 2.19 per cent of the total number of acci- 
dents for the entire United States, but for the past few years in the State 
of Xevada they constitute nearly one-tliird of the entire number of 
accidents . Haulage accidents underground constitute a relatively unim- 
portant part of the total, amounting to but 1 .97 per cent for the United 
States. One-twentieth of all accidents are accounted for by falling 



f 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 217 

down raises, winzes, etc. For Idaho, however, this class of accidents 
constitutes 19.3 per cent and for Montana 13.16 per cent, which is ex- 
tremely high as compared with the other States. Missouri and Ten- 
nessee show the largest percentage of deaths due to objects falling 
down shafts, this in the case of Missouri being due to the insecure 
couplings used on the tub hoists in the earlier years. Michigan shows 
the highest percentage of shaft accidents, or about 31 per cent, of the 
total; for Houghton County the proportion reaches 39.75 per cent. 

Tables 32 and 33 show the deaths by causes in the metal and non- 
metal mines of British North America and Australasia for the period 
1894-1911. The very large number of deaths due to explosives in 
Canada has already been commented on. Falls of rock or ore cause 
but 13.35 per cent of the total number of deaths in Canada, w-hereas 
in Australasia they cause 34.42 per cent. FalUng down shaft con- 
stitutes in both cases practically one-tenth of the entire number of 
accidents as compared with 10.86 per cent for the United States. 
The percentage of shaft accidents is somewhat lower than in the 
United States, being about one-fifth in these two countries as against 
one-fourth in the United States. 

Tables 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39 summarize over 32,000 injuries m and 
about metal mines. These injuries are classified by causes together 
with the relative percentages of such causes. It is noticeable that 
the four major causes of fataUties in the mines constitute but one-third 
of the injuries as compared with two-thirds of the deaths, this, of course, 
being attributable to the fact that in the majority of accidents coming 
under these heads death results. It is noticeable also that haulage acci- 
dents constitute a much higher percentage of injuries than of deaths, 
whereas the shaft accidents represent but about 10 per cent of the 
gross total as compared with 20 per cent of the deaths. The surface 
and surface-mining accidents remain about constant. The rest of 
the injuries are fairly well distributed throughout the other causes. 

Table 27. — Principal causes of deaths and injuries in and about the metal and non- 
metal {except coal) mines of the United States and certain foreign countries, 1894-1911 , 
percentages of total. 



Countries. 


By fall 
of rock 
or ore. 


By ex- 
plosives. 


By fall- 
ing down 
shaft. 


By cage, 

skip, or 

hoist, etc. 


Total. 


Killed: 

I'nited States a 


28.39 
13.34 
40.24 
34.42 
42.03 
59.38 
36. 55 


18.97 
33.08 
10.28 
12.95 
13. 19 
b 19. 83 
6 11.38 


10.80 
9.15 
8.19 

10.09 
3.43 


7.68 
6.58 
3.66 
2.87 
3.16 


65.84 


British North America 


62.51 


Great Britain . . 


62.37 


Australasia 


60.33 


Cape Colony (Kimberley diamond mines) 


61.81 


Italy 


79.21 


Prussia 


3.96 




51.89 


Total average 


35.29 


16.79 


7.71 


4.27 


64.06 






Injured: 

United States 


28.65 
16.10 
16.67 
23.04 
17.53 
43.93 


11.23 

21.39 

4.53 

7.54 

5 34 

b 27. 81 


1.92 
2.54 
0.97 
2.26 
0.33 


3.71 

6.29 
0.63 
1.94 
1.70 


45.51 


British North America 


46.32 


Great Britain 


22.80 


Australasia 


34.78 


Cape Colony (Kimberley diamond mines) 


24.90 


Italy 


44.74 


Total average 


23.39 


9.23 


1.47 


1.94 


36.03 







a Figures include only those States having mine inspection service. 
b Includes accidents from mine fires and mine gases. 



218 



KULES AND KEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 



a, o 
2 « 



^ 



•jj^qs 'iB^ox 



•sasneo jaqjo Xq g 



•0)3 ')S!oq .10 '-(ajtonq 'diJfS gj 

'aSBO iCq paqsnjo jo Jion.i|S Sutaq iCg '^ 



•^j'Bqs UAiOp Suiil'EJ s^oafqo Xg 2 



^ .-« a> CO CD 



^ X >--: I.- lo 



CJ :0 »-* -tv CO 



•^jj'Bqs nMOp SufilBJ ^ff 5 



t^ O i-"^ Xf Oi 



t^ c^ 1^ lO ic ■ 00 I rr 

T lO -^ (M (N • ^ O 



'pnnoiSjcapnn 'ibjox 



•sasriBO jaq^o ^g J5 






CO UO ^ i-H cs o [ »o 

>-< -^ CO c^ oc 



•.ta^'B.'w JO qstuui Aq ^ 



•(•o^a 'pajBoogns 'paujnq) S8.ig autni Sq 



's\iup 9uiqoBm io saAijomoooi aiiitu 3ui 
-pripui ion '(018 'AianupBUi aiJBiUHq 
puG 3tmsjoq 'sdiund)' .^i.iouiqjBui Xg 



•(sainq .lo 3[0oqs) Ji^iou%03\9 Aq S 



T-l r-i-j: X 



•(Sf[r.ip puBq 
JO eniqoBni S.q) sjusppoB Smnfjp Aq '^ 



•jajfDod JO ojnqD niojj ajo jo tinj Xg 2 



•oia '8[oq Kira jo 'edo}s 
'asiBj 'azuTAv 'a;nqo u.uop Suijibj Xg 



•(■oia 
'adoj JO agBJiBajq 'saAiioraooot aniui 
'SJEO aujin Xq) s^napjboB aSByrfeq" itg 



•saATSOidxa SniMBq^ ^^g 



•o^a 'saranj japAiOd niojj uopBoogns Xg 



•oja 'smoijoq p[o 
o^nj 3ini[ijp 'sajysiui jo suotsoidxoXg 



•('oia 'siSE^q raojj saoaid Sui^ij 'siscjq 
am^muajd sapupui) saAisoidxa Ag 



•S[ooi pntiq JO jaqran Xg 



•punojS JO aABO jo ijej 
'[IBA\ JO jooj raojj a JO jo ?f00J jo [jej ^^g 



•op '3ui§Bjs 'uosjad JO n^J •'fa 



CO CD O ^ 
O IN 



CO CD O ^ Oiz^ C 



M • CV i-H 



CO t^ CO O O -r <N 

-T C-) 1^ CO c: -o 



or t>. ■ rt o 



II 



:w 



: c.g 



S£.S 



1 ° 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 219 





•I^jo:> pnBio 




eo t--* r-iao<M IT' 

to ■«• 1> M « OO -1 
O e-f i-TrH 






a 
a 

ft 

C 
C 

H 

o 

1 
3 

CO 


•fpaniiojiad si Sui 
-ntni aiaqjA) ao-Bjir.s 'i^ioj, 




oco 




' 


•sasntjo jaq'jo if g; 


CO 


c= rl 


S'5 


•-•5 


y. 


•uos.i9d;osn^;:{g; 


Tjl 


IC M 


r-cn 




- 


CO 


•siaAoqs uiBajs ;£a 


« 


o 






^ 




•S9AI1 

-oraooof JO sjBo auiin Xg 


N 






-3' 00 
CO 




co 


•('Oia 'siSBiq uiojj saoaid ^^ 
SuiA'g 'sjstJiq ajnj^raajd i S "^ 
sapniDui) sgAiscidxa A'a 


coco 






00 


•9J0 

.10 3[oo.i JO sapijs JO sn^j ^Q 




l-O 


— o 








o 

•g 

3 


•aoBjins 're^jox 


1 O OlMO 

1 gocooeg 






00 

oo 


•siuspiooB 
:juBid2ui:H3xns'puTJn!in ^ff 


^ 


c^ c5 


o 








n 


•sasn^o J9q?0 Sq 


00 


t^ o o: o 




C 

s 




•x 


•AMUlTlOBm i£a 


I; 


S2?^3 








•(SUJnq 
JO jfooqs) X;!ou;o8p Sq 


s 


0-. lO 


03 










•suo}SO[dx9 jaijoq S.Q 


g -— 






•sniq 8J0 raojj 
JO ni ejo'jo iiBj JO nnj Ag 


s 


o.-< 


(M 








o 


•S8Aiiora 

-OOOJ puE SJCO .fBA\II13J .f a 


Ci 


l-l» 












;: 


•SdAijota 
-oooj aniui jo'sjbo anira -f g 




CO ir; rH cc 










•aosjadjo iiEJ-^a S 


t^oo 


S 


> 

"" 


'i 

c 
£ 

c 
o 

■Id 

g 

a 

o 

c 
^ '.'^ 




g ' 




1 




s 


ei 

*C 
a 

E 

til 

o 

Si 

Xi 

V" 


a 
E 

'£ 

£ 
.3 

c 

n 

c: 


.c 


1 
E 

.c 

> 

a 

£ 

1 
o 
a 

c 




C 
C3 





13 "3 
C3 o 





«j si 




ri 


0) 




O 


':i 










r-t 








— • 


















n 


t. 


« 




ffi 














r- 




o 


iT" 








o 




a 








e 








^ 






=i 


R 


o 


:i: 


3 



c -w C3 



^ ?; a 






220 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



R.S 



s 



t5 '^^ 






C4- 






>> 



•»jBqs 'IB^OX 



•S9sneo jaqioXg 



•018 '^sioq JO 'i8:>tonq '(Ii>[S 
'oSco £q poqsruo jo Jioiu^s Smoq ^g 



•jjBt[s nMop SmjIBJ s:}09fqo Aq 



•jjBqs uAiop SntiM ^a 



•pnnojSiapnn 'ib^ox 



•sasnco jaq^o Xq S 



•jojtJAjo qsnjni^a 



■(■059 'pajtjoogns 'pauinq) sajy amiu X g 



(sjiup ouiqJBui JO saAi jouiooo] auiiu Sui 
-pn'pm iou '-019 'iIj3tiTqoiim aaBjiiBq 
put? Sinisioq 'sdmnd)" .^.lamqocm Xg 



•(Sttinq JO 3{ooqs) ^;ioij;o9i9 Aq 



•(snup pu'Bq 
JO emxiOBra Sq) 'sjuapiooB Sniinjp -^3 



•lajfood JO a^nqo raojj 9J0 jo unj Xg 



■o;a 'ajoq nitn jo 'odo]S 
'asiBj 'azTiiAi 'e^nqb UMOp SuiiTO -^Q 



•(■■3Ja 
'adoj JO a3B5it3ajq 's9Apouior)oi amni 
'SJBO amm Sq) ^'inapiboB oSBpicq' £g^ 



•S9Aisoidx9 3niM.Bm j£a 



•0J9 'saninj japAvod mojj noi^BOogns jf g «o 



•o?9 'srao^ioq pjo 
o^ni Sunijjp 'sajgsiTn jo snoisoidx9 Aq 



•(•oja 'sjs^iq raojj saoaid SuiXg 's^sB^q 
ejn4'Bm9Jd sapnioin) 's9Aisoidx9 Ag 



•sioo^ pneq jo jaqmii ^g 



•ptmoj3 JO 9AB0 JO \\vi 

'IICM JO JOOJ UIOJJ 9J0 JO 3100J JO l\V.} Aq 



•019 'StjiSb^s 'uosj9d JO n«J Aq y-t 



CO 00 r- ^ 



O CO ^ CD O 

CO *r cc CO CD 

ci ^ c^ ro o 



co«co 00 .-1 



CD Oj CD ro 
CONC^'-r 



00 »c ^^ o 
o oi 000 



00 O t» CO CD O LA 

.-t 10 ^ i-- moo 

tn 06 06 r-4 
CD 10 coco 



ft -«* O t-< 



»o 1^ o 



Oi 00 00 CD CD 
»-H •-< CC CO o 

ci O -r cJ o 



d '.-itN 



do 

00 r^ .00 

CM CO • "-I 

do 'd 



dd 



!N O 'CO — < 
00 CO ■ N t^ 

10 10 ■ CO CO 



Oi CS O t^ 

'H'-Jcid 



CQ M r^ CM C3^ C5 CD 



OOr-l " -^ 

cq "5 d CM 



CDI^OC' 
d>OCM 



05 CD CD O O "^ to 

»o o t^ to »o O o 

CM CM Oioi CM -^ 00 



00 CO 

o<6 



CM r-H -^ CO 



COOO'O 
C CO'C 

CM Oi CD 



T-lrt •■-( O 






S2 









.2 ^ 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 221 









o o o o ^ o o 


° 1 








o o d o o o d 


o 1 




■83BI9AB l^:;ox 




OO OOC OO 






^ 


•(panwoj 




SS : 


SS : 








o 


-iod St anrarai aoBpns 




Ttioi : 


05CD : 


ei 


« 1 


B 


aiaq^) aoBJjns 'l■B:^ox 






CM • 




! 






—1 lO 


^H .-a* . 


77 


Ol 




■sasriTOaaq^o Jig 


CO 


co-o 




CI 




M 






do 


cot-^ 1 


(N 


■^ 






O t^ 


1-H -:t* > 




t^ 


C 


•nosj9djosn«Jjfa 


CO 


coco 


CO!N • 






'S 
6 






dd 


o-A \ 




d 






^ ; 




'•\ri 




to 


o 


•spAoqstaBaiSiia 


s? 


CO 1 




.lO 




^ 


3 






d ; 




•d 




o 




•saAij 


s 


88 : 




OOC<1 

-HIM 




o 




o 


-oraooci JO SJEO surni jfg 


CO 


'^ • 




do 




-^ 


•(■019 's}SBiq mojj sao9id 




— lOO 


ss 




s 


^-' 


SuTiCg 'sjs^iq ajnjBraaid 


CO 


d d 


d rH 




d 


i 


sgpniom) S9A]soidx9 ^g 
















(N CO 


30 05 




r^ 


v^ 


•9J0 JO 


o 


.-1 ao 


O Ci 




o 




3[ooj JO S9piis JO sn^i ^g 


CO 


,-<rH 


-rd 




c4 






CO <35 CO r* 




lO 


CO 








«Or^O 




CO 






•ao-Bjms 'I'Bijox 




lo od •<^' CO 




•a 


t-; 


•sjnaptoo'B 


^ 


!0 t^ 


■Q 










jaBid 3m?i3ras puBni™ ^3 


C4 


d "^ 


d 






d 1 






W lOO 05 




lO 


o 




•S9SnB0 J9q JO jig 


OO 
CO 


1-i -"T tON 




CO 


«3 
CO 






C^ CO OTCO 






<o 




•XjgmqOBin ^g 


r- 

M 






M 








T-Hi-i CO(N 






•"* 


•(sujnq 


<D 


ooc<> 


o 






o 


1 


JO 3iD0qs) XjiOTJjoop j£g 


M 


do 


d 






d 






000 1^05 






t^ 


m 


•suoisoidx9 J9noq Xg 


U9 


i-l^-^O 






o 

d 


•suiq 9J0 raojj 


•* 


M 00 ■ 0> 

1-1 ^ . o 






o 




JO ui 9jo' JO n^j JO unj ig 


Oi 


<6<6 'd 






d 


■saAijora 


CO 


rr CO i 








;:; 




■oooi puB sjiBO jf BAiij^J ^g 


M 


di-i ; 








d 


•saAijoni 


ei 


g^ss 






S 




-ODOiauiuiio sjt!0 9mra-ig 


M 


^(N cod 






d 






coco 'o 






■^ ' 




•Tiosjod JO iicj .^g 


ej 


d^ jd 






d 














c 






















e 




















s 




















T3 




















c 




















o 










>% 










B 










^ 

4A 








-Ci 


.§ 


















o 


■e 










§ 








c 


>> 










" 






C3 C 

.Si " 


^ 


















s 




I c3 








e'<C 


J2 




: o 










& 




: c3 








m'^-^'&% 




I O 








" CQ ^ O 
0) W +i t-^^ ^ 


■•S 


1 ^ 








^ -H ^ +J O ^ y 


1 








;s-ni3g^c 


1 












■( Ci 


;< 


L 




1P- 




1 



222 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



^ "^ 





•^fBiis 'mox 




oi 




'1 "^ 




o 


CJ <N « 


1 




^ ' 


i 




: i ; 


:^* 


•Dio 'jsion .10 '')a>ionq 'diJis 1 o 
'dSv.o iCq paq'sn.io .lo JiDn.i|s Saiaq Xg =* 


5=-- « 5 S ?? 


05 i.o m 


S'' 


•a:!IBjq jo 9JnnBj JO 'SmpntAjeAO Xg 


e> 


- : 


I ■ : 


- - '"^ 1 


1 1 


' -^jBiis nMop Smii^j s^oafqo Xg 


ea 


lO • 


! M ^ 'M CC 

1 


rt c. i 


t>-i 


•?jBqs uAvop Smn^j Xg 


5 


w ■ 


- " " 


.^ " ' 


fi 


■6 
g 
o 
to 

T3 

C 


-panoiSiapan 'i'b^ox 




OrH 
00 tH 


'' 15 S S E: 
1 .-1 S I^ d 

! 


to O C3 


i 


•sasnBO jaq'jo Xg S " 


I CO 5= « g 


'y5 oc .-. 

CO I- 


Lo 


•ja^BAV JO ipruni Aq 


3 


; 




-T ^ 


1 ..o 

t 


•(•0^3 'p9;i300gns 'panjtiq) sajg amra Xg 


S 


; 


11 


CO 


<x 


—1 C-. ■ 

— t CO 


• •5 


•sin-ip euiqoBiu .lo saAiiomoooi amra 3ui 
-piiijui iou '(-oja '.ti'auiipGm aSeinuq 
puc Suijsioq 'sduTud)' A.ianrqoBiu Xg 


2 


lO . 


i 

! 




^ 


- : : 


O 


•(sn.mq .lo Jiooqs) .'C'jioiJioaia .^g 


« ' '-■=■2 1 - " 


(M 


■^ rr. : 


1 ^ 

1 


•(si[i.ip prreq 
JO ainqOBoi jCq) s;uapiDOB Smifiap ..^g 


- 


n ■ 


: 


Ol 


CO CO i 


•J 


■^a^iood JO 9:>nqo raojj 9jo jo unj Aq^ 


s 


?i : 


ll 




--- 2; : 


c^ 


•o^a 'ajoq tlira jo 'adojs 
'asrej 'azuiM 'ajnqo uAiop SuinW ^3 


a> 


oSS^ 


T- ti CI a 


- - ^ "^ 


•(■oia 
'adoj JO a2BJ(Bajq 'saAjaoraoDoi anira 
's.reo antra jSq) sinapiboB aSBin^q Xg 


00 


fit- 


i -s- t~ (N ■ or 

i 
1 


s ^ : 


- 


•saAjsoidxa SniA\t;qi jCg 


r- 


o ■ 


i 


: "" : 


"^ ; : 


"^ 


•o-ja 'saninj japAVod raojj non^oogns .^g 


C3 


O -< ' M I^ CT T 




r; 


•oia 'sraoTioq pjo 
o;uT Suint.ip 'sajgsim jo suoisoidxa >Sg 


to 


C-. i 


1 .a 1 t~ j 


g 


■(•Old 'sjsBiq rao.i; SdOdid Sui.^H 'sjsBjq -, f^" ' 2 « ^ 5^ 
a.m^Braa.nI sapnioui) saAisoidxa Ag " i 


" ^ " i 


•sioo} ptreq JO jaqmi? ^Cg m j ^ " ]i 


t~ 


-r t^ • 


?i 


•pnnojS JO aABO jo ijcj 

'{IV..\\ .10 JOOJ lUOJJ OJO JO 3[0OJ JO iiBj Xg " 

1 


i 

1 1 


ji 




•oia 'SuiSbis 'nosjad jo [[bj jf g 


- 


1.-: -< 1 (N r- -< CM 
^ 1 
1 


■M ^; • 


ITS 




5! 




c 
c 
c 
c 


6 
3 


c 
S 

^ or 

c 

c.£ 

O E 

i 


Gogebic County iron 

mines 

Iron County iron 


o ■ 

2.3 

C5.S3 


Total for iron mines 
Houghton County 

copper mines 

Keweenaw County 

copper mines 


as 

_ a. 

c3 a 

1° 



|0<( 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 223 



^ 


■<i* 


■<? 


«# 


1 
1 
1 




IS 


on ' 

"^ 1 


to 




to 




t- 


II 5! 




■" 


X • 


c^ : 


O) • 








'^ 


^ 


E^ 


1 


X -^ 










r 


: 


t-C^ ; 




















i 




'-S^ : 


i-i • 
• 


rtCJ 


: 


cs ; 


e; 


i^ 




s^?s 


- 1 


-HO 












\r 


gllg ^1. 


coco 


M ^ 


t~ ; 


1 


'-;d^- 


« : 


j ■ 










IS 

r 


r^— -1 • 




















1] 


la ! 




IN 






! 


: 1 










! ^ 




OC ^ ". 








: i 

; ! 










■ p 




eccocc 








'- 


"" ; 


'^ : 


1 - 1 "5 




*-H T ' 








i| 










W- 
1! 




n ■ 








; 1 










!l 1 


c — 


■M t^ 








t- 


<N '■ 


CM • 


C'J 


J 


- '^ 


5C IN 

i 


oc -^ 


■^ ; 


^ ; 


■^ 


1 __ 
1 " 


N r; — '• 


II 
1 






Hi 




1 






1' ^ \ 


<^-g;i?5-= 




"" 


— IN 












lie: 




O CS C<1 «M 


L-; GC 


1 

1 '" ; 


'-' : 


'^ 


i 


g£^^' 1 -•::: 


PiS; 


i "" 

1 


-r : 


"^ 


00 

s 


"■ ; 










1 










5: 


H^^ 


.= 


s?? 


1 -wIN 


X • 


li 2 




'- 








:-' 














< 


52 


, ^ 




>~ 


I S 




C 
■J. 


1 
o c 


" ^ 


s -J 

£. '. 
c ' 






c 
C 





224 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 









4- 



11 



°c5 

so ^ 

g i 

"c o 
<^ o 



•J'BIJOIt Tpvivso 



■(poniJojjad si Snrarni aoBj 
-ins aiaqAi) OD^jihs'iB^ox 



•sasnuo j8i[;o Xjx 



•nosjadjo sni3J Xg 



•spAoqs raB8?s Aq 



■s8Ai')oraoooi JO sjBoeuiui £q 



'•(■oia 's^ffEiq uiojj 
saoaicl SmJi'Q 'sis^iq ajnj^ra 
-ojcl'sapnioin) s3A;soidx9 Xg 



JO 3[D0J JO sapjis JO SIIt3J A.Q 



•aoBjjTis 'iB^ox 



•sjnepiooB 
incid Smiiauis' puB nitn ^Q 



•sasnco jaq^o Xg 



■Xj3tniiot3m Xg 



•(sujnq 
JO 3[ooqs) X^iouioeia Xg 



•snoisoidxa jajioq Xg 



•stnq 9J0 mojj 
JO ut 9J0 '}0 \iv} JO Tin J Xg ~ 



•S9Ai;ora 
-0001 paB sjBo Xbaiiicj -^g " 



•saAjiotn 
-0001 onira josjgo oinra Xg «* 



•uosj9d jo n^J -"^a 



CM CO 



£-3 



E.S. 
c: c ^ C 

■- c g 7^ 
o c o 

K o 5 a 



v. — o 

C C o 

c c; r 

c £ 5 

►- ,^ fe 

£ a 

— . — c 

o 5 te 

t-l O (» 



I ^ 









Eh 5, t: c =3 
c -2 

§ si > 






— ■ o 
I 



STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 225 



O US 


CJ 


CD 


1 CO 
. CO 

:- 
















04 


















to 




- 




- 


- 




- 




U5 




CO 


















!6 

05 


















'^ 


















1^ 


rtrt 


ei 




C 


CM 


















s 


















E; 


















CO 


















CI 


















"3 


















CO 


















•■- 




-^ 


'-' 




^ 


ira 


'^ 


1^ 

1 

1 




-^ 




£ 

a, c 

£^ 

a 






%. 

c 

1 
a 

c 
c 

£ 

£ 

c 

C 

c 

i 

c 

e 


C 








o 

i 



16559°— Bull. 75—15- 



-16 



226 



EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



•^|Bqs fBJOJ, 



•sasnBo jaqjo ig 



•oje 'isioq JO 'ja^onq 'diJts _ 

'oSo Aq pdiistLio JO jjonjis Stiieq Xg " 



•oJiBjq JO ajnirej jo SnipuiAuaAo jSg 2 



•}j,Bqs UAVop Buiq^j sjoaCqo Xg 



•^;Bqs UAVop Suihej Aq 



•punoiSiapnn i^^ox 



•sasnBo jaq;o ^g 



•jajBA^ JO qsnini /f g 



•(•oja 'paj'Boogns 'panxiiq) sajtj aniui /Cg 



•siiiJp auiqoBui jo saAi;oiuo30i auiiu 
Suipnioui jou 'AjauiqaEtn eSBiiiBq 
puB gniisioq 'sdnind) AjatnqoTiai Ag 



•(suinq 10 jfooqs) ^Cjioijpaia Aq 



•(sqiJp pntiq 
JO aniqaBtn AcQ sjuapioot! 3ainF.ip Aq 



•^ajiood JO ajnqo raojj ajo jo unj ^^g 



•cua 'aioq ijtni JO 'adois 
'asiBj 'azaiA\ 'ajnqo iLvvop 3uniBj ig 



•(■•na 'adoj JO aSBjjBajq 'saAijomoooi 
euiin 'sjco aiiuu Xq) s juapioou aSBpTEq ^^g 



"saAjsoidxa 3tnA\Bqi Aq 



•0^3 'samnj japAvod raoij noi:>Boojjns ^g 



•k>19 'sraoiioq pjo 
ojnj Sniiiup 'sajgstui jo suotsoidxa Xg 



•(•oia 'siSBjq xnojj saoaid Sni.'Cg 
's;s'SiqajniBraajdsapniom)saAis6idxa;tg 



•sioo} puBq JO jaqtutj ^g 



1^ «o o 



^ „ _ o 



^ Ci c: r- 

05 Ci OC W 

(N ^ ^ 



CO I^ 

e^ d 



moo 
cJeq 



kA CM 00 lA 



rt IN rt 



C<5 O 

or-: 



TT C^^ 'T 

do d 



02 3: 
d ^ 



■punojS JO aABD jo n^J 
'\\vjA JO jooj uiojj ajo JO 3(001 JO ii'Eij ^a 



•oja '3ai3r!)s 'iiosjad jo n^J Aq 



T N M m 1-1 






2-S 



E^ J:; cj-t: _..r3 Co 
go ;|c o A S 

52 s 



2 .3 .5 

•- -• E ^ 6 

•i: o t. 3 t. 

t2 5 o ? o 

tr* o o oj o 



o g 






STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 227 



9.27 
27.93 
26.69 
17.72 














ss 
^1 




p» 

CD 
04 


CO 


0.22 
1.01 
1.46 


pi 




00 • 














X 

CO 


(N 
O 


2.65 
3. 05 
14.26 
5.06 


(N -J5 
t^ X 

o5c4 


XT 
















s 


!-4 o i 




















S 
§ 




X 

d 


io CN ^ • 

«■ d M • 


^ 




d«' 


s 

o 

CO 




o 
o 






3 

CO 


4.86 
11.88 

8.41 
12. 66 


85 




d 33 
















o 

X 

d 


36.65 
67.42 
73.31 
75.95 








s 

CO 
CO 




at 
tii 

CO 


00 


1. 55 
1.77 
2.01 
1.27 


04 




00' oi 
















3 

pi 


0.22 
0. 16 
0.36 


























CO 

d 


o • 


X 
















i 

i 








pi 




S2 ; 

-id ' 


























d 














35 


o 




■^ 




X 


d 




COM i 

do • 


























s 


^ is ; 

o" j d '■ 
























5 


1.99 
0. 16 
13. 16 

8.86 










d 


s 

d 




§ 

00 




05 
CO 


•4 


3.31 
1. 12 
1. 10 
1.27 


o6«rf 


X -.c 

Tl- Si 


s 




o 
c 




1* 

00 

CO 


» 


-r >5 00 • 
























f 

•^ 


1.99 
3. 53 
3.66 
7.59 


;X 


« X 

d— ■ 














X 

pi 




~2 J? 


-I^L-j 


t^^ 


5 




^ 




X 

CO 


P] 

CO 


35>n M 

'T X -.D lO 


"-ICO 


ox 

00 00 


o o 


g 

CO 






pi 


o !d '■ 


























X 

d 


X oi r^ L'- 
X d :r> -d 

.-t TT CS ^^ 


0)M 


^5 Ss 

■^ cN do 

CJ re wr 


pi 

CO 




QC 


135 

l-rco 


PI -^ 

c d 


^ 










S 
















r: 


t 
c 
c 


- o £ 
'S2 


c3 






) 




c3 
O 

c 

5 


.. 1- 

K C 






T3 
03 

C a 

o = 

"3 z 


C 


) 


3 

o 


i 

5 

o 



228 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 





•93-BJ8AB IBJOi 




§8 


100. 00 

100. 00 
100. 00 

100. 00 


c 
c 


§ § 

d d 
o o 


100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 


II 


•5" 

a 

«2 

s, 

tUO 

•S 

.g 

a 

"c 

3 

a> 

S3 

3 
02 


(psniioj 
-lad SI Sninna ao'ejins 
sioqiA) eoBjins ib^ox 






« t-O 00 

CO CO <o •<J< 

ci do d 


d 




°5° 


CO 




•sasnc.) jamo if a 


n 




- d 






d 




d-J 








•uosjod JO silt;; Ag 


« 






d 


'd ' 


2 

d 




Cj c^ to 






•siaAotjs toBe^s jJg 


n 








d 


d 


d 












•saATi 
-ouioaoi JO SJGD emra itg 


n 






















g 




s 




'sjSGiq raojj saoaid gut 
-Xu 'sisiiiq 9Jnj«ui8Jd 
sapnioui) saAisoidxa Aq 


?i 






















Ol 




o 

00 




•8J0 JO 

Jiooj JO sapiis JO siiBj if a 


s 




■^ 


5 






§5 

d 




d d 








3 
W 


•aoBjjns i-b;ox 




00 


1 t~ no rH 

CO ON t- 


o t- 
to n 


^ eo OS 
.HOOtJ. 

kd 00 ^ 


e« 




•siu8pi30T3 rav.\d 
Smjiaius put; niui Xg 


o 


n ■ 




























■sasntjo jamo if g 


S 


N '■ 


cD CD CO ir3 


s s .; 

(N d j 


^- l^ o 

00 xoc 

^ cj d 


c^ 




•ifjotnqoera Xg 


pj 


ci • 


i ^ 

i 




d 


d d • 


O OC Ol 

I- ac o 
d d c^i 






•(snjnq 
JO Jiooqs) Xjiouioaid jf g 


£^ 






















■-0 

d 






"suoisoidxa jajioq iCg 


S 












d 


d 




d 


d 






•suiq 9J0 tnojj jo 
ut 9J0 JO ii^j JO mij Xg 




S3 : 

o " 




























•saATtotn 

-OJO] JO SJBO XtJA^IICJ Xg 


s 






CO 










1.0 

cc 
d 


5D 






■saAtiorao.ioi 
einm jo sjt;.) ouitu Xg 


SI 


2 ; 

d j 


iO ^^ o r^ 

<N rAS d 


CO o '■ 


^ "T d 






•uosjadjo \\v.} Xg 


g 


to i 
d •' 




M 


^ K : 

-.■ d • 


o -n. TT 

«■ CO 












o 

S 

o 


o 


o 
>> 

c 

3 
o 

c 
o 

ii 


C 
o 

>. 
c 

3 
O 

o 


.3 

a 

c 

o 

> 

c 

s 

c 

o 


£ i 
>. ; 

c ; 

3 . 
O ■ 

o ; 
o : 

§■1 

sa 


.s 

E 

c 
S 

o 


o 
c 

3 

o 

3 S 
O C 


c . 
o • 
o • 

>> ; 

C ' 

3 ; 

o . 
O ^ 

11 

IE 

Ii. 


g 

T3 

c 

C3 

11 

c =■ 


c 

c 

ii 


3 

a 


c 
o 


C3 

> 

1 





STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 229 



§s 

oc 




oo 

II 




§§ 

II 




oo 
oo 

II 




o 
o 

1 


o 


f-ICC 




fH oo 

•« OS 

00 oj 


































1 ■ 


CO 

d 


^ 




CO 

o 


















o 
d 


























CO 

d 






00 
















00 
00 








cc 

0-. 
















00 
c3 


lOC-J 
















3 


11. 11 

17.14 
13.09 




§ 

ad 




s 


U3 

to 






to 
















CD 

d 


























u-:! 






CO 

d 
















o 


CO 




CO 
















00 

d 




























o 
d 


■^ 




e-i 


















d 
d 




























■n" 










c5 


s 




oc 


g 


CO 


c 






E 






■^ 




00 
CO 


s 

d 


o c 




5 







i 

s 

2 


It 

a 






ft 
o 
o 

•o 
a 

C3 

c 

O J 

s\ 

o c 


2 c 

: c 

I c 

-a 
C 


> 


o 


g 

c, 
> 

c" 

"c 
c 

E- 


; 



230 



EULES AND REGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 





WBqs 'iB^ox 




e4co« 


N 


eo C^ «D »A ift 


CI 


[1 «* 






•o:jo 'jsioq jo 'ja^ionq 'diJis 
'aStJO Aq, paqsruo jo Jiotujs gniaq S.^ 


o 


lO 


eo 


00 e4c->n 


■» 


¥2 


00 


"3 

02 


•sasncD jaqio Xg; 


03 


C>] ?J CM 


to CO <N lO » OC 
CO 1 ■1 f-<<N 

1 


o 


1 




•^j'Bqs UAiop Sajn^j sjoaCqo .^g 


00 


•-H C*< CO 


to 


■^ T)* r^ c*« .-1 


00 


■^ 




•^jBqs UJ4.0P am\VB} ^g 


r- 




Cq TT O Oi i~ >o 

lO -^ »-H 'rrjSi CO 






i 

a 


■pnnoiSjaptin 'ib^oi 




i-IMtO 


o 


00 es CO coo 

CO M coco 


00 ' 00 
C) 1 CD 


•sasuco jaqjo &q 


cs 


t^ 


• cq 


=^ j '^"s:;s- 


v: j t» 


•id\v..\\. JO qsnjut ^g 


m M 




CO 


rt j I- -O .-1 


— 1 ^ 


•("o;a 'paiTOoyus 'paiunq) saip autra ^g 


^ 




l*^ 


'^ 


oe^ ■ 




oc 


11 3> 


•(squp auiqoBni jo saAnouioooi antui ^ut 
-pnioui qiou '-aja '^jauiqoBui aSBpiBq 
pire Snusioq 'sduind)' Xjauiq-^'Biu Aq 


s 








^ rH u-s » • 


TT 




•(sujnq JO 3iooqs) ^iiouioaia &q 


M « 




"W I 






• '1 c<^ 

: ii 


•(siiup pmq 
JO eaiqDEoi ^q) sjuapiooB gntnup Ag 


- 


"^ 


■.'^ 


<y> 


I- 






-1. 


to 


•:(ajlood jo ainqo uioj; ajo jo unj ^g 


O 1 -r< 




^ 


CO 


- 


•C-l 


to 1 o 


■oja 'd|oq iiuu jo 'adojs i sn 1 ^ 
'asrej 'azniAV 'a;nqo uaq\i SmilBj Xg ! 1 "^ 


■;2 


a 


^-.^«;2C^ 




•C-oja 'adoj jo aSu^icajq 'saAijouioooi 
aaiui 'sjBo auim iq) s^uappoB aaeineq &q 


00 




•- 


t^'-'tc C^ '■ 


2 \ik 


•saAisoidxa 2niA\.Bqi ^g 


t. _ 1 -H-o 


X 


1 ;;;;■; 


'. 1 '^ 


•oia 'sauanj jap^od raojj uojitJooBns S.Q 


to 


CO ■ lO 


S 


C >0 CO o -■ 


lO 


s 


•oia 'sraonoq pjo 
oiui Suinup 'sajgsiui ;o suoisoidxa iCg 


>n 


cc -r o> 

CC •'T 


S 


O MCO 


• »; 


s 


Ii 

1 


•(oja'sjSBiq raojj saoaid Sui.Cg 
'sjs^iqajruBiuejdsepiiiouijsaAisoidxaig 


« 






lo 3C as 3-. T 
CO ■>• ^ t^ 


1 


•sioo) puBq JO jaqtnij Aq 


« 1 i i" 
1 < ' 


c^ 


—1 M lO I — 


o> 1- 


•pimOjS JO aAT3D JO ]\v.i 

'llBAV JO jooj uiojj ajo JO jj.iojjo ii^J -ig 


M 


ra'^S 


s 


i-BiS 




•o^a 'guiSeis 'uosjad jo niij ig ^ 


o 


:- 


c» 


1 IC ^4(>) 


;"j"||?s 




1 

> 
2 




oj ; 

.a ci 

ES 
•< "- 

x;P ■ 


u 


"5 

o 




c 

c 
N 

a 


c 

a 

i" 


^2 

:| 

26 
35 


"3 
o 


1 





STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 231 



c' 
S 

s 
1? 

O 


•tB:^Ol ptiBio 












i 


c 


co>n>« 






'g 

w 




(poniiojjad 
s| 3nTTntii aoBjins 
ajaqM) aoBjins 'iBi^oi 




»0 


' 


1 


S 


g 


•sasmw .1311)0 ^a 


e» 






«o C-. t- 




""^ 


00 




'sjs^iq niojj saoaid Sai 
-A"g 's^sBiq ajuieraajd 
sapnpm) saAisojdxa Aq 


eo 








-H CT. CO.-I 






1- 
i 


-910 10 

3I00I JO sap;is jo s\\v} Xg 


« 


■^ 


to 


rH O) 'T CO 


o 




o 

.2 


•aoBjins 'iB|ox 




g3^J£ 


35 t005 N 


00 


•sjnapiooB "iweid 
Sm^iaras 'pue uiin Sq 








s 


S 








o 


o 


^ 


•sasnBO jaqjo Aa 


00 


CO 


CO 


S 


S"2 


c5 


; 


g 


•"iJjdratioBni via 


I- 


<NT-Ht^ 


o 


?5"= 




§ 


to 


1- 


•(stunq 
JO Jiooqs) A;ioiJioaia £q 




'"^ 


-f 


U5 


-^ 






o 


o> 


TP 


•snoisoidxa jaipq ig 


in 






■ 


" 


c^ 










<N 


CO 


•sniq 9J0 inojj jo 
or 9J0 jo irBj jo nru in 








1-H 


rt (N 










cs 


CO 


■saAiiotn 

-ODOl pU13 SJBO XBAVIir-J /iQ 




*-H 


o 


'^ 
















t- 


•saAi;omoooi 
auun JO sjBo auiai Aq^ 


CM 


-^ 


^ 


lO U-.T-I 




CO 


CO 


00 
C-1 


•uosjad JO n^J AQ 


N 


'"' 


r~ 


00 -H -1CM 


to 


s 


00 








■< - 
c j: 


1 
rr. 

cS 


c 
? 

c 
O 




c 

e 




_0 

c3 a. 


c 
> 

a 


Q 
C 


1 


.2 
C 

c 




5 

o 


1 
c 

4-1 

c 

s 

a 





232 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 





•jyBqs 'iB^ox 




15.24 
30.00 
as S4 




00 


13.06 
11.44 
29.28 
19.89 
26.68 




o 
eg 




■sasnBO jamo ^g 


S 
~ 


d 


to 


to oc -H : >.o 

CO ^ C: • C 

d co' to 1 1-: 


to 

CO 


•op 'isioq JO 'i35[onq 'di^js 
'aSBD iJq paqsaio jo Jjanj^s Suiaq ^q 


o 


icd-o 


00 

d 


2.33 
0.99 
1.38 
3.03 

4.82 


00 


•^jBqs umop Smii^J s^oefqo Sg^ 


' 00 


0.48 
10.00 
4.10 




2. .50 
1.99 
7.46 
6.06 
3.62 


?? 


•jjeqs u.wop Smncj -^Q 


r- 


r^ Q ic 

too?: 

tod -J 


d 


7.87 
4.98 
13. 53 
10.80 
11.19 


g 

d 


e 

D 
o 

1 

C 


■ •pntioiSjoptm 'IB^QX 




71.90 
65.00 
49.21 


o 


64.04 
25.87 
65.19 
74.43 
68.35 




•SeSTlBO j9mo Aq 


<s 


n 

CO 


s 

d 


to 


M- o to CO OS 

O i-O T CO OT 

co' d t-: oc -r 


OS 
LO 


•jg-jBAi JO qsnjni Xg 


u> 


CO 






d 


0.18 

i.'io' 

1.14 
0.17 


CO 

d 


•(•oie 'pe^Boogns 'panmq) swij etntn .\a 


■»< 




CM 

CO 

d 


00 

d 


1.07 
0.99 








CO 

d 


"Sljup ouiqoBiu JO sa.viiomooo] amui 
Smpnibin iou '(iJamqoBta ogEpiBq 
puB Saifsioq 'sdtnnd') Xjatnqoimi A"fi 


M 










0.18 
0.50 
1.38 
7.20 




§ 

CM 


•(snjnq jo jjDoqs) X^ioiJ^ooie Aq 




LO 

d 






CO 

d 


















•(sniJp pn^q 
JO omqoBin Xq) sjnappoB Suinrip Xg 


s 


oc 
d 


<M 

CO 

d 


CO 

d 


d 










00 

d 


•}93tood JO e^nqo mojj ejo jo unj Xg 


O 


§ 




f2 
d 


d 


00 
CM 

d 


CO 


1^ 

CM 

d 


•D^9 '9Ioq intn JO '9dois 
'9sit:j 'azniAv 'ejnqo TiMop Snjn^j .?g 


e> 




o 


o 


CO OS lO "^ o- 
OC' one X 1^ 

■>r' c4 d o4 r- 


CO 


•(•013 

'gdoj JO oSBJfcajq 'sg.iijomoooi antra « 
'SJEO gram Xq) sjnopibo^ aSBincq Xg 


CO 
CO 

co' 






S 


1.25 
0.50 
1.66 
0.38 




d 


•saAisoidxa SmAVBq; Xg 


I- 


^8S 

die -J 


CD 














•0J9 'S9ranj jgpjiod niojj uoi'}BOoj;ins Aq 


<o 


2 '.t2 

CO • M-' 


C-) 


1.61 
2.49 
0. S3 
3. 03 
3.62 


CM 
CM 


•019 'sraojjoq pio 
ojni Snini-ip 'sajTjsira jo snoisoidxg Xg 


« 


15. 71 
20.00 
13.25 




1.79 
0.99 
0.83 

"i.'.is' 


s 


•(•018 'S}si3iq mojj saoaid SuiXg 's^SBiq 
ajruBuiajd sapniom) ' s9A;so|dx3 Xg 


■* 


12.86 
10.00 
11.67 


o 


6.26 
3.98 

12.71 
9.28 

12.74 


O 
lO 

d 


•sioo? puBq JO J9qrai!j Aq 


eo 






s 

d 


CO 

d 


oc m 00 

^^ OS CO 


d 


o 
d 


•punoj3 JO 9ABD JO n^J 
'\Ve/A JO jooj mojj 9jo jo 3[00j Suiubj Xg 


Cv> 




^ 


CO 


39. 71 
10. 95 
33. 70 
42.23 
30.81 


CM 

rf 

CO 


•0)9 '3ni3B-)s 'nosJ9d jo n^J Xg 


- 




c 

c 




g 


oc 05-< 
to <3SC0 

cjdco 


d 


o 




1 




.Sec 
m 


c 
t 

> 

c 


c 

C 




g 

a 

'> 
o 

o 

£ 

o 

"3 
o 


c 

< 


C 

S 

& 

c 


c 

c 
c 

c 


'1 


E 

c 




1 

c 
"> 

c 
t- 

p. 

c 
tc 

(- 

c 

c 
ir 





STATISTICAL DATA OlST FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 233 





•93'BI94-B I-B^OX 




o oo 
o oo 

o o o 
o o o 




S 

o 


100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 




o 
o 




a 
'3 

e 

<i> 

3 


(auop si3iirnnn aoBjms 
OjaqM) aoBjins 'ib^ox 




oo 


5: 

CO 




o<-ieMooa> 

C0 01NCD<C 

e> oo' oi ui d 


si 


•sosneo jaijio Xg 


<M 


00 

d 


t^ 

^ 


eq 

d 


O CO 

■^ CO 

coco 




d 


o 


•(•0^8 'SJSBiq 

raojj sao9id SmAn 
'sjsBiq 9jniBm'9jd 
sapnpm) S8Aisoidx9 Xg 


CO 






to 


00 

d 


to ^ o> 
^■-Jd 






00 
lO 

d 


•9J0 JO 

j[00j JO sepjis JO sii^j Xg 


O 


°. 


d 


s? 


05 o>-* 0OC>J 
(M CO O CO to 

-r CO ,-H- ur, d 


CO 


05 


•90'Bjins 'iB^ox 




ooo o» 
•^ o oo 

O icj r-i 


oo' 


OQ0.-1 

M ■« n 


Cl 


s 


•stti9ptooB in^id 

Sun[9uis puB inin ^a 


CM 








f2 










K 


d 


•S9snE0 jamo ^a 


00 


05 

«3 


00 


i2 


^ as t^ 
-i-'dcq' 


co' 


CO 


•jf j9inTpBra Aq 


t- 


SS2 

d lo *^' 


S8 


,-1 a> 




o 

CO 


1^ 


•(sujnq 
JO jjooqs) A^iouioap Aq 




00 

d 




d 


d 






CO 

00 

d 


o 
d 


•STioiso[dx9 jaijoq jf a 


^ 






g_ 


00 

d 


CO 
CO 

d 










d 


•smci 9J0 niojj jo 
nt ejo JO \\v} JO utu Aq 


•* 






CO 

d 


00 

d 


CO 

CO 

d 










CT) 

o 
d 


■S9AI')OraOO 

-01 JO sjco Abmiibj Aq 


CM 


00 

d 


05 
00 


CO 
IM 


















•saAiioraoooj 
9mui JO SJ'BO ouira Xg 


CM 


o 


t-.. 

^ 

m 




-HO 

CO »o 

■-h'o 




d 


00 

d 


1 
•uosjgdjOH'GJ jfg S 


00 

d 




CO 


r-o 'O 
Oi "O to 

r- dd 


c^ 

o 


d 




1 




< - 

si 

.See 


c 
c 

c 


.s 
o 




H 

o 
1-1 

Ph 

£ 

o 

"3 
o 


"3 

c« a 

3 

< 


c 

c 
ts 


c 

a 

O 


1 


2 




t 
c 

c 

p: 

c 

"c: 
C 





234 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



•jjBqs 'i«*oi 



•sasnBO Mii%o iCg; 



•019 'jsioq 10 'ja3(onq 'dtJfS 
'o3b.i £q paqsaia jo j(otu}s Soiaq ;Ig 



•jjeqs OAvop 3ain^j s^oafqo jtg 



'W^qs OAVop SnjnB; Xg S 



'pnnoaSiapnn 'Ib^ox 



•S9snB0 jaq-jo Xg 



•ja^BAV JO qstiini yCg S 



o:. Tj< t- )M 
o^ o c^l ^ 

f rH ■^J* ^ 



1^ «5co rt 



Oi ^ ^ wo w 

-H i-l « 



•^ C^ 35 ^ t-H 



> QO A Cj CO 



in CM 
r-co 

CO CO CO CM 

Ift CO CD 1-J oi 



l» ,-< COiO 



•(•0}9 'pa^Boopns 'panjnq) sajij anini Xg ! S 



(N «; o *i* 



•sjiup aniqoBui jo saAi^totuoooi auim 
Suipnibui iou '(^JaniqOBui aSiijUBq 
puG SuiVsTOq 'sdnind) /ijaniqoBui -ig 



•(stimq JO 3[Doqs) A%iou%odi9 Aq 



•fs[[!jp puBq 
JO auiqOBin Xq) sjuaprooB Snju.ijp Xg 



•}83[0od JO 9:)nqo raojj 9 jo jo unj Kq 



•oia 'a[oq [[ira jo 'adois 
'asicj 'aznm 'ajnqo uAvop SutjfBJ ^^g 



•(•019 
'adoj JO 93B5[t)ajq 'saAiiomoooi auiui 
'sjo auim Sq) s)napiboB agBin^q" ^g 



1^ G(0 ^5 W 
CO 0}>) 



1.-3 . N .-I ^ 



IM 'i-i 



lO M • CO lO 
O lO • l^ f-i 



•saAiso[dxa SniAveq^ Xg 



•d:)9 'saninj japMod mojj uoi:jBOOBns Xg 



•o}9 'suiowoq pp 
oiut 3ai[[!Jp 'sajgsiui jo suoisoidxa Xg 



•(•019 'siSBiq mOJj saoaid SoiXg 'siSBiq 
9Jti)Biuajd sapniotn) " saAisojdxg Xg 



•sjooj pucq JO J9qinn Xg 



•pnnojS JO 9AB0 JO [jbj 
'[[BAV JO jooj luojj 9J0 JO 3[D0J Sar[[ej Xg 



•3J9 '3nt3B;s 'uosjad JO n«J ^g 






:2 ;S 



— c 



5 ■= r •- § c 



-*j ™ rj ♦.^ Oi O 



t^WO-<0 M 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS, 235 



•3 

o 

S 

u 
_o 

;-« 
a; 

a 
S 
6 

O 

•S 

t-t 

3 

i 

3 
CO 


•IB^o; pn^i9 




7,652 

907 

9,298 

9.284 

3,052 
2,431 






•(panuoj 
-Jtad SI aitnitin ao-Bjms 
9iaqM) eoBjJtis 'ibijox 




00^ 
U3 rH 


CO CD , 
O CM . 


00 


•sasnBOjaqjo ^g 


^ 


(N 


^ ■ 


'T 


•snosjacl jo snej .tg 


■* 


C-1 




m 1 


ry-j 


•spAoqs inB9js ^a 


CO 


W 




CO 




C-4 


-oraoooi JO SJBO euiui ^g 


M 
M 


C5 




" § i 


!■ 


•(■aia 'siSBjq nioj} saoaid 
SunCg 'sjSB[q ejnjBniaJd 
sapnpui) sa.visoidxa Ag 


s 


CTi,-( 


S [^ : 


o 


•ajo JO 
3I00J JO sapiis JO sn^j Xg 


O 


CM 


^ ^i 






•aoBjins 'iBjox 




1.320 

160 

2,488 

1,675 




i 


•sasnBO jaqio Xg 


S 


399 

50 

1,743 

1,173 




s 

m" 


•siuapiooB 
^uBid aui^ianispneniraXg 


00 






g 


•Xjanuioeni Xg 


I; 


r-i mm 




2 
5 


•(sujnq 
JO Jt^oRS) Xjioixjoap Xg 


CD 


lO 


f in 




-f 


•snoisoidxa jaitoq Xg 


C4 


M 


^ ; 




T 


•smq ojo nioj; 
JO ni ejo'jo j[^J JO unj Xg 


s 


CC 




c^ 




O 


•saAiioni 
-oooj JO sjBO XGiin^J ^g 




M lO 






t^ 


•saAiiotnoooi 
9UIIII JO - sjBD amui Xg 


§3 


lOCDfN m 




to 


•nosjad jo n^I ^g 


OJ 


SS 


CI 

CO 




m 




o 




c 


1 
E 

< 

1 


£ 


. ■ : c 

, o 

:S 
••S 

; >. 
. « 

■ iS 

|&£ 


3 


o 







<a 




c 


Tt 






fl 






(fl 




























dl 


01 


a. 


X 








T5 


t 


S 


a 














n 


ry. 


a 




O 


3 












tl. 




a> 








'i 


C3 

a> 


o 




t-i 


00 


nl 


■c 


0) 

rl 












H 


C/ 






C3 




o 


!/J 


^ 














,-^1 


£1 


m 


a 


> 


a 


2 


c 




o 






1-1 


C3 


t3 




ol 


^ 








Cl 


r> 


d 






'n 














FTf 


3 


on 








(^ 


i. 


i- 


o <> 


" 



236 



EULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



•;jBqs 'iB^oi 



^ r~ Oi QO 



•sesncD jamo Sq 



■^ eC »o <35 CO 
(M O t^ 03 CO 



•oia 'jstoij JO ')0>t5nq 'dr^fS 
'aSco Xq paqsiuo jo Ji.nu]S amaq iSg 



•-H Ol W -S' o 

MtOOrt r-i 



•ycqs Oittop Suthbj sjoafqo iy 



•^jBtis iLViop SniiiBj jlg 



rHC-iooi 



pnnojSjapiin 'ibjox 



^00 iaa> <MO 



t^COCDCO CO o 



■sasntjo jeq:>o ^g 



•jo^BA JO qsniui ^q 



^S2 S 
c5oc) o 



•(•o;a 'paqeooijiis 'panmq) sajg amui Xy; 



to 00 t-H -1- 
»-H 00 rt O 

do do 



■(s^ljjp ouiq.iBUi JO soAiioiuoooj ouim 
Suipnpu! iou 'A'jomq.nuu oSi;[tiuq 
puB Suiisioq 'sduind) Ajamqoum Aq 



•^ y:' ^ ^ 
dd<N<N 



•(sumq JO jjooqs) itjioijpaia Aq 



;00 

•do 



•(siijjp pu'Bq 
JO atnqo'Bra Xq) "sjuapiooc guinup Aq 



•^8:5lood JO e^nqo raojj sjo jo nnj £q 



•o;8 'aioq mni jo 'adojs 
'asiBj 'azuiM 'ajnqb luviop ijmiicj Aq 



ooo 



•(049 

'adoj JO o§B5iB8jq 'saAijoraoooi etnui 
'SJBO 9inm Aq) siiispfooB agtiincq" Xg 



OO -^ CD 00 1— I 



' -^ 03 M lO 



•saAisojdxa SniMTim iQ 



CO cc 



•o^a'saranj japMod raojj noijTJoojns ilg 



lO CO o o 



OI> 

doo 



•oja 'suionoq pio 
ojtn SmniJp 'sajgsiui jo suoisoidxa Xg 



•(•018 'sist3iq tnojj saooid Snijig 'sjs'Biq 
ajTHGiuojd sopnpm) ' saAisoidxa Sq 



o t^ u:) 00 

t>^ GO T* d 



—I en 

CO o 

»o d 



•S]oo; puTjq jo jaqraij i£g 



•pnTl0j3 JO OAEO JO I]BJ 

']]V/A JO jooj luojj 9J0 JO Jtooj Stnn^j j^g 



lO o t^ f CO : 

o — «; o u~ , 

OO d d CO l-^ ; 

<Nrt >-< IN r-l ■ 



•0}8 '3a]3i3}S 'uosjad jo hbj Xg 



CO lO • CO CO 

■^" CO ■ (N Ci 



s 

"£.9 • >,- 



STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 237 



s 

o 

K 

M 

c 
'B 
6 

o 

1 

e 

<u 
1 

a 

M 


•83BJ8AB I'B^OX 




100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 


o o 
o o 


o 


•l^^ox 






a> o ' 

~ S : 


o 


sesncj aaqio A'g 


« 


do 1 


d 'T ■ 


o 


•aosjadjosiiBjila 


CO 


to 
d 




S S : 

d d ; 


d 


•siaAoqs raBajs ^Jg 


CO 


d 




§ : • 

d • 


o 
d 


•saAji 
-ouioooi JOSJBO emra ig 


CI 

M 


s 

d 




o to • 

d •^' 

CO 


CO 


'sisciq moij saoatd Sm 
-a'u 'sjscjq ajnjBradid 
sapni.)ui; saAisoidxa A'g 


CO 


oe -H 
dd 


d (N 


to 

CO 

d 


•dJO JO 

iiooj JO saptjs JO siiBj Ag 


o 


dd 


CO CJ 

d d 


to 


d 
o 


•aotjjjTis 'i-B^ox 




17.26 
17.64 
26.76 
18.04 


o 


•sasTiEO jaqjo ig 




L-i ic oc ci j 


d 


■sjnapiooB jn^id 
Stniiauis puB njui -^9 


00 


coro 

to IT 


d j 


s 


•XjamqoBiu ig 


C4 


I^ O ■<r CO 
O t^ t- to 

C^' c4 cc M ; 


g 

(N 


•(snjnq 
JO >iooijs) A"jioijpaia Xg 




o 
d 


oo : 

od j 


o 
d 


•suoisoidxa jaiioq ig 


e» 


o 
d 


d 




s 

d 


'suiq ajo tuojj JO 
in 9J0 JO \\v.} JO um .ig 


©J 


d 




O ; 

d 1 


§ 
d 


saAijoraoo 

-0] JO SJBJ iBMITBJ £q 


CO 


dd 






d 


saAijomoooi 
aiaiu JO sjca auioi ^g 


ci 


2.29 
1.76 
4.11 
0.79 




•uosjod JO n^j Xg 


C4 


CO oc 

dc^' 




: ° 




1 

1 




c 


1 

i 

1 

c 


^ .c 

5c! 


- 1- 


o c 


c' 

1 C3 

1 o 

• C3 

• O 

: ^ 



<^ a 



.3. '& 

ill 



i_i.3 ® 



; c3 

ceo 



■2§g 

5"^ d 
^•o o 

02.3 v3 
o o M 

111 
IP 

GO? 

>- t- 3 
3 3 3 



238 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES. 



05, 



>. 



a. 








CI 




H 


a 






,1.^ 


5J 


B 





%> 




Si 


er, 


s 


s 




■fi 


K 


t~ 


t^ 





§ 






ts 


CJ 


-ii 



"> 



a 
w 


•%PB^s 'inox 




CO 


i : 





u- 


§? 


oa t» 


i 




•sasneo J9q}0 ^g 




04 




*• j 


0=0 = > 


!_, 


•oja 'jsroq jo '}a>ionq 'dijfs 
'a3B0 Aq paq'sruo jo jjDtujs Soiaq Aq 


s 


s 


CC CO • 


S"S2^" 


lU 


•jjtsqs nmop Snin«!j sjoafqo ^g 


OS 





00 CO. • 


-H CO 


Cs 


•y^qs uAiop SujiiBJ jCg 


t- 


s 


rt i 


-.^c.«^c. 


rr 


•a 


r3 

C 

( 


•pnnoiSjapnn 'ib^ox 


! s 


1 coe«-H 

CO t* CJ 


eoor-oo » 
C2 ^ 000a 
CO »-» CO eo 




•sasnBO jaqjo ig 


ee 


3 


sss 


t, ci to c -!• 

m .-H<N CO — — i 


£ 
t^ 


•J3JBM JO qsTuni iCg 


>o 


• 


! 


















•(•oja 'pajEoopns 'paomq) sajg amra ^g 


■«" 


w 




t» • 


t^ 






CO j 


2 


•(snPP ainqoBoi jo saAUotnoooi anrra 
gmpnpnt '50a iJjantq'ocni aSBpiBq 
puB Smjsioq 'sdrand') jSjantqoeni &q 


1 X 

M 1 rl 




CO • 


^3 


C>"<r CO • 


CO 


•(snjnq jo :^ooqs) ^ijjoijjMia ^g 


ea 


>r> 
















to 


•(sniJP pnBq 
JO emqoBta jfq) s^irapiooE 3ninijp ^Q 


S 







« • 


CM-H — eOrt — 


s 


•iajiood JO ajnqo raoj; ajo jo tnu iCg 





1 


« : ; 







NO • 


i5 
1 


•oja 'ajoq [[ira JO 'adojs 
'esiBJ 'azniAv 'ajnqa uAvop SnrnBj Xg 


o> 


OP 


N.O • 


t^« i-« COU7 »o 

CO 


i 


•(■oja 
'ado J JO a3T3J{Bajq 'saAijocnoooi anrcn 
'sjBO oinui Aq) sjaapibac aSEincq ^q 


00 


1 


N CI i 


?3:5-"2--=> 


1- 


•saAisojdxa gniMBq^ i£g 


!«• 


e< 










N 


i-* 


Of 


•(x>a 'samnj japAnod uiojj uoiiBOogns .Cg 


» 1 'C^ 


rt : : 


■" 


C^l 




lo 


•oja 'sraonoq p|o 1 ^ 
o;ni 3ninijp 'sajgsini jo suoisoidxa Xg 


§ 


cot^ ■ 


S-s^;-" 


i 


•(■D^a 'sjsBiq mojj saoaid Suiig 'sjsBiq 
ajniBuiaJd saptqoni) saAisoidxa Xg 


« 


i 


U¥i- 


2-gw-x 





•spoi puBq JO laqtni? Xg 


n 


g 


1 ccco : 

1 : 


1 0. M CC — T « 


1- 


•pnnoj3 JO aABO jo n^l 
'nBAv JO jooj raojj ajo jo ^00 j jo [(cj .Cg 


Oi 


g 1; 5:1;^ 

s ii ■ - 

"' i 


S^5S^- 




■oja '3ui3bjs 'nosjad jo [jbj Xg ' ^ 


i 


coo — 

I 


cot-c 


cs- lo 

IS 




1 




c 

i 


> 

c 

i 


. >. ■' 

i 3 


c 




•7 



c 
.S 
S 


'Z 

1 


c 

c 
c 


• a 

• c 

? — 

SI 


c 
■a 





STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AXD NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 239 



& 

£ 
5 

c 

1 

g 

CD 

a 
i 


TBjoj pnBig 




E 


1, ^o 

1! 


~ §~~?;53S 


t-" 


•fpsniJoj 
1 -X9d SI Sntnnn aoBjins 
awqM) 80-Bjjns 'iBjox 




i ; 




■ 1-lf-l 


s 


•sasiiBO jeq^o jf g 


IS 




1 : ; 




■ M • 




CI 


•uosjadjosiiBj^a S 




1 : : 
1 : : 
1 : : 




i^ ; 




1 ^ 


•spAoqs rara'ts iCg 








: i 


l(N .' 






•saAij 
-oinoooi JO SJEO antra Aq 


?5 




i-^ 


• — QC ■ 




5 


.2 


•(•oja'siSEiq uiojjsaoaid 
SniAg 'sjsTJiq 8.miBraaJfI 
sapnpui) saAisoidxa ^g 


eo 




: : 






-' : 


S 




•8 JO JO 

3[ooj JO sapiis JO sn«j jCg 


o 




• 




l'^ 


C< 




•aoBjxns 'iBjoi 




U9 4<0 


: S5SS 


■^ ! 


o 


•S9snB0 jamo ^g 




S "° 


'• 2 -J « 




2' 


•s^napiooB 
fjuejd gtnjiatns pirs nni .tg 


00 




1 : : 










C^ 


•^jamqoBra ^q 


£; 


»r2 


joo 


■ OC « 00 






• CsnJiiq 

JO JJOOIIS) XjIOIJl08[8 Xg 


CM 


•o 


M 










lO 


•snoisoidxa Jaijoq jJg 


■a 


Cl 


: : 






'^ 




CO 


•smq a JO raojj | ^ 
JO ui 9J0 JO n^j JO nnj .tg «« 


oc 


M 










Vi 


•saAT;oraooo[ 
JO SJED ' Xbmiibj Xg 


CI 




;'" 


• ,«rt . 




N 


•saAiioraoDoj 
emra jo sjbo auira Aq 


^ 


c; 


!- 


i ::;;:- 




•nosjad JO n^j Xg 


Ci 


CO 


• • 




■-' : 


'^ : 


a 




n 

1 




_c' 


C 3 

o o 
••?.5; 

i 


>> 

3 ! 
- c 

3 e 


_2 

C 

5. 
C 

c 

i 


3 5 




c 
c 

"a 
c 
E 





240 



KULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



£ 3 













STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 241 



1 

tx 

a 
'3 
6 

1 

.1 


•83bi8A'b ye%oj^ 




O 

o 


100. 00 
100. 00 
inn nn 


100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 

100. 00 


(patnioj 
-J9d STSnrnrai ao'Bjins 
eiaqAi) aoBjans 'ib^ox 






•CO 

■d 


0.46 
47.24 

"l.'lO 


oa o 
d « 


•sastiBO J8IH0 A^ 


kA 








o • ■ 

d • ■ 


: ^ 


•uosjadjo sji^j ^a 


CO 








00 • ■ 

;0 . . 
CO • ; 


'■ to 


•si9Aoqs raca;s Xg 


CO 










■ d 


•S8AT1 

-oinoooi JO siio emni Xg 


<M 

CO 




■CO 

■ ■* 


: "^ ; : 
: ^^ : ': 


; '^ 

■ d 


•(•058 's;si3[ci raojj saoaid 
sapnpui) saAisoidxa Xg 


s 








P : ;S 

CC i ;r- 


'■ d 


•9J0 JO 

iiooj JO sapns JO sjiBj Xg 


s 




•CO 


'. CO •* i ■ 

: do • 1 


to Oi 

d d 


1 

to 


I^JOi 






cico 


t->O0O '-(Z 

ooco o ■ »- 


< ■ t~; 


•sasnco jaqjo Xg 


g 


8S 




'. <N CO I^ ■ 

'■ co' CO d • 




•sjnapiooB 
i^HBid 2 inj lauispuE [i; ra j<: g 


00 


CO 








■ CO 

. . .^ 
', '. d 


■i£jaTiii[OEin Xg 






|cO 


' up rj< O^ i 

06 OCi 00 ■ 


■ ' c4 


•(Sttinq 
JO :jiooqs) X^iou^oaia ifg 


CO 










• • o 
■ ■ d 


•snoTSOidxa jaijoq Xg 




8 

d 






! .rt4 ■ 

• oq ■ 

:° : 


: : ° 

d 


•smq 8J0 niojj 
JO ui 9J0 JO iiBj JO unj jig 


•«< 


o 

d 








; : ?5 

■ ■ d 


•saAiiotn 

-OOOJ pUB SJBJ XBA\ni3J Xg 


CO 




■CO 

jd 


CO ^ i ■ 
(N CO ■ ■ 

: '^° : : 


: : ^ 

■ ■ d 


•S8AI1OUIO00I e.1 

etnui JO sjiJO auira Xg =* 


CO 


■Ol 

■ -i* 


■ <>w d ■ 


: : ^ 


•uosjadjoiiBj A"g 


CM 


C5 

d 






CO ■ 'C 
lO ■ "■ 


s ; 00 
■4 • d 




1 

DQ 




d 

•o 

c 
"o 

U 


eg 

o o 

OO 

c c 

o o 


o * 

g e 
1-. 


.III 


iMevaaa 



10559°— Bull. 75— ] 5- 



-17 



242 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 



2 


M^qs 'iB^ox 




.-t cor-. 


! SK; 


i "' 


-ICfi 


T 




1,129 
97 




•S8sm!o jaq)o Xg 


o 
at 


i-O 


'^ 


COM 


CO 


S 


i 


i 2 




•oja 'ision JO 'jasionq 'dijjs 
'aSeo Xq paqsiwa jo ifoiuis Suiaq Xg 


o% 


OCMO 


>OU» 




g g 




•ycqs UAVop SmuBj sioafqo iig 


00 


-T-^W 


00 >o 


s-gg^- 


1- »o 




•ytjqs ujivop 3u!H«J ^a 


t» 


(N MOO 


Si 


^"S5|?§ 


CO o 

53 """ 




■6 
a 

3 
p 

'B 
<k 

■a 

a 


■pnnojSjapnn 'ibjox 




03 00 lA 

e-s CM 


632 
6.383 

908 

216 

1.625 

1.269 

2,384 

6,402 

1.029 
2.431 


sasnBD jaqjo /Sg 


s 


or 


m 


or- 1 O S5 3) — t- 

=: = 1 C5 c-i o. ?r. c-i 
rt CO 1 .-1 -r ?j lO 

n 1 «- 


CO o.- 


•JdjB.vv JO qstuni ^Q 


le 


•^ 




-"^ 


or oe*) 






>« c< 




•(•oja 'pajBooyns 'panjnq) sajij auini Xg S 




10 


ooo 


'^ 












- 


•(sniJp aniqoBUi jo saAiioraoooi auim 
Smptqoni jou 'iCjaniqocm aScpinq 
poB 3aiisioq 'sdtnnd) jCjatirao'BUi Xg 


M 


•o 


CO 


00« 


05 "<»• CO r^co 


« "^ 


•(snjnq lo Jiooqs) X^ioujoaia Xg 


04 








•IM 


'-' 








'- — 




•(siiup pnBq 
JO arnqoBin Xq) s;napi.30B StniiiJP Ag 


- 


cr r-OC 


" i 


ci 


CO 






CO 


- 


•ja^food JO a;nqo raojj ajo jo mij Xg 


O 


'^ 


'^ 


CI ] 


« 


c^o 




° i 


•o%9 'ajoii \]]xn JO 'adojs 
'asrej 'aztiiM. 'ainqo u.viop SuiijEj Xg 


» 


a: rt iM 


U3 . 


^-2S* 




•(•0|3 

'adoj JO atG5[t!ajq 'sa.vijonioooi auiui 
'SJGO auim Xq) s;aapiboB aStiincq Xg 


00 


S 


- 


^00 


C-» t--5 n" — 1 CO 

00 _ Ci-^- 


i 1 




■saAisoidxa SuiAV^qj Xg 


t- 




^ 


00 • 


















■0}a 'sauinj jap.vtod mojj noi^Eooyns Xg 


CO 




-.s 


^ -1 


u-5 




C^l 


1 o 


■nia 'sraojjoq p;o ;? 
0)ut Stniijjp 'sajysiui jo suoisoidxa Xg 


2 o ' 


C-. X r: 


■- 


■J5 




•(•oja 'sjsEiq UI0.IJ soaaid 3inXij 'sjsciq 
a.m^uiuejd sapnioui) saA!so[dxa Xg 


^ 


CJ lO 


gl 


§S|S5 


r; coc-1 


•s;ooj puBq jo jaqraij Xg « 


- 


(N 


00 \ 




« 


= : 




•pimoj3 JO aABo JO ipij 1 
'IIBAV JO jooj luojj ajo JO jjooj JO n^J Xg | 




s? 


CO " CO »« CO 




•0)3 '3in3E}S 'nosjad jo \\v.} Xg 


- 


s 


03 


CO • 


! CI >: = 

1 ' = 


« 


?5 '^ 






i 

1 

s 




-.2 ■ 
£5 i 

O 


.2 


o 




03 » 


c 
a 

1 


1 




= 

C 

* 

V 






c ; 

o . 

S : . 

5 : : 
>> : : 

i : 
^ : 

.§ : : 

■■^ : : 

1; : 

jrt 03 





STATISTICAL DATA OX FATAL AND XOXFATAL ACCIDEXTS. 243 





•IBjo:» pn-BJO 




"* 




P-OO 

O Oi 

03 


1,441 
344 
2,214 
1,571 
3 ssn 




o>c<i 


1 


5 

s, 

'J- 

.3 

o 
o 
3 

o 
o 

3 
02 


(paraioj 
- J8d SI Sninira aD'Bjms 
ajaqiA) ao-Bjjtns 'i^jox 






i- 


3 ; 


!l 


O CD 




•sasntio aaqjo Ag 


eo 




;-' 


-' : 


rt 52" 






Ȥ 


! 


•nosjdd JO siiBj ig 


•>»• 












1 






" 


oo 

CO 


1 


•siaAoqs uiijais ^g 


n 














00 








CO 






•SBATJ 

-oraoooi JO saiso amui Ag 


S 


























[5 




•(•Old 'sjSBiquioJj Sdodid i 
SuTAu'sjsBiqdjincuidid ' S 
sapnpm) seAisoidxa Xg : 


• : 


;— ' 


"^ : 


cc -T CO 
1 


l-^ 


;3r- 


: i 

i 1 


•ajo JO 
:50Oj JO sopijs JO snsj ^g 


o 




i^ 


N 


1 sa-^? 


• 




: 


W 


•go'Bjjns 'lB:^ox 




•* 


'Oi 


ooo 

CO 00 

.-■^ 


CD CS20 

eo c» 




00 
00 
CO 




; 1 


•sasnBo id-q-io £g. 


CM 


- 


• « 


"" w 


§2S 


o 


s 






•sjnapjooE juBld 
SuTJiains puB nini ^9 


so 




• DC 


oc • 

CO ; 


!i 00 

II 

II 


(N 






o 




\- 


•AjamqoBin ^g 




t^ 


■ -r. 


CO 


g^ 


O 




CO 




■(sujnq 
JO 3{ooqs) i£jioujo9i8 £q 












• !' 










"-" 






•suoisojdxa janoq -£g 












•^ 












- 










•stnq 810 mojj lo 
tn ajo JO \\v.} JO tiru .{g 


^ 
W 












1 " 








IN 






•sdAijoraoooi 
pire sjBo' i^AvyBj ig 




; " 
























•S3AI loraoooj 
auiui JO SJBO aniui £q 




t^ 


:~- 


O ~J 1 C-. M — 1 

■" 1 






t-^ 




■ \ 

. 1 


•uosjad JO \m Ag ^ 


o 


jo 


^ : 


1 r-^'- 

1 


^ 


s? 




i 




1 

2 

8 




c3 ; 

.Si C5 

ES 


^.2 




"3 
c 


.3 

a 


X 


■3 




.2 
o 

> 


.2 
1 

s 




3 
o 


a 
C 

s 
> 

1 
1 





a 

C3 



E 


i 
i 



244 



RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 



c3 

M 


•WBUS 'iB^Oi 








7.70 
2.91 
14.04 

16. .30 


CO 




OJ 


'^ 






sasntso laqio Aq 


g 


to 


d 


to in 
toi- 

d-n" 


d 


CO 

in 


to 

CO 

00 


■>r d 




•013 'isioq .10 'lojjonq 'dtus 
'aSco Xq paqsn.io jo Jion.ns Suiaq Xg 


CJ 


«5 3>— 1 
«5 rric 


cod 


— lOC lOtO 

en i~ en c» 00 
cs ->■-•• CO d 


o o 




iji'-qs iLvvop 3miiBj s;08[qo ^q 


o6 




CO '^ 
03CS 


•^ C5 cs e<i CO 

-<• d •* lo d 


(N d 




•ycqs iLttop SnTiit!] Xg 5 


co«o 

^ -^ Ci 


e4d 


-ri^ cs CO ci 
to X -r -T 3-. 

cs d — ■ d d 


CD CO 
CJ CO 

pi d 




1 

o 


•pnnojSaapun 'i^iox 




00 ■*C<J 
0>t-liO 

o t^ oi 

CO 4A iO 


69.68 
68.65 

63.01 
62.79 
73.40 
80.78 
61.78 

67.89 

33.72 
100. 00 


■sasnso jaq^o £q 


CD 


oc 


d 


CO CD in CO I* c^ »o 
cm CM -.c m u; L-o 

-h' ira d to pi 00 d 

rt CO CON-H CO 


OD CI CD 

00 incs 


■idx^jAjo qsnJui Xy 


>n 


?? 

o 




rf r-( COlOOl 
i-l O lOTPO 

do Or^O 






to 1^ 

— . o 

d d 




•(•013 'pajcoogns 'pananq) saig amtn £q 


«* 






CO 


00-1 CO 
OO-H c^ 

dd d 










c 






•(sni.ip auiqo^ni JO sa.uiouioooi auitu 
Snipripui loa 'Ajaniqocui agEin'cq 
puB Sniisioq 'sduind') Xjaniqocra Xq 


n 


to 


d 


00 as c^ to -^ to 00 
00—1 to rH oocoo 

d N d -^ ci d d 


eq d 




•(sujTiq JO JiDoqs) XiTOUioaja ^q 


M 










d d 










3 S 

d d 




•(sinjppntjq 
JO amqoBra Aq) sjnapioo^ Smqup Ag 


s 


CO t-^-^' 


to '• 
c<i ' 


CO 


g 

d 






d d 




•}as[Ood JO ajnqo inoj} ejo jo utij Sq 


s 


g5 :55 


^ : 

d • 


to 
•-o 

d 


dd 




d 






•o^a 'ajoq nini jo 'ado)S 
'asnu 'azuiAV 'ejnqo u.uop Sujucj^ig 


a» 


c « -.o 

lO -^ !■- 

^5i^ 


^ - 

CO ■ 


OtO C: CD— 1 
— — m lOM 

CO -^ d d d 


m cr> 
00 ■«• 

w d 




•(■Old 

'adoj JO aSt3j[t!8jq 'sa.vTiotnoooi auini 
's,reo euitu Xq) siuapt'ooB a3B[ntiq' Ji^x 


00 


to "co 




o in 1.0 -< to 

CD -<r ci to^ 

in rH -^r N d 


pi 16 


- 


•sa.visoidxa 3tn.\\T3qi .^q 




§8 : 

d ' 














•oja 'saranj jap.vvod raojj uoiiboo^tis Xg 


CO 




:g 


to— 1 

CO o 
cd 


1 J2 '• 

CO • 

' d • 


CO 

d 




t~ cof2 

. 
d d2 


•o;a 'sraojjoq pjo 
0}UT SuniPP 'sajgsiui jo suoiso^dxa Aq 


lO 




Tt* . 


-H coo 

o CO m 
cicid 


CO 

d 


i 

d • 




•(•o;a 'sisciq tncij saoaid SniJi\} 's^sBiq 
e.miBuiajd sapnpni) saAisoidxa JLq 


«1< 


C^ -H o 


—1 M 

00 -^ 


CO^ O 05 -^ 

CO --^ "V in CO 
d d oc' 00 in 


CO -< (35 

00 coc 

d iri d 


•siooj pnuq jo jaqrai) Xg 


CO 


CO 


CO 

d 


^ \ 


caches 
1 cidd 


o 
d 


d [ • 




•pnnojS jo babo jo hbj 
'UVM JO jooj uxojj 8J0 jo 3100J SmuBj Xg 


d 


Ol CO— 1 

oc -^ o 
^ ^ d 


16. 10 
16.67 

26. 44 
9.88 
27.78 
34.37 
15.89 


in CO c 

—1 inc- 

to eo 
■^ 

pi p5 


— 


•.ija SniSxjjs 'uosjad jo n^sj '^3 


- 




35 


CO ■ 


1 coco M 

CO CO ■* 

cDciiri 


CO 

d 




1 

o 




ii 

1.4 


a' 

2 


O 




.s 
5 


"cS 

£? 

.. 3~ 
■2 M.N 

"cS s> S 

a 


c 
c 


_c 
X 
c 


< 
c 

C 




"c 
c 
i- 


•e 
c 

S 

•5 

n 
E 

5 

c 



PI 

O.E 
§E 








STATISTICAL DATA ON FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS. 245 





•aSBjaABi^^ox 




e 
o 

§ 




§ 


g§ 


100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100. 00 


o o 

II 




- 


•3 

a. 
1 

.g 
a 

1 
tu 

1- 


(panuojjadsiSmmraaoBj 
-jns ojaqAi) aoBjins 'lB;^ox 








pi 


N 1 

ei • 


^ CD o pi d 


coo 


•S8gnt30 iaq;o yCg; 








d 


d '; 


T-^d d 




Ci CO 

d-r 




•snosjod JO sii^j .iJa 


'H 












1 "5 

1 s 






d 


dd 




•spAoqs rat!9}S ;fa; 


s? 














pi 






d 






•S8ATJ 

-oraoooi JO sjBD amra ^a; 


CO 
























-1* 

to 

CO 




■(•.3ld 'stsBjq mojj seoaid 
SuiA'g 'sjsBiq ejnjBraaid 
sapniom) s9Aisoidxa Aq 


n 






d 


d ■ 


d— "d 


d 


P1.-H 

dci 




■910 

JO JiDoj JO sapns JO s\m ^a 


o 

CO 








3) 1 

d j 


CC ^ (M C5 • 

i-H ^^ d PI • 






3 
03 


•aoBjjns 'iB^ox 






CD 




2S§ 


CO 








•sasnBO jaqjo Ag 


s 


CO 




iraoc 


2SS 

diNd 


CO 

d 


to 

CO 

ci 






■siuepiaoB 


00 






00 


0) • 


d 


§ 

d 




^ 






•A'jaxnqoBxn i^a 


5 


g 


CO 


CO -^ 

c^'co 


men o 

OC TJ" 00 
TPCOi-H 


t6 


CO 






•(snjnq 

JO 3[OOIIS) XjI.0IJ;08I8 Aq 


^ 










d 


d 








d 






•suoisoidxe j8iioq ^a 


CI 










d 




















•smq ajo raojj 
JO ui 9J0 jo im JO UTU ^a 


^ 
N 












d 








O 

d 






•saATiora 

-0001 JO SJBO ABAillBJ iJa 


Si 


CD 

d 


d 


d 1 




















■saAponi 
-oaoi auini jo sj'bo emm Aq 


04 


g 






O; t^ o 

:-ooo 




d 






•nosjadjon^J-^a 


SJ 


CO 
C<3 


to 

CO 


00 • 


t^ oc m 

Cl LO o 

lodd 


o 
d 


d 








j 






1 

> 
c 
12 


.2 

c 
O 


"3 

C 


cs' 

.9 
o 




fz 

3 


■C 

c 

c- 


c 

c 

c 
c 

c 


c 
c 


.3 

1 

3 
< 

o 
o 


1 
c 


C 

i 

c 
c 
E 
c; 

> 

1 

E 

> 

c 

c 

c« 


"3 





CHAPTER IX. 

INSPECTION SYSTEMS MAINT^IIXED BY MINING COM- 
PANIES. 



Bv L. O. Kellogg. 



In Chapter II of this report bri(^f mention is made of the fact that 
most of the important minmg companies have adopted or are adopting 
private systems of inspection, and that this action is largely the result 
of former reports by the committee makmg this report. The com- 
mittee feels that the commonwealth is the miit best fitted to obtain 
adequate inspection of mines, and therefore its principal work has 
been to draft a practicable and efficient set of regulations and pro- 
visions for inspection which should serve as a model for legal enact- 
ment by the several metal-mmmg States. It recognizes, however, 
that State laws and State inspection are not the only means available 
or desii'able for obtaining a proper degree of safety in the mining 
industry. If American metal mining is to clear itself of the dis- 
grace of the high accident and death rates existing, the several 
agencies must cooperate. State regulation ought to be and must 
be supplemented by work on the part of each operator. Nobody 
knows better than the operator the risks present m his own muic 
and nobody is in so favorable a position to eliminate such risks. 

The promotion of safety is receiving greater and greater attention 
at the hands of the mining companies as the fact becomes more 
widely kno^vn that the existing conditions are not what they should 
be and that they can be changed. The employers' liability or work- 
men's compensation laws, which are becoming more and more general, 
tend to stimulate interest in safety work, largely because such work 
then becomes financially worth wliile. Without such laws the 
employer is engaged not so much in reducmg the number of accidents 
as in trying to reduce the amomit of the payment to the sufferer 
after the accident has occmTed. Yet his payments are probably 
as large asunder an equitable compensation law, or larger, as both he 
and his workmen are the prey of unscrupidous intermediaries. With 
compensation fixed by law in all cases, however, the cost of accidents 
becomes a defhiite charge against operations, and the employer can 
apply himself to its reduction as he would to the reduction of any other 
246 



IXSPECTION SYSTEMS MAINTAINED BY MIXING COMPANIES. 247 

cost. Tilts financial consideration is second only to the instincts 
of ordinary humanity as an incentive urging the minmg companies 
to undertake safety work. 

The establishm.ent of company inspection systems has become so 
common as to make it quite impossible to describe th^m all. The 
systems of three different compaxiies have been selected as typical 
of three phases of the mining industry and as representmg, each in 
its o^^^l class, probably the highest development of systematic inspec- 
tion. The Beaver Consolidated Mines (Ltd.) operates in Cobalt, 
Ontario, Canada, a property that is typical of the small mine; tho 
Treadwell group, on Douglas Island, Alaska, although nommally 
owmed by tliree companies, is operated really as one property, and 
is an excellent representative of the smgle large mine ; the Cleveland- 
Cliffs Iron Co. operates a number of detached and rather widely 
separated mines in the Marquette district of Michigan, and is takon 
as the example of the large company with extensive mterests. 

INSPECTION AT BE AVER CONSOLIDATED MINES. 

In respect to the thoroughness and success of its safety efforts, the 
Beaver Consolidated Mines (Ltd.) is perhaps the most interesting 
on the contment. The following description of its inspection sys- 
tem is taken from an account published in the Engineering and 
Mining Journal of August 17, 1912: 

The Beaver system is due to an earnest desire on the part of its president and general 
manager, Frank L. Culver, to protect its employees from all unnecessary dangers of 
mine work. Mr. Culver became impressed with the merits of mine inspection by the 
company itself and appointed an inspector. The report of the inspector made it 
evident that many improvements in the condition of the mine were necessary. Mr. 
Culver, at the outset, solved the most important question relative to mine inspection, 
the authority and power to be vested in the inspector, by giving the inspector at 
the Beaver power to issue orders to any department, to make any repairs or changes ho 
deemed necessaiy for the safety of the men, or to discharge anyone failing to comply 
with the rules or regulations of the inspection department; he is responsible only to 
the superintendent. No matter how competent the official or how excellent the 
rules and work of any department, the gi'eatest efficiency and best results can not be 
obtained unless its orders are obeyed. Tliis is particularly true with inspection work, 
wliidi is apt to meet with opposition from heads of departments and other suboflicials. 
The work at the Beaver has met with a hearty cooperation of the entire organization, 
and all are interested in keeping the workings in a safe condition and enforcing tho 
rules and regulations of the inspection department. 

The Beaver No. 1 shaft in 1912 was about 600 feet in depth and the lowest working 
level 530 feet. No. 2 shaft, about 300 feet from No. 1, was connected at a depth of 
200 feet with workings from No. 1. The property hoisted approximately 85,000 tons 
of ore per year and employed between 130 and 140 men. 

Form No. 1, a sheet 17 by 10 inches, is a mine-inspection report fdled out by the 
inspector twice every 24 hours. [A sample report is given below.] The data and 
names in the form are, of course, fictitious. 



248 RULES AXD REGULATIONS FOR METAL MIXES, 

MINE-INSPECTION REPORT. 
Day shift. March 9. 191.3. 

Sjiafts, Winzes, Raises. 

Holes lired 17. 

Holes refireil 3. 

Total holes lired 20. 

Missed holes None. 

Timber StuU in winze 40.5 needs bracing. 

Blocking O. K. 

Ladders Rungs broken on ladder No. 2, raise 40.5. 

Pipe lines .0. K. 

Signal lines. _ Short circuit, 300-foot station. 

Cables O. K. 

Cages. ....;.' Cage needs 21 new floor boards. 

Chairs and gates... O. K. 

Pumps O. K. 

Hoists O. K. 

Scaling 701 station, loose rock. 

Machines All in good repair. 

Drifts, X-Cuts. 

Holes fired 64. 

Holes refired None. 

Total holes fired 64. 

Missed holes None. 

Machines All in good repair. 

Pipe lines O. K. 

Tracks 0. K. 

Cars No. 28, axle broken. 

Lights O. K. 

Tools O. K. 

Stopes. 

Holes fired 38. 

Holes refired 2. 

Total holes fired 40. 

Missed holes None. 

Machines All in good repair. 

Scaling 605 No. 1 stoj)e, loose rock. 

Pipe lines O. K. 

Manways O. K. 

Ladders 405 stope, rung broken. 

Chutes O. K. 

Timber O. K. 

Sand blasts and block lioles.3. 

Powder Mahazixe. 

Powder 240 pounds cheddite, 30 pounds dynamite. 

Fuse 800 feet. 

Caps 95 detonators. No. 8. 

General Remarks. 

J. Johnson", Inspector. 
J. Smith, Outgoing .ihift boss. 
H. Brown, Tncoimng shift bo.<is. 
W. Jones, Captain. 



INSPECTION SYSTEMS MAINTAINED BY MINING COMPANIES. 249 

Two 10-hour shifts are worked at the mine and the inspector is on duty from 5 to 
9.30 a. m. and from 5 to 9.30 p. m. All miners coming off shift report to him and 
all machine-drill men, in order to get credit for a shift's work, have to report their 
time and make a blasting report, stating the number of missed holes in their work- 
ing place. All men reporting missed holes are required to return and fire them be- 
fore leaving shift. This is done in the belief that the man drilling the holes, being 
more familiar with the face, as drilled, is less likely to meet with an accident than 
the man following on the next shift; this is certainly true, and such a procedure is 
a good safeguard against a common cause of serious accidents. 

Under the heading ' 'Timber, " in the divisions of " Shafts, Winzes, Raises, " and of 
' 'Stopes, " any repairs to timbering or new timbers to be placed immediately to insure 
safety are noted. Any repairs made to cables, cages, hoists, machines, etc., are noted 
opposite these headings. This report is signed by the inspector, mine captain, and 
outgoing and incoming shift bosses, which is sufficient to show that all are advised of 
the condition of the works and machinery. 

Form No. 2 is a sheet 8J by 5| inches, and is used as an order by the inspector, to 
either the mine captain, master mechanic, or carpenter, as the case may be, to have 
any repairs made as indicated by the mine-inspection report. The person to whom 
this order is made is required to state the time when repairs were made and to sign 
three copies of the order, one for the mine office, one for the inspector, and one for his 
own record. The superintendent sees that all such orders are obeyed. [A sample 
report is given below.] 

INSPECTOR'S REPORT. 

To Carpenter: Date, March QjlS. 

405 No. 21 raise, 405 stope, 21 new rungs needed in each ladder, 21 
new boards needed in cage. 

Time reported, 10 a. m., J. Johnson, Inspector. 

Time attended to, 2 p. m., 9I.3J13, by J. Baffles, (Signature). 

Remarks: Will repair cage between shifts. 

The men are lowered and raised on a cage, not over 10 being allowed on the cage at 
one time. A Stephen Humble hook to prevent overwinding has been installed at 
the shaft house, and the cages are equipped with dogs to prevent any sudden drop. 
The safety devices and cables are tested regularly to insure that they are in good 
working order. It is the duty of the cage tender, before starting with men on the 
cage, to warn all to keep arms and body clear^of timbers. Shafts are also provided 
with man ways in case hoists are out of commission. 

An electric signal system for hoisting is operated direct from the electric-power 
current without the aid of batteries. The wires are lead covered to protect them 
from moisture, and as no batteries are used there is little danger of the system getting 
out of commission. In case the hoisting engineer fails to understand any signal he 
rings a bell for signals to be repeated. All rock hoisted is brought up in cars on cages, 
and to guard against a rock falling into the shaft the cars are never filled to the top. 
The danger from mine fires is slight, owing to the small amount of timber used in the 
mine, other than shaft timbers, which are usually so wet that there is little danger 
of their getting on fire. In case of fire, shaft No. 2 could be used as an exit for the 
men. 

The Ontario mine laws permit only a 24-hour supply of explosives to be stored 
underground, and this is all that the company keeps in the mine. The underground 
magazine is in a drift some distance from the rest of the workings, and the storage 
magazine on surface is situated quite a distance from the works. An emergency case 
is kept at the mine office for the treatment of wounds, and if needed a doctor is called 
at once in case of accidents. 

The Beaver company has also recently introduced a device to re- 
duce the danger resulting from lack of acquaintance with the English 



250 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL^IVONES. 

language. It consists in the use of a red flag to indicate dangerous 
conditions. Specifically, in the case of misfires, known or suspected, 
a red flag is placed at the entrance to the working and everyone pass- 
ing, whether he be a foreigner and non-English speaking or not, at 
once recognizes this universal danger sign and proceeds cautiously. 
A revei-sion to the sign language, such as this, might be followed in 
other particulars of mining operations and the hazard attendant on the 
increasing employment of foreign labor thus largely neutralized. 

EFFICIENCY OF SYSTEM. 

Before the system of inspection was started at the Beaver mine 
there were several serious accidents. Since the system has been in 
force, however, there have been no fatal accidents, and onl}' five of 
any consequence whatever up to June, 1914. Of these the most 
serious was a broken arm. In every case the accident was the re- 
sult of carelessness on the part of the man himself. The company 
took care of the injured men and compensated them for the time 
lost. As a measure of the minor nature of these five accidents, and 
also of the economy of operating with due regard to safety precau- 
tions, it may be noted that the greatest compensation the company 
had to pay in any one case was $50, and the total was only $192. 

The average number of men on the Beaver pay roll since the in- 
spection system was started is 135. The average number of days 
v/orked in a year is 315. This amounts to 42,500 man shifts per 
year. The five accidents mentioned occurred in a period of tliree 
years. The total number of man shifts in this time was 127,500. 
Assuming that the injuries come within the "serious" class, the 
rate is about 11.7 per 300,000 man shifts, or, as it is more commonly 
put, per 1,000 employees per year, reduced to the 300-da3' basis. 
A comparison of this figure with those presented in Technical Paper 
61 " will show how weU the inspection system works at the Beaver. 
Table 16 of that paper gives the average serious-injury rate for aU 
United States mines except coal, in 1912, as 27.85 per 300,000 man 
shifts. To be sure, the number of men on the pay roU at the Beaver 
mine is probably somewhat greater than the number actually at 
work, but, on the other hand, the five accidents that occurred would 
barely come within the limits of "serious" accidents as defined in 
the paper mentioned, and it is probable that the figures used therein 
were also for the greater part based on the pay roll rather than on 
the number of men actually at work. 

INSPECTION AT MINES OF CLEVELAND-CLEFFS IRON CO, 

No company has taken a keener interest in the work of promoting 
mine safety than has the Cleveland-C'lift's Iron Co. For several yeai-s 

a Fay, A. H., Metal-raine accidents ill the Vnited Slates during the calendar year 1912: Technical Taper 
61, Bureau of Mines, 19U, p. 70. 



IXSPECTIOX SYSTEMS MAINTAIiNTED BY MINING COMPANIES. 251' 

this company lias carried on an energetic campaign to reduce the 
death rate from accidents, and to this end an elaborate inspection 
system was evolved and is in force, which places authority and 
responsibility in committees rather than in a single inspector. These 
include: A central safety committee, the final authority; an accident 
committee consisting of three superintendents; temporary commit- 
tees of mine foremen; and temporary committees of workmen; 
besides these there is the permanent mine inspector. The following 
description of the system is taken from a paper by William Conibear, 
presented at the meeting of the Lake Superior Mining Institute, 
August, 1912: 

The central safety committee consists of the mine superintendents of the company 
in Marquette County, the head mining captain, the master mechanic, the assistant 
auditor, the secretary of the pension department, the safety inspector, and, ex officio, 
the agent of the company. This committee meets monthly and acts as a legislative 
body on all safety recommendations which may have been offered by the foremen's 
committee, the workmen's committee, or the safety inspector, and to the application 
of which objection may have arisen. A majority decision is reported to the agent 
as the voice of the committee, and after his approval must be enforced. A question 
of importance thus decided may be embodied in a new rule and put forth as such. 
This committee also receives reports of all accidents occurring during the previous 
month and classifies them by causes. 

The accident committee of three superintendents is of less importance. Its func- 
tion is to investigate all fatal accidents and make a report to the agent of the company. 

The foremen's committee is appointed periodically to make an inspection of all the 
companj^'s workings, after which it is discharged, a new committee being appointed 
for the next inspection. The committee consists of three foremen from different 
mines of the company. It is instructed directly by the agent, and each member 
receives a copy of a series of questions; the ascertaining of the proper answers to these 
questions constitutes the. inspection. The questions are about 170 in number and 
cover all details of the mining work, including the condition as regards safety of the 
property under inspection, the precautions against accidents, the preparations for 
coping Avith accidents, etc. The mine inspector accompanies the committee on its 
tour of inspection in the capacity of secretary. He has no voice in its decisions but 
makes out its report, which is, however, carefully re\'iewed by tne members of the 
committee before submitting to the agent. The foremen regard it as a special favor 
to be allowed to serve on this committee and evince the keenest interest in the work 
of inspection. 

Workmen's committees are similarly appointed for the various mines, differing In 
that each confines Its inspection to its own mine. They also consist of three mem- 
bers, and it is attempted always to get men of various nationalities in order to attract 
the attention of the many foreigners, a difficult task unless one of their ovm country- 
men is appointed to serve. They are required to approve the working of their mines 
or to offer suggestions for changes. The mine inspector also serves with them as with 
the foremen's committees. After one inspection they are discharged. 

The safety inspector himself has actual charge of the safety department. His duty 
is to inspect all working places and submit his reports to the agent. He is required to 
report dangerous conditions and makes his in.spections unannounced, so that the 
mines must be kept in condition for inspection at all times. 

The committee system of inspection has many excellent featui-es, 
especially for a large company managing several mmes. Its two prin- 



252 EULES AND EEOULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

cipal advantages would seem to be the wide appeal to the whole work- 
ing force, got by appointing different committee members for each 
inspection; and the promotion of emulation among the several prop- 
erties as the result of the reciprocal inspections by the foremen. 

Mention of the source from which the description of this system 
was obtained, namely, the papers of the Lake Superior Mmmg Insti- 
tute, suggests the propriety of noting the strong interest that this 
organization has -always taken m the mme-safety movement. In 
addition to tlie paper noted, no less than 10 papers bearmg on the 
question of mme safety and social conditions have been published by 
the ulstitute, beginning m 1895, a very creditable record. 

INSPECTION AT THE TREADWELL GROUP. 

Tlie Treadwell groiip puts the control of its safety work in the 
hands of a committee of 15 members. Eight of these are appointed by 
the Alaska Labor Union and scveix.by the superintendent of the group. 
The Treadwell group consists of three companies — the Alaska Tread- 
well, the Alaska United, and the Alaska Mexican. Four mines are 
operated, however, namely, the Treadwell, the 700-Foot, the Ready 
Bullion, and the Mexican. From each of these four muies the labor 
union selects two members of the underground crew. The superin- 
tendent's appointments consist of the assistant supermtendent, who 
acts as chairman of the committee, one millman, one mechanic, and 
four men taken at large from either the surface works or underground. 
When any member resigns or is dropped out for cause, his place is 
filled from the same mine or part of the plant and in the same man- 
ner m which he was appointed originally. 

The committee meets once a month and is empowered to select an 
inspector and a secretary. The mspector, under the direction of the 
committee, mspects all machinery, and the secretary records the 
transactions at the meetmgs and makes out reports thereof for each 
committee member. Each committee member receives $5 for each 
regular monthly meeting which he attends, and if he is absent from 
two consecutive meetings without being previously excused he is 
dropped from the committee. 

This committee is subdivided into five subcommittees, of tliree 
members each, which are required to examine into each individual 
accident and study its causes and then to formulate recommendations 
for the prevention of similar or any other accidents. The first sub- 
committee investigates undei"ground accidents at the Treadwell; the 
second, those at the 700-Foot; the third, those at the Mexican; the 
fourth, those at the Ready Bullion; and the fifth, all surface accidents. 

The transactions of these subcommittees are recorded by the sec- 
retary and copies made for each of the 15 members of the main com- 
mittee, so tliat at the regidar montldy meetings of the mam commit- 
tee intelligent discussion and study may result. 



INSPECTION SYSTEMS MAINTAINED BY MINING COMPANIES. 253 

The committee of 15 has also adopted a schedule of benefits to be 
]^aid in case of death or accidents of various kinds, the amount of 
( (impensation varying with the severity of the accident, particularly 
as regards permanent disability or, in case of death, with the number of 
dependents and their relation to the deceased. 

I EFFICIENCY OF COMMITTEE SYSTEM. 

In practice the efficiency of the subcommittees has been given close 
attention, with the result that prompt and complete investigations 
and reports of individual accidents are made. When an accident 
occurs, the membei-s of the committee in charge of that part of the 
property are at once notified by telephone or messenger, and, going to 
the place of the accident, make an investigation while the facts are 
still fresh in the minds of the witnesses. A prelimmary report is 
usually made within an hour after the accident happens. The fact 
that the committee members are actually employed in the places 
where accidents happen helps greatly in keeping the working places 
safe and also in getting accurate reports of accidents. The employees 
have learned that the committee takes steps to remedy dangerous 
conditions and consequent!}' report freely any such that come to their 
attention. 

REPORTS BY EMPLOYEES. 

In addition to the work of this safety committee, an elaborate sys- 
tem of reports is maintained, the reports being made and signed by 
the men in charge of the various units, such as hoists and stopes. For 
instance, at the Mexican mine a report is made by the foreman on the 
condition of man-cage safety devices, sheave, and cable. The inspec- 
tion is made three times each week and the name of the man making 
the inspection noted, the condition in which the apparatus was found, 
what steps were taken to remedy defects if any were found, etc. The 
hoisting engineers report who was on duty for each shift; whether the 
rope was tarred, changed, or reversed; whether the sheave or idlers 
were changed ; the condition of the latter, etc. The watchman makes 
a report of any irregularities in any department he visits. Other 
reports are made in great detail. 

While this system in general is giving excellent satisfaction, it is 
understood that certain changes are being made in some details. 



CHAPTER X. 
CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT IIMPORTANT ACCIDENTS. 



By W. R. Inoali.s and L. O. Kellogo. 



In this chapter is given a chronological list, with brief descriptions, 
of some of the more important metal-mine accidents of recent years. 
The list makes no pretense to being complete, although it is believed 
that few serious accidents are omitted. A period of five years is 
covered, beginning with 1909; in addition one important accident of 
1907 is included. The list covers primarily the United States oidy, 
but some of the disastrous accidents of other countries are noted. 
It is believed that this list represents very fairly the general run of 
accidents that may be expected m mming practice. It should be 
stated, however, that whereas the accidents listed here have usually 
resulted in the death of several men, the greatest number of deaths 
in the industry occur one at a time. 

List of Metal-Mine Accidexts. 

1907. 

December 4, a caving of the Alpha shaft of the Giroux company near Ely, Xev., 
killed two men and imprisoned three others, who were rescued 40 days later. 

1909. 

March 3, a round of shots exploded prematurely in the .-haft bottom al th > Diamond 
mine, Butte, Mont., killing four men. 

April 22, a cave-in at the M. & B. mine, Duenweg, Mo., killed throe men. 

September 25, the caving of the Hampton stope under the Combination 20-?tarap 
mill of the Goldfield CoiLsolidated, Goldfield, Nov., killed three men and ruiiied the 
mill. 

November 29, a fire at the London mine of the Tennessee Copper Co. destroyed the 
shaft hou.-^e, the imprisoned men being .^afely rescued. 



March 2, an explosion of a powder magazine in the Alaska Mexican mine, Troad- 
well, Alaska, killed 37 men. 

April 14, seven men were killed in Santa Gertrudis mine, Pachuca, Mexico, by 
the explosion of a compressed air receiver in such manner as to allow discharge of 
noxious products through the air line into the mine. 

April 24, a cave-in at the <^'amelia mine, Pachuca, Mexico, killed seven miners. 

June 7, five men were killed by falling from car at Richmond mine of Thomas Iron 
Co., Dover, N.J. 

October 8, five men were killed by a run of broken ore in the Sirena mine, Guana- 
juato, Mexico. 
254 



CHEONOLOGY OF RECENT IMPORTANT ACCIDEXTS, 255 

1911. 

Januarj/ 14, an underground fire occurred in the workings between the Modoc and 
the Butte-Ballaklava mines, Butte, Mont.; two men were smothered. 

January 18, a jjowder explosion in the Keating mine, Broadwater County, Mont., 
killed six men and injured two others, wrecking the shaft. 

February 23, a fire in the Belmont mine, Tonopah, Nev., resulted in the death of 
17 men. 

March 11, a slide of bank at the Norman mine of the OUver Iron Mining Co., Viro-inia, 
Minn., killed 14 men. 

May 4, two men were killed and one injured bj- a premature explosion in the Moon- 
light tunnel of the Ajax Mining Co., Burke, Idaho. 

May 5, seven men were killed by a fire in the Hartford mine of the Rcpul)lic Iron 
& Steel Co., Negaunee, Mich. 

August 19, a slide of bank occurred at the open pit of the Buffalo-Susquehanna 
mine in Hibbing on the Mesabi range, Minn., where stripping was being conducted 
by contractors; 3 men were killed and 21 injured. 

August 23, a fire at the new shaft of the Giroux Co., Ely, Nev., resulted in seven 
deaths and in damage to the shaft. 

September 3, six men were killed in a cage accident at the Butte & Superior mine, 
Butte, Mont. 

September 4, two miners were killed and one injured in a hoisting accident at the 
Red Jacket shaft of Calumet & Hecia, Calumet, Mich. 

September 4, two men were drowned in a cage which was lowered into sump at the 
Daly West mine, Park City, Utah. 

October 19, the new Langdon shaft of the "\niarton Steel Co. at Hibernia, N. J., 
was flooded and 12 men were drowned. 

October 22, fire damaged the Kingdon sliaft of the Old Dominion Co. at Globe, 
Ariz. 

1912. 

January 16, two men were killed l)y falling tlml)er in the Kingdon shaft of the Old 
Dominion Co. 

May 6, three men were killed by fall of roof in the Dinger mine near Webb City, Mo. 

May 13, a cave-in at the Norrie mine of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., Ironwood, 
Mich., killed seven men. 

May 18, three men were suffocated by gas from a gas engine in the Williaras-Luhman 
mine, Shoshone, Wyo. 

July 7, a dynamite explosion killed 10 men and injured 2 others when loading 
holes in the Eureka pit of the Nevada Consolidated, Ely, Nev. 

July 7, in the Braden copper mine, Chile, at least 36 men v\-ere killed by an explo- 
sion underground. 

August 10, three men were drowned and one asphyxiated in tlie Hird shaft of 
the Frontier mine at Benton, Wis. The shaft was being bailed out, and the men 
were overcome by foul air, three falling into the water. 

August 12, two men were killed by a dynamite explosion on the twelftli le\-el 
of the Gold Sovereign mine, Cripple Creek, Colo.; the cause of the explosion is 
Unknown. 

September 6, one man was killed and five others slightly injured in an overwinding 
accident at the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mine, Kellogg, Idaho. 

October 7, a fire occurred in the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mine; only one life was 
lost. 

October 12, a fire in the Nortli Lyell mine, Tasmania, imprisoned 90 men and 
caused the death of 42. 

October 17, four men were killed b>- a falling crosshead at the Cleveland-Cliffs' 
North Lake mine, Ishpeming, Mich. 



256 BULES AND REGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

1913. 

January 3, tliree men were killed in the Imperial mine near Joplin, Mo., by failure 
of the hoisting engine at blasting time. 

January 7, a fall of back in the Old Jordan mine, Bingham, Utah, killed three men. 

January 25, one man was killed and three others injured in tlie Pittsmont mine, 
Butte, Mont., due to confusion of a hoisting engineer at blasting time. 

April 17, a cave in the Miami mine, Ariz., killed 5 men and injured IG. 

April 23, a hoisting accident at the Leonard mine, Butte, Mont., killed five men 
and injured nine. • 

May 3, two men were killed by a fall of ground in the Liberty Bell mine, Telluride, 
Colo. 

May 8, two men were killed by a fall of rock in the Idalio-Maryland mine, Grass 
Valley, Cal. 

June 6, two men were killed by a cave-in at the Morris mine of the Giroux Co., 
Ely, Nev. 

July 17, reported that 40 men were killed in a fire at a sulphur mine near Castel 
Termini, Sicily. 

July 27, two men were killed in the wreck of the hoisting engine at Green Hill mine. 
Mace, Idaho. 

August 13, nine men were killed by the breaking of the drawbar of a car on Coronado 
incline of the Arizona Copper Co., Clifton, Ariz. 

August 21, 42 miners were killed by the dropping of the cage in the Edgar sliaft 
of the Mysore mine, India. 

November 17, an explosion of dynamite in the Kennedy mine, Jackson, Cal., 
killed three men and injured one. 



CHAPTER XI. 

SOME UXUSUAL AND HISTOHIC ACCIDENTS. 



By W. Pv. IxGALLS and L. O. Kellogg. 



Certain of the accidents listed in the chronology of Chapter X are 
of more than ordinary interest and some of these have been selected 
for description in more detail. In making this selection it has been 
attempted, so far as possible, to illustrate the more serious dangere 
to which the miner is subjected and which the provisions of the 
accompanying code are designed to combat. At the same time the 
selection has been confined to such accidents as have assumed impor- 
tance in some way or other, either because of the large loss of life 
involved or threatened or because of unusual attending features. 
Fires, caves of ground, explosions, hoisting accidents, and floods are 
described. The accounts are taken in some cases from authoritative 
articles in the technical press and from authoritative information 
specially obtained in others. In some cases the sources of the infor- 
mation have been given, in others they have been withheld, usually 
at the request of the informants. 

There is possibly some danger that the accidents selected for 
description may give a false idea of the hazards existing. The more 
spectacular accidents and those causing wholesale death are not those 
most important in the aggregate, as they are relatively infrequent. 
This is true of mine fires, the accounts of many of which wiU be found 
included herewith. There will be found also accounts of accidents 
which are highly unusual; these are instructive chiefly as showing the 
great variety of dangere against which the miner must take precaution. 

MINE FIBES. 
LONDON MINE, NOVEMBER 29, 1909. 

Mention has been made elsewhere of the fire at the London mine 
of the Tennessee Copper Co., where the existence of two openings to 
the surface prevented loss of life, although the fire itself was of a 
nature capable of proving disastrous. The account following is taken 
from one written by N. H. Emmons, '^ at that time general manager 
of the company. 

(i Emmons, N. H., Fire in London mine of Tennessee Copper Co.: Eng. & Min. Jour., December 11, 
1909, pp. 1181-11S2. 

16559°— Bull. 75—15 IS 257 



258 RULES AND KEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

Tlie mine ore bins caught on fire at about 3.30 p. m., November 29, 1909, from 
sparks thrown by a locomotive. The building being constructed entirely of wood 
and being very dry the fire spread rapidly and water could make no impression on it; 
the flames rushed to the top of the breaker house, about 120 feet high, and consumed 
the entii-e building in a short time. Tlie crusher fell from a height of about 75 feet, 
demolishing the engine that was directly below it. 

Tlie shaft dips 74° and the timbers falling fi-om the crusher house set the shaft tim- 
bei-ing on fire and gave notice to the men below who, however, had also been notified 
through a speaking tube that the breaker was on fire. Tliere were 54 men in the 
mine, 12 of them being on the fifth level. All of these 12 men climbed up to the 
fourth level and four of them to the third, the other eight taking refuge in a drift so aa 
not to be overcome by the smoke from the falling timbers. Forty-six men were taken 
out through an open cut which had been a ladderway, but from which the ladders 
had been removed on account of blasting. Ladders were put in again and the men 
taken to the sm-face without haAong experienced any ill effects from the smoke. Of 
these 46 men the four from the fifth level claimed to have called to their eight com- 
panions to follow them and thought they were doing so, but these eight must have 
become panic-stricken, since they did not follow above the fourth level. 

The smoke soon filled the upper levels, except at the open cut, to such an extent 
that no one could go down for the imprisoned men, and work was started on the first 
level putting in a brattice at the crosscut to the shaft, the shaft being about 100 feet 
in the footwall at the first level and 300 feet at the fifth level. As soon as the brattice 
was put in this level cleared rapidly, and the fresh air blowiug down from the wiuzea 
to the second level cleared this up, but more slowly. It was foimd impossible to put 
a brattice on the second level on account of the heat and smoke. A compressed-air line 
was brought in from the BurraBurra mine, about a mile away, to the open cut at the 
London mine, using partly a water line and partly an air line already in. Fire hose 
was attached to this line and taken down from level to level. It was foimd necessary 
to reduce the pressure fi-om 90 pounds to 50 poimds at the compressor in order not to 
blow off the connection to the hose. The liose was carried from level to level and men 
lowered through winzes with ropes as soon as they could stand the heat and smoke. 

The United States Geological Survey sent an equipment of oxygen helmets from the 
Knoxville station and an instructor, but by the time they arrived the air was clearing 
so that they were unnecessary and, the men being afraid of them, they were not used, 
although tried. Three men were lowered to the fourth level about 10 p. m. on Novem- 
ber 30 and reached the imprisoned men at 11.30. They found them in a small stope, 
where there was running water from a diamond-drill hole, the men haATng barricaded 
the drift to the stope to keep the fumes out. The men were all in good condition but 
weak from lack of food and air, soon recovering, however, when they were brought to 
the surface and cared for. 

No better example could be instanced of the necessity of the two- 
outlet precaution. ^Uthough it is impossible to say what would have 
been the outcome if the second outlet through the open cut had not 
been available, it is certain that tliere would have been loss of life, 
probably heavy loss, but as it was every man was saved. This case 
also illustrates the advisability of having fire-doors in the main drifts 
leading from a shaft, a requirement which the committee has inserted 
in its code, but only to a Hmited extent in view of its novelty in 
present mining practice. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTORIC ACCIDENTS. 259 

GIROUX SHAFT, AUGUST 23, 1911. 

A fire in the Giroux shaft, of the Giroiix ConsoUdated ]\Iines Co., at 
Ely, Nev., on August 23, 1911, was disastrous in the loss of life which it 
caused and unusual in that the seven deaths occurred at widely sei)arated 
points and at considerable intervals. As is usually the case, the cause 
of the fu'e remains unknown. It was at first thought that a dyna- 
mite explosion set fire to the timbering, but the fire originated in' 
the station of the 1,000-foot level where no work was supposed to 
be going on and it is now believed that two men, who in passing 
from the 770-foot level to the 1,400-foot level had stopped at the 
1,000-foot level, must have left there a lighted candle snuff, the flame 
from which caught the timbering. The greatest damage occurred 
at the 1,000-foot level where the station and most of the ore pocket 
were destroyed. It extended, however, to the 770-foot level and 
the 1,200-foot. The mine was flooded and the water was not finaUy 
removed until February, 1912, more than six months later. 

Of the deaths, one was that of the cage tender who attempted to 
come up the shaft on the cage and fell off 15 feet below the collar. 
Out of a cage load of men hoisted from the 1,400-foot level one was 
puUed off the cage, presumably by a manila bell cord. This had 
probably been burned where the fire was hottest and broke when 
pulled for the hoisting signal, so that it fell down the shaft and 
entangled the man who was kiUed. Two men were kiUed by inhaling 
gas or flame as they were being pulled through on the cage. FinaUy 
three men attempted to climb out on the ladders of the other shaft, 
the Alpha, and were overcome by gas. It is held that the turning 
on of the sprinkling system may have reversed the air currents and 
thus driven the products of combustion out through the ^Vlpha 
shaft. Three more men were burned but recovered. 

Fhe doors might have proved a means of safety in this case also ; 
although the reversal of the ah current was not proved, it is possible 
that the sprinkling water may have acted in that way. This danger 
was discussed in Chapter V. 

BELMONT MINE, FEBRUARY 23, 1911. 

In a fire at the Belmont mine of the Tonopah Belmont Develop- 
ment Co. in Tonopah, Nev., on February 23, 1911, 17 men lost their 
lives. The fire was not a serious one; little damage to the mine 
resulted. It was discovered while stiU small and was attacked for some 
time at close quarters, yet the unfamiliarity of the men with fire- 
fighting methods, coupled with a reversal of the air cun-ents, per- 
mitted an insignificant blaze to develop into an appaUing disaster, 
a striking example of the insidious nature of the underground fire. 



260 EXILES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MIXES. 

The Belmont mine had two shafts, the Belmont, normally upcast, 
and the Desert Queen, normally downcast. Smoke was first noted 
by the eager about 5.50 a. m. An hour or two of searching was 
required before the fire was discovered at the bottom of a winze on 
an intermediate level which did not open into either shaft, com- 
munication being had by means of the winze in question and two 
raises to the levels above. The fire was burning in some mine 
timber which had been piled at the winze bottom for distribution 
in the stopes. It seems reasonably sure that the fire was caused 
by a lighted candle or a snuff left in the timber by a man of the night 
shift, which quit work at 3.30 a. m. It was decided to build a 
brattice in the drift and close the winze above the fire. Up to this 
time there was dense smoke in but few parts of the mine, and although 
the smoke issuing from the Belmont shaft prevented the descent 
of the men, a good many of them, including the timbermen, went 
under through the Desert Queen shaft. ^Mien the fire was dis- 
covered men were detailed to call out of the mine everyone except 
those fighting the fire. The men were scattered, however, and did 
not obey orders promptly, so at the time the disaster occurred there 
were a good many men underground in different parts of the mine. 
It is uncertain just what happened but apparently some reversal of 
the air currents thi-ew the smoke into parts of the mine that had 
previously been safe. The men who died were trapped at different 
points, several in the shaft stations whither they had crawled but 
from which they were unable to signal. According to one report 
four men were overcome and feU off the cage while being hoisted. 
The fire was put out that same night by an organized party and the 
bodies of the men recovered the next morning. The mine, as was 
usual at that time, was not equipped with rescue apparatus and fire 
extinguishers were not at hand, nor was satisfactory rescue apparatus 
to be had off-hand in Tonopah. The drastic lesson of the disaster, 
however, was taken to heart. Tonopah is now well equipped with 
mine-rescue apparatus, fire drills are practiced, and fire patrols 
maintained. 

This disastrous accident again points to the desirability of fire 
doors in the main drifts leading from the shaft stations. It points 
also to the desirability of a general danger signal, such as the flashing 
of the electric lights, peremptorily commanding all men to leave the 
mine. 

NORTH LYELL MINE, OCTOBER 12, 1912. 

The most disastrous metal-mine accident of recent years occurred 
at the Xorth Lyell mine in Tasmania on October 12, 1912, the result 
of an underground fire. The mine was opened by an adit level and 
a main shaft. The shaft crossed the adit level at the 300-foot point 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTOEIC ACCIDENTS. 261 

of the former. From a point farther in another shaft, the "engine 
winze," made a second communication between the adit and the 
mine workings. The main shaft had its hoisting works on the 
surface. A winch on the adit level served the engine winze for a 
few hundred feet down to a point where moving ground had 
blocked the winze. Another winch on the 700-foot level served the 
lower levels of the winze. The company was opening the blockade 
in the winze at the time of the fire. 

Tlie fire started in or near the 700-foot pump station. As has been 
the case time and again, the first manifestations were not treated 
as very serious. However, the men were hurried out of the mine 
from the accessible levels as rapidly as j^ossible and rescue parties 
were organized. Hoisting was continued in the main shaft until 
the cage stuck. About 70 men got out early in this way, leaving 90 
or 100 still in the mine. The main shaft, of course, became an 
upcast and efforts were made to open the block in the engine winze. 
It was opened at last and became a strong downcast, a large quantity 
of falling water aiding in creating this condition. The smoke was 
gradually driven back to the main shaft on the various levels, working 
from the engine winze, by the use of compressed air and brattices. 
Finally communication was established across the 1,000-foot level 
and the 50 men who had taken refuge there on the other side of the 
main shaft were rescued. Their jDresence and their situation had 
been established previously by means of a cord dropped down the 
main shaft and by the same means supplies had been conveyed to 
them. They had compressed-air lines accessible which furnished the 
air to breathe. 

Investigations of other workings where it was thought that men 
might be still alive resulted in finding only dead bodies. It was 
concluded that the faint chance of some men being still alive would 
not justify the risk incurred by the rescuers and that further search 
would best be deferred until the fire was extinguished. It was thought 
that it had nearly burned itself out. Attempts were made to seal the 
mine but without success and when it was found that the fu-e, far 
from being nearly burned out, had spread and increased in intensity, 
the mine was flooded. Wlien the workings were afterwards pumped 
out and all the bodies recovered, the number of dead was found to 
be 42 all told. 

The accident was the subject of a searching investigation by a 
Royal commission, which, however, failed to establish the cause of 
the fire. This was at first attributed to the electrical apparatus. A 
suggestion of incendiarism was later put forth. The commission 
was inclined to reject these causes and to attribute the fire to some 
candle left in a dangerous position. It was brought out that another 
outlet to the adit level existed tlu-ough the upper stoj^jes, but the men 



262 EULES AXD EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 

did not seem to know of its existence or else did not know the way. 
Furthermore this outlet was one not easy to travel. It was found 
that the edd}' currents set up would carry the smoke into what would 
have been considered safe workings. The use of helmets and of 
diving apparatus in fighting the fire was not successful. Alanj- if 
not most of the deaths seemed to be the result of carbon monoxide 
poisoning.*^ 

The lessons of the disaster are numerous. A trained fire brigade 
could have done much. ]\Iine-rescue equipment should be main- 
tained and the men taught its use as provided herein. On the sus- 
picion of danger, all men should be called out of the mine at once. 
For this purpose a general-alarm signal is prescribed in this code. 
The existence of a second outlet is of no value unless it is known to 
the men and is plainly marked. For this purpose the code prescribes 
signboards. But, as stated several times elsewhere, the best pro- 
vision against a fatal outcome to a mine fu-e is to prevent the occur- 
rence of the fire. 

HIGH OEE-MODOC MINE, JAXUART 14, 1911. 

The Pligh Ore-Modoc mine of the Anaconda company at Butte, 
Mont., is connected on the 2,200-foot level with the Diamond mine 
of the same company and on the 1,200-foot level with the Ballaklava 
shaft. On Saturday evening, January 14, 1911, as the night shift 
was being" lowered, smoke and gas from a fire were detected. Work 
of getting out the men was at once begun. A number of men, mostly 
on contracts and on the pumps, were working on a shift that had 
gone on at 3 p. m. JNlessengers were sent to the working places at 
once to notify this shift to vacate the mine. One of the contract 
men, IMichael Belangie, who had got out safel)'^ returned with the 
station tenders to notify some of the pumpmen. He and these 
pumpmen remained too long exposed to the fumes of the fu-e and 
were overcome. "\\Tien brought to the surface they were revived 
with difTiculty, with the exception of Belangie, who died. The fore- 
man of the Diamond mine adjoining sent two of his men with a shift 
boss to seal a door on the 2,200-foot level that had been provided 
for just such an emergency. \Mien they failed to report after a 
reasonable interval, the foreman investigated and found that they 
had closed the door, but had then been overcome, and were lying 
nearby. The shift boss could not be brought to, but the other two 
men recovered. There were thus two fatalities. 

The fire started a short distance west of the neighboring Ballaklava 
shaft. The cause is unknown, but the deadly candle snuft' is suspected. 
The part of the mine on fire was bulkheaded off, exhaust fans estab- 
lished, and the fire extinguished after a few weeks. 

o Account compiled from several published articles in Australian and British papers. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTOEIC ACCIDENTS. 263 

HARTFORD MINE, MAY 5, 1911. 

A fire at the Hartford mine on the Marquette iron range of 
Michigan on the mornmg of May 5, 1911, ilhistrates the extreme 
difficulty of guarding against casualties from this source. The fire 
was discovered in the No. 2 shaft of the mine by the electrician and 
pumpman, who saw a burning brand drop down the shaft. They 
found that the ladder and pipe compartments were burning and at 
once notified the superintendent, at the same time taldng steps to 
put out the fire. Beside the No. 2 shaft, the mine had a No. 1 shaft 
connected on the second level with the No. 2 and from the bottom, 
or fifth level, at the 975-foot point, it was connected with a neighboring 
mine, the Cambria. The fire apparently started near the pocket of 
the 750-foot level, the third. With two openings to the surface 
beside the burning shaft, there seemed small likelihood of any loss 
of life occurring. As a matter of fact, seven men were suffocated in 
various parts of the mine. One man attempted to fight the fire and 
was overcome near where it occurred. Another tried to build a 
bulkhead shutting off an undergTound opening at the Cambria and 
was also overcome; he had been previously ordered from the place. 
A third jumped off a cage just as it was to go up, thinking of some- 
body that had not been notified or of something that he had forgotten. 
Two men working on the second level tried to reach the bottom level 
and were killed; they had passed by a door leading to No. 1 shaft 
on their way. Also two men in a raise above the second level some 
distance from the shaft were unable to make their way to safety. It 
is evident that at le'ast five of these men could have been saved but 
for their own mistakes. Three of them, it would appear, were influ- 
enced by a sense of responsibility toward others and took large 
risks. 

It must be admitted that disasters of this sort are exceedingly 
difficult to guard against. Apparently there must have been a rever- 
sal of the ah' current. The most available means of air control are 
fire doors and a fan. There are little data as to what can be done along 
this line, however. The best precaution against a fatal outcome to 
a mine fire is to prevent the fire starting. The origin in this case 
is unknown; of the three possible causes, namely, electric wires, a 
candle snuff, or incendiarism, the candle snuff seems most probable. 

The damage to the mine was slight but there was some difficulty 
in recovering the bodies, since there were no helmets available. All 
the companies in the district have since supj^lied themselves with 
mine-rescue apparatus. 



2G4 EULES AXD REGULATIOXS FOE :ArETAL MINES. 

EXPLOSIVES ACCIDENTS. 
ALASKA-MEXICAN MINE, MARCH 2, 1910. 

The most disastrous explosive accident in recent years was that 
occurring in the spring of 1910 at the Treadwcll group of mines on 
Doughas Ishxnd, Alaska, 37 men being Idlled and 9 injured. The fol- 
lowing description is substantially that of the general superintendent, 
R. A. Kinzic." 

At 11.30 p. m., ^larch 2, 1910, the powder magazine on the 1,100-foot level of the 
]\Iexican mine exploded, killing 37. men and injuring 9. Sufficient powder for the 
uight and day shifts was delivered to the underground magazines every 24 hours. 
The 1,100-foot magazine furnished powder for that level only, and the quantity 
delivered there was 20 to 30 boxes. The magazine was a chamber cut in the rock 
and boarded up in front; it was situated 25 to 50 feet from the shaft and separated 
from it by a pillar. A partition divided the magazine into two rooms, each having 
a door. The doors had open gratings, through which the interior of the magazine 
could be seen; they were always kept locked, except when the stope boss at certain 
times passed out tlie powder to the miners. Light was furnished by a 16-candlepower 
lamp a short distance inside the door. There was no wiring over the stored powder. 
No heat was brought in, the powder being thawed before delivery. 

The explosion occurred just as the night shift was waiting to go to the surface to eat. 
The men on the 990-foot station reported two explosions. The first jiut out their 
candles, but was of no great Adolence. As they lighted up again before proceeding to 
another shaft, a second explosion of greater violence knocked them over, seriously 
injuring one and slightly injuring three. The men loading the skips, only 45 feet 
below the 1,100-foot level, were uninjured, as were those on the 1,200-foot and 1,300- 
foot stations. The posts of the 1,100-foot station were knocked out, and with the 
lagging and other timber formed a mass of debris which closed the shaft. From the 
debris 22 bodies were recovered; 5 injured men were also taken up. The doors across 
the skip compartments were closed, as ore was being hoisted from the level; one 
body was found on these doors. The man-cage compartment was open and eight 
bodies were recovered from below in this compartment. The light board shed used 
for a stable was enth-ely demolished; two bodies were found there; one of the two horses 
was killed, the other uninjured. This stable was about 100 feet from the shaft down 
the main drift. Two bodies were found along the drift, and the fragments of at least 
one body were found in a corner of the magazine itself. As is usually the case with an 
explosives accident, the cause could not be determined. As is frequently also the 
case, no great damage was done to the mine. A rescue party reached the scene within 
35 minutes after the explosion, and the cage was running in about 11 hours. The 
position of tlie magazine near the shaft but beyond it, considered in reference to the 
main drift, precluded the possibility of any man being cut off from escape in case of 
accident and also aided in the rapid dissiijation of the gas; no man was overcome in 
that manner. ' 

DIAMOND SHAFT, MARCH 3, 1909. 

A blasting accident which occurred in the bottom of the Diamond 
shaft in Butte, Mont., on March 3, 1909, was unusual, m that although 
one of the men who were in the shaft bottom at the time of the 
explosion survived the accident, yet his testimony left the true cause 
still undetermined. Five men, part of a crew that had the contract 
for sinking the shaft, finished a round and attempted to blast it. 

o Kinzie, R. A., Explosion at the Alaska Mexican mine: Eng. and Min. Jour. Mar. 19, 1910, p. 603. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTORIC ACCIDENTS. 265 

Four of them were caught by th> explosion and killed, the fifth, v%ho 
was at the cage, was pulled up badly wounded. His story of what 
happened is practically all that is known about the accident. The 
men had 25 fuses to " spit " or light. The survivor, with another man, 
took one side of the shaft and the remaining three men the other. 
The two men finished ''spitting" their fuses and started to help the 
others. When only two fuses remained unlighted, the survivor was 
sent to the cage by the boss. He had just touched the cage when a 
blast went off. He shouted to the men to come to the cage, but 
without result. On the second blast he signaled to be hoisted. Two 
explanations are possible — that the men utterly misjudged the time 
they had consumed in ''spitting," or that a defective fuse caused a 
premature blast. The men were all experienced and skillful miners. 
The fuses were 8 feet long. The number of men and the routine was 
that followed throughout the job in question and always with success, 
except in this case. 

KEATING MINE, JANUARY 18, 1911. 

A dA^namite explosion at the Keating gold mine near Radersburg, 
Mont., on January 18, 1911, killed six men, at least three of them by 
asphyxiation. Although the exact cause of the explosion is, as usual, 
unknown, the evidence points strongly to the accidental detonation 
of some powder on a shaft station by some falling object. During the 
morning the skip had been derailed, and, as a result, five men were 
working in the inclined shaft about 2 p. m., repairing rollers. There 
was probably 200 pounds of dynamite in the powder thawer and 900 
pounds of frozen dynamite on the 200 station. The thawer was 
about 80 feet from the 200 station; it consisted of some shelves in a 
rock niche, with electric lamps for heating. It is known that the 
"powder m.onkey" visited the thawer just before the explosion. 
Two explosions were reported at first. Later this seems to have 
become a matter of doubt. 

At all events, the men repairing the shaft were all thrown down by 
the shock; two of them fell in the skip, which had been held nearby. 
Falling timbers caught the boll rope and gave the hoisting signal; the 
men were drawn to the surface unconscious, but they survived. The 
other three men in the shaft probably died from inhaling the fumes 
after being knocked helpless. The "powder monkey" was preparmg 
primers at his bench on the 300 level, and two men were at work in 
the face on that level, 750 feet from the shaft. In their attempt to 
escape these men were caught by descending gases and killed. If 
they had remained where they were or had descended through upcast 
stopes to the lower levels, they would have escaped, as did the other 
men in the mine. The station and shaft in the vicmity were badly 
wrecked; much of the frozen d3mamito was found scattered about. 
It was at first supposed that the thawer had exploded and detonated 



266 RULES AXD EEGUL.\TI02s^S FOE METAL MIK^ES. 

the dynamite on the station, but afterwards the effoets of a strong 
explosion were found hicking in the inunodiate vicinity of the thawer, 
and the most likely hypothesis is that one of the men in the shaft 
had dropped a tool or other object which struck and detonated the 
station dynamite. 

Too great care can not be exercised in the handling of d3^i.amite. 
It should be left exposed only for such time as is absolutely necessary, 
and never in shaft, stations if possible to avoid it. The handling of 
powder as described in this case would be quite contrary to the rules 
of the committee's code. 

COPPER FLAT MINE, JULY 7, 1912. 

Wliile loading a surface drill hole of the Nevada Consolidated 
Copper Co., July 7, 1912, 10 men were killed by a premature explo- 
sion. The accident illustrates the necessity of care m handling ex- 
plosives on the surface as well as underground. The causes of the 
explosion are quite undetermined, all evidence having been oblit- 
erated by the explosion itself. The facts so far as laiown seem to be 
as follows: A group of men were engaged in charging the hole, which 
was m the capping on what was called the Berry High Lme level. 
Holes of this type hold a relatively large quantity of powder, and are 
usually loaded by five or six men, who drop the powder in. In this 
case Trojan powder had been first charged and there remained, it is 
believed, five boxes of Hercules Special, an explosive contaming, 
accordbig to report, 20 per cent of nitroglycerin and 20 per cent of 
ammonium nitrate. Two boxes of this were left unexploded. The 
reason for believmg that three boxes exploded is that three holes were 
blown out in the ground; but it might have happened that boxes 
w'ere piled one on another, in which case each hole would represent 
more than one box. What actually exploded the powder remains 
unknown. 

IMPERIAL MINE, JANUARY 3, 1913. 

An accident preventable by proper precaution occurred at the 
Imperial mine m the Joplin district of Missouri due to the failure of 
a hoisthig engine. Anew shaft there had just reached the ore horizon, 
and driftmg had begun, with the face still only a few feet from the 
shaft. On January 3, 1913, three men had prepared a round of 50 to 
60 shots, lighted the fuses and signaled to be hoisted. The cngme 
refused to w^ork, there was no other exit, and the three helpless men 
were effectually trapped. They were buried under tons of rock and 
killed. It was reporcod that the compressed air with which the hoist 
was driven was frozen, since the hoist had been littla used for some 
time before and the day was extremely cold. It was also reported, 
however, that an essential part on the hoist had ])roken." 

a The account of this accident was obtained from a reliable, but unofficial, source. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTORIC ACCIDENTS. 267 

No better example could be instanced of the necessity for two of tne 
provisions in the accompanying code, namely, that every shaft in 
process of sinking be provided with a ladderway from top to extreme 
bottom, and that whenever blasting is to be done in a shaft bottom, 
a prelimmary signal be given and the hoist tested to see that it is in 
workmg order. If the report of the accident as given is correct, the 
observance of either of these two precautions would have averted 
the loss of life. The $12,000 or so which the death of these three men 
would have cost the operator in a State with a typical workmen's 
compensation law, would have paid for many thousands of feet of 
ladderway. No particular blame attaches to the operator of this one 
mine. He was merely followmg the characteristic practice of the 
district where the providing of ladderways is deplorably rare. 

HOISTING ACCIDENTS. 
RICHARD MINE, JUNE 7, 1910. 

At the Richard mine of the Thomas Iron Co., in New Jersey, five 
men were killed in a hoistmg accident on June 7, 1910. The No. 6 
slope or shaft of this mine is carried down on the deposit at an average 
dip of about 52°. Men were hoisted through this shaft by means of 
the ore car or skip and were required to ride m the bottom of the con- 
veyance. The five men in question, instead of obeying this rule 
were riding in the bail. At a point about 100 feet below the surface, 
the angle of the shaft changes sharply, and in passing this pomt the 
weight of the five men on the bail upset the conveyance, all five bemg 
spilled down the shaft and killed. 

Ridmg on the bail is of course dangerous always; and in this case 
was contrary to the company's own rule. The practice of riding on 
the bail of skips is discussed in Chapter V. 

BUTTE SUPERIOR MINE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1911. 

A double disobedience of rules cost six men their lives at the Butte 
Superior mine on September 3, 1911. It was the custom at this mine 
for the station tender to collect the dull drill steel on the various 
levels about 15 minutes before the end of the shift and have it hoisted 
through the vertical shaft to the surface in what was called the "drill 
boat." Only the station tenders were allowed to ride with this steel, 
and in fact no other men were supposed to be at the shaft station at 
the time it was hoisted. 

On the night when the accident happened, Saturday night, some 
of the men were anxious to get out early and start the double holiday 
of Sunday and Labor Day. They took the chance, therefore, of 
quitting a little before the end of the shift and coming out to the sta- 
tion to ride up with the steel. The cage started at the 1,300 level 
where drill steel was loaded, and one of the men in question got on 
there. At the 1,200 level station also two men got on, and two others 



268 EULES AND EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MINES. 

at the 900 level. When the cage left the 900 level it contamed about 
250 pieces of steel in the drill boat and six men, including the cage 
tender, being so crowded that the station tender who stayed behind 
had trouble in closing the cage gate. 

It is not known exactly what happened; either the drill steel got 
disarranged, or more probably, one of the men got caught b}^ a wall 
plate of the shaft timbering; at all events both steel and men were 
dragged from the Upper deck of the cage where they were riding. The 
hoisting engineer felt a slight tremor in the rope and stopped the 
hoist, which was running slowly because of hoistmg steel. One of 
the men was found on the lower deck of the cage, the other five in the 
shaft sump. The five men, who had no business on the cage, were all 
young and inexperienced underground. Although the cage tender 
was only an accessory to the infraction of rules, he paid the same 
penalty as the others. The inquest brought out the fact that the 
station tenders were afraid to refuse permission to ride lest they be 
attacked later outside the mine by those refused. 

This code strictly prohibits riding with drill steel on the part of the' 
miners in general. The need of the prohibition is plainly evidenced 
here. 

LEONARD MINE, APRIL 23, 1913. 

A failure of the braid ng apparatus on the hoist at the Leonard 
mine in Butte resulted in an accident which is perhaps more note- 
worthy for the number of men who escaped death than for the num- 
ber of those killed. According to the account published in the En- 
gineering and Mining Journal,*^ the day shift was being lowered on the 
morning of April 23, 1913, when the engineer lost control of the 
hoist and both cages dropped to a shaft bulkliead at the 2,200-foot 
level. Hoisting and lowering usually were conducted in balance; 
in fact there was a rule of the company that men at least should not 
be lowered under the brake alone. At the time of the accident, 
however, the engineer had four men on the east cage who were going 
to the 60-foot level. The west cage was standing at the 1,400-foot 
level. The engineer started to lower the east cage under the brake 
alone, without moving the west cage. It is supposed that the rod 
connecting the brake with the lever broke after the brake was re- 
leased, leaving no effectual means of controlling the cast^rope reel. 
That cage dropped with nothing to stop it other than friction in the 
shaft. The four men on it were instantly killed. The gi'cat speed 
attained by the reel bui-st it and v^Tccked the hoist room. A fifth 
man was killed near the shaft by the flying metal. 

The controlling mechanism of the west reel was also wrecked and 
the west cage allowed to drop. Four men had stepped off this cage 
at the 1,400-foot level; there remained three men on the lower deck 

a Editorial, Two hoisting accidents and tlieir lesson: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 95, May 31, 191o. 



SOME UXUSUAL AXD HISTOKIC ACCIDEXTS. 269 

and ten on the upper. The signal had just been given to hoist to 
the 1,300-foot level, when the east cage went by as it fell. Two men 
from the lower deck of the west cage leaped to the station before the 
cage began to fall; the other eight were carried with the cage the 
full 800 feet of drop and, remarkably enough, none of them was 
killed although all were more or less seriously injured. It is supposed 
that the east cage in falling had sprung the dividing timbers over so 
that the west compartment of the shaft was squeezed together a 
httle. It is probable also that the safety catches were released enough 
to have a considerable braking effect, although the drag of the rope 
and the resistance of the revolving reel prevented them from coming 
fully into action. 

BUNKER HILL & SULLIVAN MINE, SEPTEMBER 6, 1912. 

An overwinding accident, although not a typical one, occurred 
at the Bunker HiU & SuUivan mine in the Coeur d'Alenes, Septem- 
ber 6, 1912. The men were hoisted into a surface bin and since the 
shaft was inclined they were not precipitated down the shaft. The 
men were five shovelers from the bottom level of the mine and were 
being brought to the surface in the self-dumping waste skip. In- 
stead of stopping at the shaft collar, the engineer pulled the skip 
and its load into the rock bin. At the inquest, the engineer testi- 
fied that the sprocket chain driving the engine indicator had slipped 
off and the indicator therefore failed to show the approach of the 
skip to the surface. There was reason for doubting his evidence, 
and it seems more likely that he merely forgot the signal, which had 
been given correctly, and thought he had no men on the sldp. One 
man was kiUed by having his head crushed, the others were not in- 
jured seriously. 

There have indeed been overwindmg accidents ascribable to de- 
rangement of the engine indicator. For this reason among others 
the code of the committee prescribes a mark on the rope as well as 
an indicator on the engine ; and, furthermore, prescribes a diminution 
of speed as the cage approaches the surface. 

NORTH LAKE MINE, OCTOBER 17, 1912. 

A falling bucket crosshead caused the death of fom* men at the 
No. 1 shaft of the Cleveland-Cliffs North Lake mine on the Mar- 
quette range, October 17, 1912. The shaft was in process of sinking. 
At about 6 o'clock, the upper pump in the shaft stopped and, the 
regular pump man not being out, orders were given for a miner to 
act in his stead. One of the miners accordingly came to the surface, 
got a can of oil and was lowered again to the pump station, 197 feet 
above the shaft bottom at the time. About five minutes after get- 
tins: off he signaled the engineer to lower the bucket to the bottom. 



270 EULES AND EEGULATIONS FOR METAL MINES. 

The miners there decided to come to the surface and eat their lunches 
while waiting for the pumps to lower the water in the shaft. The 
crew of five got on the rim of the bucket and signaled to hoist. Wlicn 
they amved at the point in the shaft where the crosshead should 
have caught nonnally, they found that it was not there and one of 
the men called out for them to hold light. Then the crosshead fell 
and knocked the men from the bucket, four of them fell to the bot- 
tom, and the fifth, the one who had called the warning, happened 
to fall on a divider of. the shaft timbering and was saved. 

The crosshead was broken and no investigation as to its condition 
was possible. However, everyone questioned stated that it had ap- 
peared to be in good condition pre\'ious to the accident; the runners, 
furthermore, were found to be unusually smooth. Eight feet above 
the pump station there was a joint in the guides and just below tliis the 
space between guides was a scant 5 feet; the ^^^dth of the crosshead 
itself was 4 feet 11 J inches. This point in the shaft was that where the 
crosshead would have stopped to let a man off for the pump station. 
The stay of five minutes at the station would have been time enough 
to allow the vibrating rope to come to rest, giving the crosshead a 
better chance to stick. 

The question of the advantages and hazards of using an ordinary 
crosshead such as this was, have been discussed elsewhere in this 
report. Undoubtedly the best practice calls for a safety crosshead, 
one that can not possibly be held up except at a predetermined point. 
This crosshead, however, was 3 feet 5 inches high, as compared with 
its width of approximately 5 feet, and these dimensions should insure 
reasonable safety. 

FALLS OF GROUND. 
NORMAN MINE, MARCH 11, 1911. 

Probably the worst disaster connected with open-pit work in this 
count ry was that at the Norman mine on the Mesabi range of Minnesota. 
This large property was bemg worked by the Oliver Iron Mming Co. 
with steam shovels in the usual manner. On March 11, 1911, as 
reported by W. H. Harvey, the county mine inspector, a number of 
men were engaged in raising and Immg up the track m the approach 
to the pit when a great quantity of ore from the north side let go 
and slid down so suddenly that the men had no time to escape, and 
14 were caught and killed. The pit at the place where the accident 
occurred was 358 feet wide from crest to crest of the ore body and 
51 feet wide at the bottom; its depth was 205 feet. The bank thus 
had some slope, but the dip of the ore was toward the south, giving 
better opportunity for sliding. It is assumed that the bank had 
been loosened by alternate thawing and freezing. It appears that 
the men had no idea that the place was dangerous, as it was used as 
a place of refuge when blasting was being done. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTOEIC ACCIDENTS. 271 

No example could more forcibly illustrate the difficulty of dealing 
with the one greatest source of accidents, namely, falls of ground. 
Here, in broad daylight, in plain view of everybody, the most critical 
conditions remained quite unsuspected by those in the best position 
to observe them. How much gi-eater must be the difficulty in a dim 
light underground, and especially in chambers where the back is far 
above the observer. 

BUFFALO-SUSQUEHANNA MINE, AUGUST 19, 1911. 

The open pit of the Buffalo-Susquehanna mine at Hibbing on the 
Mesabi iron range in Minnesota was the scene of a run of bank which 
killed 3 men and injured 21 others, 5 of these only slightly, however. 
Strippmg of the overburden was bemg carried on in the pit by the 
Winston-Dear contracting company for the Rogers-Brown Ore Co. 

A slope of f to 1 was designated by the engineers and was being 
mamtaiiied. While the night shift was at work on August 19, 1911, 
the bucket of one of the steam shovels was buried hj a small fall of 
earth and sand. Three men were detailed to dig this away. The 
shovel was digging m relatively hard material, but this was overlain 
by softer ground. While working these men were caught by another 
rush of sand, and then a much heavier fall from the high bank almost 
covered the shovel. The men killed were those caught under the 
shovel or against its side. Others were swept aside and escaped 
with little or no injury. 

It is probable that the darkness was the cause of the accident's 
resulting so seriously. The first small slide was no unusual thing, 
and it was impossible to see at night the dangerous conditions in the 
bank overhead. The darkness also, together with the disablement 
of the shovel, which included the extinguishing of the lights and the 
breaking of the steam pipe, made the work of rescue much more 
difficult and dangerous. 

GOLDFIELD CONSOLIDATED MINE, SEPTEMBER 25, 1909. 

On Sept. 25, 1909, a stope of the Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., 
of Goldfield, Nev., caved, and the cavmg extended to the surface, 
wrecking part of a stamp mill and killmg three miners undergi'ound. 
The Hampton stope of the Combmation mme was opened on an ex- 
tremely high-grade ore bod}^, and was nmied for about eight months. 
The stope was about 70 feet wide, heavily timbered with square sets, 
and filled with waste. Nevertheless the liangmg wall came in with 
the results indicated. The 20-stamp mill had to be abandoned. 

The practice of stoping near the surface is impossible of control by 
general regulations; every case must bo judged on its merits. The 
question is further discussed m Chapter V. 



272 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOR METAL MINES. 

MIAMI MINE, APRIL 17, 1914. 

The Miami copper mine at Miami, Ariz., was the scene of a most 
vmiisual accident on April 17, 1914. The combination method of 
mining in use there involves caving the capping. The capping over 
what is known as the northwest ore body, which was about ready for 
caving, had given warning on April 16 that a collapse was imminent 
by the increased amount of cracking and slabbing off of ground. 
For this reason the men were kept out of that part of the mine which 
the caving was expected to affect. When the fall did come the next 
day an enormous compression was set up through the mme workings. 
It is estimated that 3,500,000 cubic feet of air was displaced. The 
rush of air was irresistible. Men and equipment were thrown about, 
and in the open workings, where the rush of air was greatest, the 
effect was especially disastrous. Five men altogether were killed 
and 16 were injured. Nobody was caught by the cave itself. The 
cost to the company was enormous also, the system of mining being 
quite disorganized for the time being in that part of the property. 

NORRIE MINE, MAY 13, 1912. 

On May 13, 1912, seven men were killed by caving ground at the 
Norrie mine of the Oliver Iron Mning Co. on the Gogebic range in 
Mcliigan. A party of ten miners and three trammers on the night 
shift were working home from the boundary of the property above 
the twentieth level of the mine. Hearing ground dropping they 
retu-ed to what they thought was a safe place, the main diift, which 
was securely timbered and had 35 to 40 feet of solid ore above it. 
The cave, however, did not come at the place where they had been 
working, but instead in the very place of refuge to whicli they had 
retreated, crushing in the drift timbers over a length of about 80 
feet. Six men were rescued alive after about 24 hours' work, but 
one of these died about a week later in the hospital," 

M. & B. MINE, APRIL 22, 1909. 

A cave-in at the property of the M. & B. Mining Co. near Duenweg, 
Mo., on April 22, 1909, caught and killed three men; two were killed 
outright, and the third, the superintentlont of the property, died soon 
af tor being rescued from under the fallen timber. Drifting was being 
cai'iied on alongside some old caved ground and into soft ground. 
The end of the drift was heavily timbered, but for some time had 
given eAadence of taking excessive weight. Some distance back, a 
section of the large drift from the shaft had been run without tim- 
bering, but was later timbered in order to protect those passing 
against falhng pieces of rock. This timbering was not intended to 

o Data obUiined from a 'Source outside the company organization, but believed to be relinble. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTORIC ACCIDENTS. 273 

support tlie ground and was not blocked securely against the back. 
On the day of the accident a cap in the soft ground was found to be 
cracking and it was decided to place a false post under it. This was 
cut and brought down after the noon hour. By that time the cap 
had settled still another 6 inches and it was found necessary to cut 
the post off. Some of the men were sawing the post and others were 
standing some distance back toward the shaft when the cave came. 
The three men killed were caught by the falling timbers when they 
were running toward the shaft. The unblocked timbers mentioned 
were unable to withstand the rush of the caved ground.'* 

Falls of ground are admittedly the source of underground accident 
most difficult to provide against. In this instance, however, the 
result seems attributable to a clear violation of good practice in 
neglecting to block the timbering securely and to a failure to heed 
the unmistakable warnings of what was coming. 

DINGER MINE, MAY 6, 1912. 

A fall of roof occurred at the Dinger mine in the Joplin district on 
May 6, 1912, w^hich killed three men. The rock that fell was a slab 
about 2 feet tMck which gave no sign of looseness when tapped and 
sounded by the roof men and was apparently safe. After the fall, 
however, it was found that a thin sheet of mud separated it from the 
rock above and constituted a plane of weakness. The difficulty of 
dealing ^\dth cases of this sort is obvious. 

ALPHA SHAFT, DECEMBER 4, 1S07. 

The Alpha shaft of the Giroux Consolidated Mines at Ely, Nev., 
caved on the morning of December 4, 1907. Of the five men caught 
below the cave, two were killed instantly and three were imprisoned. 
Tiie rescue of these men after 46 days is one of the most dramatic 
incidents in mmmg history. The account here given is taken from 
one by E. W. Walter,^ the manager of the company. 

The shaft for about 500 feet was in good ground. Below the 500-foot point the for- 
mation was much less stable and between the 580 and GOO foot points the rock was 
crushed to a powder by faulting. Below GOO feet the ground was solid. The shaft 
consisted of one compartment and a manway from the surface to the 7G0-foot point, 
of two compartments and a manway thence to the 1,000-foot level and of three com- 
partments and a manway, thence to the bottom. At the 1,000-foot level a pump was 
nstalled, the water column to the surface being a hea\'y, high-pressure, 6-inch pipe, 
fitted with 2^-inch flanges. 

When the cave occurred, four men were working in the shaft bottom and the pump- 
man was on the 1,000-foot level. The air was suddenly filled with dust and a terrific 
rush of sand came down the shaft. Two men were caught by the sand and it is sup- 

a Data obtained from a source outside the company organization, but believed to be reliable. 
b Walter, E. W., Rescuing the men entombed at Alpha shaft: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 85, Feb. 22, 
190S, p. 407. 

10559°— Bull. 75—15 19 



274 RULES AND EEGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

posed were killed instantly. The other two, being somewhat protected, managed to 
gain the manway and climbed to the 1,000-foot level where they joined the pump- 
man. After tilings seemed to have settled the three men investigated tlieir situation. 
They unbolted the flanged elbow between the water column and the pump and began 
to signal by tapping the pipe. The tapping was heard at the surface and the column 
was disconnected at the collar, a hand windlass was rigged and a letter lowered by 
means of a weight at the end of 1,000 feet of ^-inch rope. The column was found con- 
tinuous, the men below extracted tlie message with an old bolt and a piece of wire 
bent into a hook and communication was thus established. For lowering food and 
otlier supplies a series of 4 and 6 inch nipples of 2-inch pipe were connected by eye- 
bolts through their caps and by flexible links to form a train. A message was sent 
to the men directing tliem to connect the telephone to the power cable and thus easy 
communication was had. Reading matter, blankets, and other conveniences were 
lowered and the imprisoned men made fairly comfortable. 

The work of rescue was started. From the 440-foot point, for 40 feet down, a cham- 
ber 20 by 30 feet had caved out. At the 480-foot point the shaft was closed with 
debris. The timber remaining above in the shaft was caught up with stringers under 
the wall plates, held by 1-inch wire cables from the surface. A crib was built from the 
debris to the stringers, 100 cords of wood filled in behind it, and the shaft timbering 
extended with regular sets inside tliis crib. The shaft was continued tlirough the 
debris with spiling, broken timber making the work slow and rendering great care 
necessary. The column which was used to supply the men was found almost dis- 
connected where it had taken the force of the ca\Tiig. Allien 50 feet had been gained, 
the new timbering began to settle and it was found impossible to hold it. It was 
therefore disconnected so as to take the strain off theuncaved timbering, and unequal 
settling was corrected with angle braces. Finally by fighting for every inch, the 600- 
foot station was reached on January 18, and was found to be the bottom of the cave. 
A small hole was made in the matted timber at that point, the imprisoned men in- 
structed how to do some clearing at their end, and their rescue, after being imprisoned 
a month and a half, was successfully accomplished. 

DROWNING AND ASPHYXIATION. 

WHARTON SHAFT, OCTOBER 19, 1911. 

On October 19, 1911, the uew shaft, No. 12, of the Wharton 
Steel Co. at Hibemia, N. J., was flooded and 12 men were drowned. 
A drift was being run. on the No. 10 level toward some old workings 
that were Imown to be full of water. While the face of the drift was 
still 172 feet fi^om these old workings as indicated by survey, the 
water broke thi"Ough after a blast and trapped the 12 men, five of 
whom were in the shaft bottom and the rest in workings below the 
No. 10 level. The water is stated to have issued from an 18-inch 
hole under onjy a SO-foot head, yet the men seemed unable to climb 
agamst it as it poured down the shaft. The precaution of checking 
the survey had been taken; the water had been lowered sufficiently 
to permit drivuig No. 8 level to the old workings and the old survey 
had been found correct. The water appeared to issue fi-om a water- 
course whose existence was n.ot kno^vn. Even probmg \\dth a drill 
hole might easily fail to disclose such conditions and the accident 
would fall with those classed as unavoidable. 



SOME UNUSUAL AND HISTOEIC ACCIDENTS. 275 

DALY WEST MINE, SEPTEMBER 4, 1911. 

A most unusual accident occurred at the Daly West mine, Park 
City, Utah, in which two men were drowned. Below the drainage 
level of the mine, the 2100, the shaft had been continued as a sump 
about 17 feet deep, which was always full of water. Men were 
hoisted and lowered through this shaft on three-deck cages. The 
company recognized the possible danger and had a standing rule that 
the men should ride on the top deck only. According to the testi- 
mony before the coroner's jury, seven men came off the "graveyard 
shift" at about 7 a. m., September 4, 1911, a holiday, and found the 
cage at the level with the middle deck about a foot above the floor 
of the station. Ordinarily there was a shift coming down, and the 
men going off shift took the places on the upper deck of the cage 
wliich were vacated by the men of this shift. In this case they got 
on the middle deck of the cage at once and one of them rang three 
bells, the hoisting signal for men, according to the testimony of the 
survivors. Instead of the cage going up, it went down. The men 
felt the water coming up around them and the one who had pulled 
the bell cord jumped and reached the station. The others attempted 
to climb through the cage to the upper deck. Some of them suc- 
ceeded and others did not. The man who had reached the station 
signaled three bells agam and the cage was pulled to the surface with 
three men. The man who had jumped helped one more man to crawl 
out of the sump. The remainmg two were later fomid dead in the 
water. Apparently they had been knocked off the cage as it started 
upward. The man operating the hoist, who was not the regular 
engineer, testified that the cage was "hanging m the shaft" and there- 
fore was subject to his control until called to the level by two bells. 
And he testified also that he received two bells, the lowering signal, 
instead of three, and supposed that the men were calling the cage to 
the level so as to get on the upper deck. It was impossible to fix the 
responsibility in the face of the conflicting testimony. 

HIRD SHAFT, AUGUST 10, 1912. 

The Hird shaft being sunk by the Frontier Mining Co. at Benton, 
Wis., had been carried down 60 feet and then allowed to fill with water 
to withm 25 feet of the surface in order that some new pumps might 
be installed. A shift boss and two skilled miners were engaged in 
this work on the surface and were alone on the job. On the evening 
of August 10, 1912, these men did not return from work, but it was 
supposed that they were worldng overtime. When an investigation 
was made the next morning, however, the three were found dead in 
the shaft and with them a farmer, the owiier of the land on which the 



276 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOE METAL MIXES. 

sinking was being dojic. Tlie shaft was foimcl to contain gas; the men 
were either drowned or asphyxiated. The farmer was surely- 
asphyxiated, smce his head was out of water. It is supposed that one 
of the men went down mto the shaft, where he had no bushiess, either 
for a drink or from curiosity, and was overcome by gas, and in the 
attemj^t to rescue him the others w(5re overcome. It seems most 
Hkclj- that they were affected first by the gas and then fell mto the 
water. At what time the farmer was killed is uncertam. Tests of 
the gas m the shaft bottom showed it to be mcapable of supportiiig 
combustion, it therefore was 2:)robably chiefly carbon dioxide. The 
shaft was in a marsh, but the action of the jjumps had kept the air 
pure while sinking was in progress. The only possible precaution 
agamst accidents of this nature would seem to be common sense on 
the part of the workmen, reinforced by training and education. 

SANTA GERTRUDIS MINE, APRIL 14, 1910. 

An asphyxiation accident occurring at the Santa Gertrudis nunc 
m Pachuca, Mexico, was of a most unusual nature. An explosion in 
the compressed-ail' system took place on April 14, 1910, and resulted 
in the death of seven men underground. The explosion can not be 
exactly located, but probably took place in the air receiver next to the 
compressor. The only immediate damage was the brealdng of the 
discharge line from the receiver. The Ime was not entirely dis- 
connected, however, and as the electrically-driven compressor 
contmued to run for several revolutions, the noxious products of the 
explosion were forced down into the mine. In one of the under- 

* ground winzes m process of sinking a pump was runnmg. The effect 
of the ex^^losion was to stop the pumj), but, probably because the 
power service was irregular at the time and the stoppage of the pump 
not unusual, the pumpmen did not close the air valve, although 
orders to this effect were in force. It happened that the other air- 
outlet valves m the imne were closed so that all the products of the 
explosion were directed into the one winze. The lejigth of the 3-inch 
pipe Ime from the receiver to the winze was 5,000 feet; yet the gases 
arrived in only a few minutes. The pumpmen were first overcome 
and fell on the miners below, giving them their fii-st warning of danger. 

■ Five miners were rescued, the other five and the two pumjHnen being 
either asphyxiated or drowned, the water rising rapidly in the winze 
after the pump stop})ed. 

Provisions intended to diminish the risk of receiver explosions arc 
given in section 36 of the code drafted by the committee, but con- 
stant care in the operation of the compressor is absolutely necessary. 



CHAPTER XII. 

COMMENTS ON A RECENT REPORT OF A BRITISH 
ROYAL COMMISSION ON METALLIFEROUS MINES 
AND QUARRIES. 



By W. R. Ingalls. 



CHARACTEIt AND SCOPE OF THE COMMISSION. 

A royal commission consisting of nine members, Sir Henry Hardinge 
Samuel Cunyngliame, chairman, was appointed in 1907 to report on 
questions pertaining to the health and safety of miners in the metal 
mines and the quarries of England and Wales. The second report of 
this commission was made in June, 1914, following an extensive in- 
quiry which included the examination of many witnesses representing 
workmen and owners and the taking of testimony of inspectors, 
engineers, physicians, etc. The work of the commission will thus be 
seen to correspond somewhat to the work of our committee, and it is 
consequently of interest to examine the material presented in its 
report. 

It is well recognized that mining conditions in England and Wales 
are wholly different from those in the United States. The investi- 
gations of the commission covered questions of disease as well as 
safety, and quarry operations received a good deal of attention; its 
methods of procedure were entirely dissimilar to those followed by 
our committee; finally the commission did not formulate a code but 
merely made certain recommendations. Bearing in mind these essen- 
tial points of difference, a brief review of parts of the British report 
may be made, especially those referring to subjects covered in our 

report. 

MISCELLANEOUS FEATURES. 

Comment may well be made first regarding certain miscellaneous 
and scattered points of interest. The commission found a great 
difference of opinion existing as to the desirability of safety catches 
on cages. Evidence was given to the effect that they not only failed 
to eliminate accidents, but even caused them. Even their sponsors 
admitted that they are not infallible and to be at all reliable should 
be correctly designed and well looked after. Tlie commission seems 
inclined to recommend them for wooden guides in vertical shafts, 
provided more proof as to their efficacy can be had. A somewhat 
similar uncertainty was brought out in regard to detaching hooks. 

277 



278 EULES AXD REGULATIONS POK METAL MINES. 

Automatic speed regulators were decided to be uimecessaiy. (Our code 
prescribes safety catches and detaching hooks or automatic stops 
under certain conditions.) 

The question of hoistbig ropes was not considered in aay great 
detail, but the commission recommends that three and one-half years 
be made the maximum life of ropes- used for hoisting men, that 
si)liced ropes for man hoisting be prohibited, and that ropes be 
recapped every six months. Recapping for haulage ropes is also 
])rescribed. (Our code specifies no time limit, permits splicing, and 
requires recapping at periods corresponding to tlie use of the rope.) 

^Yliere hoisting is done in balance, it is recommended that men be 
not handled when material such as ore or rock is in the balancing-shaft 
vehicle. This practice is extremely unusual in the United States 
and would seem hardly to merit special prohibition in a general code. 

In regard to ladderways, two recommendations, namely, that the 
maximum inclination be 75° and that sollars be required every 30 
feet, differ only in degree from the specifications in our code, which 
require 80° inclination or flatter, and sollars at 20-foot intervals under 
certain conditions. 

Concerning the question of the floodmg of mine workings, the 
commission cites an accident illustratmg a rather unusual hazard. 
An inrush of water into the workings of a certain mine drowned one 
man and imprisoned several others; it also washed to the shaft a 
])iece of loose timber which got entangled with the cage and prevented 
its release, even by divers, for some time. The commission therefore 
recommends that loose timber should not be allowed to accumulate 
in main roads. The danger of floods in general, it is pointed out, is 
serious in metal mines, inasmuch as many ancient unmapped work- 
ings exist in English mining districts. 

In regard to explosives, it is urged that fuse have a covering 
impervious to such casual moisture as exists in rock fissures and one 
capable of resisting reasonable bending tests, and that the rate of burn- 
ing be shown on a label attached to every coil. (Our code specifies 
limits to the rate of burning and requires the rate to be posted at the 
mine entrance.) Where work is done on contract, it is held that the 
mine owner should furnish the explosives, and if they arc charged 
against the contractor, the charge should cover only actual cost, 
the object of the provision being to prevent the relatively ignorant 
contractoi-s from experimenting vrith untried materials. 

A somewhat unexpected difficulty was brought out in regard to the 
specifications for tam])mg rods and prickers. The commission was 
inclmcd to limit the materials of which they might be made to, copper 
and wood. (Our code requires wood tamping bars.) One operator 
of a salt mine made the objection that when drilling in salt there was 
no possibility of strikhig fire with an iron bar and that the nature of 



REPORT OiST METALLIFEROUS MINES AXD QUARRIES. 279 

salt resulted in a drilled hole being very rough and irregular so that 
copper tools would get stuck. Phosphor bronze has been found to 
break off and steel had proved unsatisfactory, the best material for the 
purpose being charcoal iron. 

The commission recommends that the diameters of drill bits and 
explosives cartridges be standardized in order to avoid the danger of 
excessive ramming, such as would be required with a cartridge too 
small for its hole. A further recommendation would prohibit the 
firing of a hole simultaneously with two kinds of explosives. 

As regards the matter of ventilation, the commissicm expresses itself 
as favoring a provision that in all workings where ordinary work is 
proceeding the management be required to maintain the air in such 
purity that the oxygen percentage at the breathmg level shall exceed 
19 per cent and the carbon dioxide percentage shall be less than 1.25 
per cent. Quantitative specifications regarding carbon monoxide 
and the nitrogen oxides are omitted. (Our code requires merely 
adequate ventilation.) 

Following an investigation that tended to show that fibrosis and 
tuberculosis were not brought on by rock dust unless this was largely 
composed of fragments of crystalline silica, but that the maladies 
were extremely prevalent when this silica dust was present in quan- 
tity in the atmosphere, the commission advises that when machine 
drilling is carried on in siliceous rocks the dust shall l^e kept from 
entering the atmosphere by the use of water, preferably by water con- 
ducted to the bottom of the hole; that water blasts shall be used to 
lay dust raised by blasting; that spitting underground be eliminated 
to as great an extent as possible; and that when rock is crushed or 
worked on the surface so as to generate large quantities of dust this 
should be kept down by the use of water. (These are certainly 
desirable prescriptions wherever it be possible to enforce them.) 

The commission was not impressed with the danger of underground 
fires in metal mines and thus does not make recommendations for the 
providing of rescue apparatus and drill in rescue work. It does, 
however, specify ambulances for properties over a certain size, where 
hospital ambulances are not available. (American experience has 
pointed emphatically to the great danger of underground fires, as 
appears repeatedly in our report.) 

In addition to maintaining change houses, the commission believes 
that the managements should in many cases provide suitable mess- 
rooms where the men may eat. Change houses, it is thought, should 
be whitewashed or painted at regular intervals. 

Wlien accidents occur, the commission recommends that the place 
of the accident be left untouched for a suitable length of time, so that 
the inspector can examine it in the condition in which the accident 
left it. 



280 EULES AXD EEGULATIOXS FOE METAL MIXES. 

SUMMARY OF COMMISSION'S RECOMMENDATIONS. 

At the end of its report, the commission summarizes its main 
recommendations. It may be well to give an abstract of parts of 
this summary, omitting legal sections, those requiring undue explana- 
tion or reference to other codes, those falling without the scope of this 
report, and those of local applicability only. Recommendations 
substantially identical with those of our committee have been marked 
by asterisks. 

A brief summary follows : 

Provision should be made for the exammation of working places 
by the men and facilities given them for mspeoting places where 
accidents have occurred.* 

Mines employing more than 12 men underground and quarries 
employing more than 25 persons inside should be under the control 
of a manager over 25 years old with more than five years' practical 
experience, holding a qualifying certificate granted alter an oral 
exammation. (This would correspond approximately to the require- 
ments in our code for superintendent.) Mines emplojmig more tlian 
100 men (except stone, slate, gypsum, salt, or clay mmes) should be 
handled by a manager holdmg a first-class certificate which would 
mdicate a certain amount of technical knowledge and be granted 
after written examination. A consulting mining engineer, similarly 
qualified, may take the place of the manager. The manager should 
be responsible for the operation of the property and be held jomtly 
liable with the owner and agent for the observance of regulations. 
There should be a limit as to the number of properties for which one 
man may act as manager. 

In metal mines there should be an examination of the working 
places and roads at least once a day by a mine official, who should 
enter in a book the signed report on his examination.* This official 
should not have other duties that would interfere with the work of 
inspection. Such mspectors should have at least five years' expe- 
rience underground and be over 25 yeai-s old. 

A daily exammation should be made of the face and overburden 
of quarries and a very careful examination at least once a month by 
a person qualified about as is the undergi'ound inspector. 

Breaches of discipline by the men should be prosecuted and own- 
ers should be compelled within three weeks thereafter to send to the 
mine inspector reports of any prosecutions of employees for viola- 
tions of provisions of the statute. 

Inspection of the sides and roof of workings should be provided 
for,* and where pillars are left for support, they should be of a size 
and spacing sufficient to insure safety. 



KEPOET OX METALLIFEROUS MIXES AXD QUARRIES. 281 

The official who inspects working places should supervise the 
tmibermg, and, in stratified deposits, give general directions as to 
how the timbering is to be done. 

In vertical raises the box method of timbering or something of the 
same nature should be followed. (The "box" method consists, in 
brief, of dividing tlie raise into three compartments, using the center 
compartment for handling the broken material and the two end com- 
partments for ventilation, supplies, and the passage of men.) 

A proper ciuantity of timber should be supplied by the owner, in 
the worldngs if possible, otherwise at the mine entrance. 

High workings should be carefully and periodically inspected by 
the aid of some powerful illuminant.* 

In cjuarries, new galleries'^ should be kept below a height of GO 
feet with the width greater than half the height, except in special 
cases; where practicable old galleries over 100 feet high should be 
reduced in height. 

Care in the storage of inflammable material, the use of fireproof 
buildmgs over shafts, provision for putting out fires around the shaft 
collar, and the elimination of inflammable material in the construc- 
tion of underground engine-rooms are advisable.* 

Shafts in which men are handled should be inspected at least 
weekly. Hoisting signals should be made uniform. Certificates of 
competency for hoisting engineers are not consideied necessary, nor 
limitations on their hours of labor. The separation of the hoist 
room so as to leave the engineer luidisturbed ; the use of indicators 
and efficient brakes; the inciosure of the lower parts of cages; trial 
runs through the shaft before handlmg men; adequate inspection of 
all hoisting apparatus — these are recommended. (In addition, cer- 
tain hoisting provisions were noted previously. About the same 
provisions with others will be found in our code.) 

Ladderways should be separated from other parts of the shaft* and 
receive adequate inspection.* (Other precautions in ladder installa- 
tion were commented on before.) 

New mines should be provided with a shaft capable of containing 
an emergency ladderway ec|uipped with ladders;* a second exit should 
be provided when the inspector deems it necessary. (Our committee 
makes the second exit compulsory in most cases and leaves no such 
important decisions to the discretion of the inspector.) 

All explosives should be subjected to Government test if possible. 
Storage of explosives should be permitted underground in metal 
mines.* Owners should provide suitable places for storage at quar- 
ries and both on the surface and underground at metal mines. Pre- 

o The term "galleries" would appear to mean benches or steps. 



282 EULES AND REGULATIONS FOE METAL MINES. 

cautions should be taken with explosives liable to freezmg.* The 
proper drilling and placing of holes and the use of suitable tools 
should be insured. The stemming should not be removed in the 
case of misfires unless safety appliances have been used; misfu*es 
should not be handled except after a sufficient interval.* (Other 
recommendations regarding explosives' were noted before. Most of 
these requirements arc in our code.) 

Precaution should be taken at quarries in "springing" holes; 
slielters against blastiiig should be provided and used; quarry blast- 
mg signals should bo clear and distinct and uniform thi-oughout the 
country. Handlmg rock by cableways should be stopped while 
blasting is going on. Danger attendant on monster blasts in quarries 
should be guarded against by special provisions. 

Certificates of competency or, except in the case of electrical firing, 
special authority from the management, is not necessary for shot 
firers or blasters. Men firing shots should examine the working 
afterwards before ordinary work is allowed to proceed.* 

There should be provision for steam boiler inspection and fencing 
of machinery.* 

Where hoises are used, there should be sufficient room in under- 
ground haulageway. Haulage signals should be made uniform, and 
a minimum age imposed on haulage engineers. 

Where tracks are used along the edge of quarries or their galleries, 
in general, not less than 5 feet should be left between the outside rail 
and the edge. When men work on ledges or faces where the sheer 
fall is moie than 15 feet, ropes or chains should be used; these should 
be examined daily by the men using them and should be periodically 
inspected by a quarry official. 

The wet-bulb temperature of underground air should be kept 
below 80° F. in still qai and below 85° in moving air, so far as possible. 
In mines less than 1,200 feet deep, the roads and working places 
should have such ventilation as will keep the wet-bulb temperature 
below 80°. Where practicable, proper means should be taken to 
keep separate the upcast and the downcast air. (Other ventilation 
provisions were commented on.) 

Precautions should be observed where the presence of poisonous 
gases in mine workings is suspected and when fighting mine fu*es. 
(The subject of rescue work has been mentioned.) 

Changing wasldng, and drying accommodations should be pro- 
vided wluTC wet or dirty material is worked, the accommodations 
based on an allowance of 150 cubic feet per man. With more than 
] men employed, mess rooms and drying facilities sliould be furnished 
at quarries and at mine surface works. If the nmiiber of men is 
large, the drying lOom should be separated from the mess room. 



I 



EEPOET ON METALLIFEEOUS MIXES AND QU AERIES. 283 

Plans of mines should be prepared by certified surveyors; should 
show the relation of surface to underground workings with connec- 
tion to the nearest Government benchmark, the depths of all shafts, 
the numbering of the levels, the position of underground dams and 
their structure; the plotting should be tD true north on a uniform 
scale; the maps should be brought up to date every six months, kept 
on durable material, and show sections of the several deposits being 
worked; the requirements for maps should apply to all mines irre- 
spective of size. (Our committee requirements are substantially 
the same.) 



PUBLICATIONS ON MINE ACCIDENTS AND :METH0DS OF 

MINING. 

A limited supply .of tlie following publications of the Bureau of 
Mines is available for free distribution. Requests for all publications 
can not be granted and applicants should limit their selection to pub- 
lications that may be of especial interest to them. Requests for 
publications should be addressed to the Director, Bureau of ]\Iines, 
Washington, D. C. 

Bulletin 17. A primer on explosives for coal miners, by C. E. Munroe and 
Clarence Hall. 61 pp., 10 pis., 12 figs. Reprint of United States Geological Survey- 
Bulletin 423. 

Bulletin 4.5. Sand available for filling mine workings in the Northern Anthracite 
Coal Basin of Pennsylvania, by N. H. Darton. 1913. 33 pp., 8 pis., 5 figs. 

Bulletin 52. Ignition of mine gases by the filaments of incandescent electric 
lamps, by H.H.Clark and L. C. Ilsley. 1913. 31 pp., 6 pis., 2 figs. 

Bulletin 53. Mining and treatment of feldspar and kaolin in the southern Appa- 
lachian region, by A. S. Watts. 1913. 170 pp., 16 pis., 12 figs. 

Bulletin 60. Hydraulic mine filling; its use in the Pennsylvania anthracite fields; 
a preliminary report, by Charles Enzian. 1913. 77 pp., 3 pis., 12 figs. 

Bulletin 69. Coal-mine accidents in the United States and foreign countries, 
compiled by F. W. Horton. 1913. 102 pp., 3 pis., 40 figs. 

Bulletin 80. A primer on explosives for metal miners and quarrymen, by C. E. 
Munroe and Clarence Hall. 1915. 125 pp., 15 pis., 17 figs. 

Technical Paper 6. The rate of burning of fuse as influenced by temperature and 
pressure, by W. O. Snelling and W. C. Cope. 1912. 28 pp. 

Technical Paper 7. Investigations of fuse and miners' squib.?, by Clarence Hall 
and S. P. Howell. 1912. 19 pp. 

Technical Paper 11. The use of mice and birds for detecting carbon monoxide 
after mine fires and explosions, by G. A. Burrell. 1912. 15 pp. 

Technical Paper 13. Gas analysis as an aid in fighting mine fires, by G. A. Bur- 
rell and F. M. Seibert. 1913. 16 pp., 1 fig. 

Technical Paper 17. The effect of stemming on the efficiency of explosives, by 
W. O. Snelling and Clarence Hall. 1912. 20 pp., 11 figs. 

Technical Paper 18. Magazines and thaw houses for explosives, by Clarence Hall 
and S. P. Howell. 1912. 3^4 pp., 1 pL, 5 figs. 

Technical Paper 19. The factor of safety in mine electrical installations, by 
H.H.Clark. 1912. 14 pp. 

Technical Paper 21. The prevention of mine explosions, report and recommenda- 
tions, by Victor Watteyne, Carl Meissner, and Arthur Desborough. 12 pp. Reprint 
of United States Geological Survey Bulletin 369. 

Technical Paper 22. Electrical symbols for mine maps, by H. H. Clark. 1912. 
11 pp., 8 figs. 

Technical Paper 24. Mine fires, a preliminary study, by G. S. Rice. 1912. 51 
pp., 1 fig. 

Technical Paper 29. Training with mine-rescue breathing apparatus, by J. W. 
Paul. 1912. 16 pp. 
284 



PUBLICATIONS OlST MIXE ACCIDENTS AND METHODS OF MIXING. 285 

Technical Paper 30. Mine-accideut preveution at Lake Superior iron mines, by 
D. E. Woodbridge. 1913. 38 pp., 9 figs. 

Technical Paper 40. Metal-mine accidents in the United States during the cal- 
endar year 1911, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1913. 54 pp. 

Technical Paper 41. The mining and treatment of lead and zinc ores in the Joplin 
district, Missouri; a preliminary repo^-t, by C. A. Wright. 1913. 43 pp., 5 figs. 

Technical Paper 46. Quarry accidents in the United States during the calendar 
year 1911, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1913. 32 pp. 

Technical Paper 47. Portable electric mine lamps, by H. H. Clark. 1913. 13 pp. 

Technical Paper 48. Coal-mine accidents in the United States, 1896-1912, with 
monthly statistics for 1912, compiled by F. W. Horton. 1913. 74 pp., 10 figs. 

Technical Paper 55. The production and use of brown coal in the vicinity of 
Cologne, Germany, by C. A. Davis. 1913. 15 pp. 

Technical Paper 58. The action of acid mine water on the insulation of electric 
conductors; a preliminary report, by H. H. Clark and X. C. Ilsley. 1913. 26 pp., 
Ifig. 

Technical Paper 59. Fires in Lake Superior iron mines, by Edwin Higgins. 1913. 
34 pp., 2 pis. 

Technical Paper 61. Metal-mine accidents in the L^nited States during the cal- 
endar year 1912, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1913. 76 pp., 1 fig. 

Technical Paper 71. Permissible explosives tested, prior to January 1, 1914, 
by Clarence Hall. 1914. 12 pp. 

Technical Paper 73. Quarry accidents in the United States during the calendar 
year 1912, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1914. 45 pp. 

Technical Paper 92. Quarry accidents in the United States during the calendar 
year 1913, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1914. 76 pp. 

Technical Paper 94. Metal-mine accidents in the United States during the cal- 
endar year 1913, compiled by A. H. Fay. 1914. 73 pp. 

Technical Paper 100. Permissible explosives approved prior to March 1, 1915, 
by S. P. Howell. 1915. 16 pp. 

Miners' Circular 4. The use and care of mine-rescue breathing apparatus, by 
J. W. Paul. 1911. 24 pp., 5 figs. 

Miners' Circular 5. Electrical accidents in mines, their causes and prevention, 
by H. H. Clark, W. D. Roberts, L. C. Ilsley, and H. F. Eandolph. 1911. 10 pp., 3 pis. 

Miners' Circular 8. First-aid instructions for miners, by M. W. Glasgow, W. A. 
Raudenbush, and C. 0. Roberts. 1913. 67 pp., 51 figs. 

Miners' Circular 10. Mine fires and how to fight them, by J. W. Paul. 1912. 

14 pp. 

Miners' Circular 11. Accidents from mine cars and locomotives, by L. M. Jones. 

1912. 16 pp. 

Miners' Circular 13. Safety in tunneling, by D. W. Brunton and J. A. Davis. 

1913. 19 pp. 

Miners' Circular 14. Gases found in coal mines, by G. A. Burrell. 1914. 23 pp. 
Miners' Circular 15. Rules for mine-rescue and first-aid field contests, by J. W. 
Paul. 1913. 12 pp. 
Miners ' Circul.a.r 17. Accidents from falls of rock or ore, by Edwin Higgins. 1914. 

15 pp., 8 figs. 

Miners' Circular 19. The prevention of accidents from explosives in metal mines, 
by Edwin Higgins. 1914. 16 pp., 11 figs. 



INDEX. 



A. Page. 

Accidents, metal mine, causes of. . . 208-211, 215-217 

classes of 97, 208, 209 

in different countries 215-217 

reporting of 24, 25, 71, 84, 85, 92 

State law regarding 157 

responsibility for 210, 211, 213, 214 

statistics of 174-176,184-207,217-245 

purpose of 208 

serious, definition of 24 

signal for 126 

See also Surface accidents; Underground 
accidents. 

Acetylene lamps, use of, in magazines 37 

in mines 62 

Air, compressed. See Compressed air. 

Alabama, mine inspection in 164 

Alaslia-Mexican mine, Alaska, accident at, 

details of 254, 264 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, co- 

operat ion of 3 

American Mining Congress, work of 1,2 

Anaconda mine, Mont. , fire in 33 

Arizona, metal mine inspection in,costof 165, 

172, 173 

details of 164,165,172,173 

mine signals used in 127 

State mine-inspection law, digest of 130-135 

Asphyxiation, accidents causing, details 

of 274-276 

Atlee, E . I. , acknowledgments to 5 

on storage of inflammable material 32 

Australasia, mines in, accidents in, discus- 
sion of 217 

fatalities in, causes of 218, 219, 230, 231 

number of 184, 102, 218, 219, 230, 231 

rate of. 174, 181, 184, 194, 217, 220, 221, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of. 234, 235, 242, 243 

numljer of 201, 234, 235, 242, 243 

rate of 182, 183, 202, 217, 236, 237, 244, 245 

men employed 205 

Austria, mines in , fatalities in, number of . . . l&i, 196 

rate of 174, 184, 197 

injuries in, number of 201 

rate of 202 

men employe<l in 207 

B. 
Beaver Consolidated Mines, Canada, injuries 

at 250 

system of inspection at 247-249 

efficiency of 250 

Behr, H. C, on winding engines 123 

Belgian mines, fatalities in, number of 196 

rate of 197 

men employed in 207 



Belmont mine, Nev. , accident in, details of . . . 255, 

259,260 

Benton, Wis. , mine accident at, details of 255, 

275,276 

B ingham , Utah, m ine accident at 256 

Black powder, use of 98 

See also Explosives. 
Blasting caps. Sec Detonators. 
Blasting inmines,regulationsregarding. .. 39-40,87 

precautions in gg 99 

signal for 126 

State laws regarding 137^ 159 

See also Explosives. 
Boiler explosions, fatalities from, number of. . 224, 

225,231 

rate of 228, 229, 233 

injuries from, number of 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237, 241, 245 

Boilers, Inspection of, regulations regarding. . 51,89 

safety of, regulations regarding 51, 52, 89 

State law regarding 154 

Bosses, duties of, regulations regarding 39, 40 

Braden mine, Chile, accident in 255 

British Columbia, mines in,fatalities in, causes 

of 230, 231 

number of 190, 230, 231 

rate of ISI, 191, 232, 233 

injuries In, causes of 242, 243 

number of 200, 242, 243 

rate of 200, 244, 245 

men employed in 204 

British Xorth America. See Canada. 

British Royal Commission, investigations of. 277 

recommendations of 280-282 

report of, comment on 277-279 

Bucket, accidents caused by. See Hoisting 

accidents. 
Builalo-Susquehanna mine, Minn., accident 

at, details of 255, 271 

Buildings at mine entrances, State law re- 
garding 143 

Bunker Hfll & Sullivan mine, Idaho, accident 

in, details of 255, 269 

Bureauof Mines, woik of 4 

Burke, Idaho, tunnel at, accidentiin 2.55 

Butto-Ballaklava mine, Mont. , fire in 33, 255 

Butte, Mont. , mine accidents near, details of. 25t, 
255, 256, 262, 264, 265, 268, 269 
Butte & Superior mine, Mont., accident in, 

details of 255, 267, 2C>S 

C. 

Cables, electric, rules regarding 76-79, 9i 

Cage accidents, number killed in 216 

See also Hoisting accidents. 

287 



288 



IXDEX. 



Page. 

eager, duties of, State law regarding 13S, 144 

Cages, regulations reg-arding 51, 63, SS, 91 

safety, Statelawsregarding. 147, 149, 150, 153, 162 

catches of, rule regarding 70, 92 

use of 277 

Calcium carbide, storage of, regulations re- 
garding 32,86 

California mines, inspect ion of 164 

digest of law regarding 135 

signals used in ., 127 

Callbreath, J. F. , acknowledgments to 5 

Calumet, Mich., mine at, accident in 255 

Camelia mine, Mexico, accident in. .> . . .- 254 

Canada, metal mining in, relative hazards of. 174 

mines in, accidents in, discussion of 217 

fatalities in, causes of • 218, 219, 230, 231 

number of 184, 218, 219, 230, 231 

rate of 180, 

181,184,215,217,220,221,232,233 

causes of 175 

injm-ies in, causes of 234, 235, 242. 243 

number of 200, 234, 235, 242, 243 

rate of. 1S2, 183, 200, 217, 236, 237, 244, 245 

men emploj'ed in 204 

Candles in magazines, danger from 37,02 

in mines, use of, rules regarding 62, 91 

Cape Colony mines, fatalities in, causes of.. 218, 219 

number of 192, 218, 219 

rate of 194, 217. 220, 221 

injuries in, causes of 234, 235, 242, 243 

number of 201 . 234, 235, 242. 243 

rate of 202, 217, 236, 237, 244, 245 

men employed in 206 

Carlton, G. E., acknowledgments to 5 

Carrying capacity, definition of 73 

Cars, mine, fatalities caused bj-, number of. . . 224, 

225,231 

rate of 228,229,233 

injuries caused by, number of. . 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237, 241, 245 

See also Haulage accidents. 
Castel Termini, Sicily, accident in mine near. 250 

Caves, surface, cause of 105 

Caving system, fatalities from 106 

relative hazards of 105, 106 

Central Eureka mine, Cal., accident at 110 

Ceylon mines, fatalities in, number of 192 

rate of 194 

men employed in 206 

Change houses, recommendations regarding. . 270 

regulations regarding 59, 90 

State law regarding 134 

Chase, C. A., work of, on mining law '. 4 

Children, employment of, in mines, regula- 
tions regarding 53.89 

State law regarding 157 

Circuit breakers, rules regarding 79, 94 

Clark, H. H., acknowledgments to.. 6 

Cleveland-CliUs Iron Co., mines of, inspection 

system at 250, 252 

Clifton, Ariz. , accident in mine at 256 

Closets, in mines, regulations regarding 59,90 

Coal, falls of, fatalities from, discussion of 215 

Coal mines, in U. S., fatalities in 7 

comparative rate of 176, 177, 184 

Collins, G. E., acknowledgments to 4,6 



Page. 
Colorado, inspection of metal mines in, cost 

of. 165,172,173 

details of 104, 165, 172, 173 

mines in, fatalities in, causes of 222, 224 

number of 185, 222, 224 

rate of ISO, 187, 226, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

' number of -. 238. 239 

rateof 199,240,241 

men employed in 203 

signals used in 127 

mining laws of 1 

digest of 137-141 

Colorado Scientific Society, acknowledg- 
ments to 4 

Commissioner of mines, qualifications of. 

State law regarding 137 

salary of. State law regarding 138 

Committees for mine inspection, advantages 

of 251,252,253 

Complaints to inspectors, regulations regard- 
ing 23, 24 , 84 

Compressed-air receiver, regulations regard- 
ing 52, 89 

Comstock, C. ^X., work of, on mining law 4 

Conibear, AVilliam, on mine inspection sj^s- 

tem of Cleveland-ClilTs Iron Co 251 

Copper Flat mine, Xev., details of accident 

in 266 

Copper mines, in U. S., death rate in 189 

Copper Queen mine, Ariz., fire in 34 

Cripple Creek, Colo., accident in mine at 255 

Crossheads, use of, discu-ssion of 04 

rule regarding 64, 91 

Culver, F. L., mine-inspection system of 247 

Cunynghame, H. H. S., work of, on safety in 

mines 277 

D. 
Daly West mine, Utah, accident in, details 

of 255,275 

Death rate in metal mines, methods of cal- 
culating 175-177 

relation of, to production 175, 176 

Sec also various States and countries given. 

Denton, F. W., acknowledgments to 6 

Deputy inspector, defijiition of 14 

See also Inspector, deputy. 
Detonators, marking of, regiUations regard- 
ing 39,87 

storage oi, regulations regarding 36, 87 

strength of, regulations regarding 39,41,87 

Sec also Explosives. 
Diamond mine, Mont., accident at, details of. 254 

Dinger mme. Mo., accidentin, details of 255,273 

Douglas, Archibald, acknowledgments to 3, 5 

Douglas Island, Alaska, mine accident at, 

details of 204 

Dover, N. J., mine accident near 254 

Drilling accidents, fatalities caused by, num- 
ber of 218, 222, 223, 230 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 232 

injuries from, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

Drilling, in mines, State laws regarding. 145, 155, 158 

Drowning, accidents causing, details of 274-276 

Drums, winding of rope on 123 



INDEX^ 



289 



Page. 
Ducnweg, Mo., mine accident near, details 

of 254. 272, 273 

Dunn, B. W., acknowledgments to 5 

on storage of explosives 37 

Button, C. B., acknowledgments to G 

Dynamite, storage of. State law regarding. . . 159 

thawing of, rules regarding 70, 71, 92 

See also Explosives. 



Electric cables. See Cables. 
Electric circuits, protection of, rules regard- 
ing 77, 94 

Electric conductors, joints in, rule regarding.. 78, 94 

Electric lighting in mines, rules regarding 77, 

78,79,94,95 
Electric motors, stationary, rule regarding.. 79,05 

Electric switches, rules regarding 79, 95 

Electric system in mines, defects in, rule re- • 

garding report on 75 

plan of, rule regardmg 75, 93 

Electrical equipment, care of, rules regarding. SO, 95 
Electrical installation in mines, rules regard- 
ing 72-81, 93-95 

Electricity for blasting, advantage of 41 

regulations regarding 39-40,87 

Electricity in mines, accidents from, discus- 
sion of 216 

fatalities caused by, number of 218, 

219, 222-225, 230, 231 

rate of 220, 221 , 226-229, 232, 233 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235, 238, 239, 242, 243 

rate of 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

use of. State law regarding 143 

Ellinwood, E. E., acknowledgments to 3,5 

Ely, Nev., mine accident at, details of 254- 

256, 259, 273, 274 
Emmons, N. H., on mine fire at London, 

Tenn 257, 258 

Errployees, definition of 14 

negligence of, regulations regarding. . . 25, 26, 85 
reports by, on safety conditions in mines. 253 

rules for. State law regarding 160 

Employers' liability laws, value of 246 

England, miniag conditions in, investigation 

of 277 

See also Great Britain, mines in. 
Europe, metal mines in, death rate of, notes 

on 181,182 

See also various countries named. 

Excavations, definition of 14 

Exits, mine, Statolaws regarding 135, 

136,140,142,143,152 
See also Outlet. 
Explosions, fatalities caused by, number of. . 219, 
222-225, 230, 231 

rate of 221, 226, 227, 232 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

See also Boiler explosions. 

Explosives, definition of 14 

accidents from, details of 264-267 

prevention of 213 



Explosives — Continued. Page. 

fatalities caused by, discussion of 215 

number of 218, 219, 222-225, 230, 231 

figure showing 216 

rate of 21 7, 223, 221 , 226-229, 232, 233 

handling of. State laws regarding. . 131, 137, 157 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235,238,239,242,243 

rate of 217, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

marking of, regulations regarding 39, 87 

sale of. State laws regarding 142,151,163 

storage of, regulations regarding. 34, 35, 38, 86, 87 

State laws regarding 131, 

136, 137, 139, 142, 151, 156, 159, 162, 163 

thawing of, rules regarding 70, 71 , 92 

State law regarding 159 

use of, recommendations regarding 278 

See also Black powder; Detonators; Dy- 
namite. 



F. 



Falls of ground, dangers from 10, 11 

of person, fatalities caused by, number 

of 218, 219, 222-225, 230, 231 

rate of 220, 221, 226-229, 232, 233 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235, 238, 239, 242, 243 

rate of 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

of rock, accidents from, details of 270-274 

prevention of 97, 213 

Fatalities in mines, reporting of regulations 

governing 25,85 

See also various States and coimtries 
named. 

Fay, A. H., on metal-mine accidents 7 

Fences, removal of. State law regarding 146 

Finlay, J. R., on storage of oil 32 

Fire doors, advantages of 102, 103 

installation of, details of 102 

regulations regarding 57, 90 

Fires, mine, causes of 33 

danger from 101, 102 

details of 257-263 

fatalities caused by , number of. 218, 222, 223, 230 

figure showing 216 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 232 

injiu-ies caused by, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

prevention of 34, 101-104 

regulations regarding 57, 65, 75, 90, 91, 93 

State laws regarding 139, 142, 159, 162 

Fii'st aid, requirements for, State laws regard- 
ing 131, 162 

First-aid corps, organization of, regulations 

regarding 29, 86 

First-aid outfits, supplies for, regulations re- 
garding 29 

Flooding of mines, danger from 278 

See also Water, inrush of. 
Foremen, mine, committee of, for mine in- 
spection 251 

cooperation of 214 

duties of 2S, 62, 65, 85, 214 

regulations regarding 28, 62, 83 

responsibility of 211 



1G559°— Bull. 



-15- 



20 



290 



IITDEX. 



France, mines in, fatalities in, number of. . 184, 196 

rateof 184,197 

men employed in 207 

Frontier miiie, Wis., accident in 255 

Fuse, marking of, regulation regarding 39,87 

preparation of 41 

rate of burning of, rules regarding 71,92 

storage of, regulations regarding 36, 87 

See also Explosives. 

G. 
Gallows frames, safety equipment for. State 

laws regarding , 143 

Gasoline, storage of 32, 109 

regulations regarding. 31,86 

use of, in mines, dangers from. - lOS 

precautions in 108, 109 

State law regarding 153 

Globe, Ariz., mine at, accident in 255 

Gold Coast mines, fatalities in, number of 192 

rate of 194 

men employed in 206 

Gold Sovereign mine, Colo., accident in 255 

Goldiield Consolidated Mine, Nev., accident 

at, details of 10, 11, 254, 271 

Goodale,C.W., acknowledgment to 6 

Grass Valley, Cal., accident in, mine at 2.56 

Great Britain, mines in, fatalities in, causes 

of 218,219 

number of 184, 192, 218, 219 

rate of 174, 181, 184, 194, 217, 220, 221 

injuries in, causes of 234, 235, 242, 243 

number of 201, 234, 235, 242, 243 

rate of. 182, 183, 202, 217, 2.36, 237, 244, 245 

men employed in 205 

Greece, mines in, fatalities in, number of. 196 

rate of 197 

men employed in 207 

Green Hill mine, Idaho, accident in 25G 

Ground detectors, rule regarding 74, 93 

Grounding, definition of 73 

rules regarding 74, 93 

Guanajuato, Mexico, mine accident near 254 

Guardrails, regulations regarding 53,89 

State law regarding 140, 153 

Gunsolus, F. H., acknowledgments to 5,40 

H. 

Hall , Clarence, acknowledgments to 6 

Hartford mine, Mich., accident in, details of. 33, 

255,263 
Harvey, "W. H., on accident at Norman mine, 

Minn 270 

Haulage accidents, discussion of 216 

fatalities from, number of 21S, 

219,222-225,230,231 

figure showing 216 

rate of 217, 220, 221, 226, 227, 232, 2.33 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235,238,239,242,243 

rate of 217, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

Haulage waj-s,refuge places on, rules regarding 66,92 

Helmets, fire-fighting, construction of 62-63 

rule regarding 62, 91 

State laws regarding 135, 154 

nibbing, Minn., mineaccident at, details of 255,271 



Page. 
Hibernia, N. J., mine accident at, details of. 2,')5, 274 

Hills, V. G., work of, on mining law 4 

HofTman, F. L., on fatalities in metal mining 3,7 

Hoisting, dangers from n 

recommendations regarding 278 

regulations regarding 42,43,63,87,91 

signal for 125 

speed of ; 113 

factors governing 43 

State laws regarding 132, 133, 154 

Hoisting accidents, details of 267-270 

fatalities from, discussion of 215 

number of 222, 223, 230 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 232 

injuries from, number of. 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

Hoisting apparatus. State laws regarding 132, 

139, 158, 159 

Hoijting engineer, regulations regarding 42, 

45,46,87,88 
State laws regarding. . . 139, 144, 150, 155, 158, 163 
Hoisting rope. See Rope, hoisting. 

Hoists, electric, rule regarding SO, 95 

equipment of. State law regarding 143 

Holmes, J. A., acknowledgments to 6 

Hoskin, A. J., work of , on mining law 4 

I. 

Idaho, inspection of metal mines in, cost of. . . 166, 

172, 173 

details of 165, 166, 172, 173 

mining law of , digest of 141-144 

Idaho mines, accidents in, discussion of 217 

fatalities in, causes of 222, 224 

number of 185, 222, 224 

rate of ISO, 1S7, 226, 228 

men employed in 203 

signals used in 127 

Idaho-Maryland mine, Cal., accident in 2.36 

Imperial mine. Mo., accident in, details of. . . 256, 

266, 267 

India, mines in, fatalities in, number of 184, 193 

rate of 174, 184, 195 

men employed in 206 

Injiu-ies in mines, treatment of, regulations 

regarding 29, 85, 86 

Sec also various States and countries 
named. 

In.spection of metal mines, cost of 165-171 

frequency of 170, 171 

regulations regarding 21, 23, 84 

secrecy of. State law regarding 1.38 

systems of 247-253 

See also Mine inspection and various 
States named. 

Inspector, deputy, appointment of 16, 

17, 23, 83, 138, 141, 145, 149, 151 

duties of 23 

expenses of, payment of 17 

qualifications of 16, S3 

restrictions on 16,17,83 

selection of 169,170 

mine, appointment of 15,83,162 

complaints to 147-149, 152, 161 

cooperation of 214 



T 



I 



INDEX. 



291 



Page. 

Inspector , mine, definition of 14 

duties of 10, 11, 21-23, 25, 26, 54, 84, 130, 

138, 141, 145, 146, 147, 149, 151, 152, 161 

expenses of 1", 83 

importance of 214 

powers of. 10,21,22,23,84 

qualifications of 15, 

83, 130, 137, 144-146, 149, 151, 161 

records of IS, 83 

removal of 26, 27, 85 

reports of 26, 85, 130, 146 

reports to 18,19,84 

restrictions on 16, 17, S3 

salary of 138, 

141, 145, 146, 149, 151, 161, 162, 170 

selection of, methods for 15, 16, 169 

Intoxicants in mines, regulations regarding. . 61, 90 

Iron mines, in U. S., death rate in 189 

State laws regarding 134, 160 

Ironwood, Mich., mine accident at 255 

Ishpeming, Mich., mine accident at 255 

Italy, mines in, fatalities in, causes of 218, 219 

number of 184,196,218,219 

rate of 174, 184, 197, 217, 220, 221 

injuries in, causes of 234, 235, 242, 243 

number of 201, 234, 235, 242, 243 

rate of 202, 217, 236, 237, 244, 245 

men employed in 207 

J. 

Jackson, Cal., accident in mine at 256 

Japan, mines in, fatalities in, number of. . . 184, 196 

rate of 184,197 

men employed in 207 

Jones, W. W., acknowledgments to 6 

Joplin, Mo., mine accident near, details of 256, 

266,267,273 
K. 

Kansas, mine inspection in 164 

Keating mine, Mont., accident in, details of. . 125, 

255,265 

Kellogg, L. O., acknowledgments to 6 

Kellogg, Idaho, accident in mine at, details of 255, 

269 

Kennedy mine, Cal., accident in 256 

Kimberley, Nev., mine fire at 33 

KiQzie, R. A., on accident at Alaska-Mexican 

mine 264 

Knox, John, jr., acknowledgments to 6 



Ladders in mines. State laws regarding. 140, 152, 153 

rules regarding 67, 68, 92 

notes on 67 

vertical, objections to 68 

Ladderways in mines, recommendations re- 
garding 278 

State laws regarding 133^ 

139, 140, 142, 152, 15S, 161 

regulations regarding 57, 58, 67, 90, 92 

Lead and zinc mines, fatalities in, number of. 189 

rate of 180, 189 

Legrand, Charles, acknowledgments to 5 

Leonard mine, Mont., accident in, details of. . 256, 

268, 209 
Liberty Bell mine, Colo., accident in 250 



Page. 

Lighting m mines, rules regarding 66, 91 

State law regarding 134 

See also Electric lighting. 

Locomotives, gasoline, use of, in mines 32 

mine, fatalities caused by, number of 224, 

225,231 

rate of 228, 229, 233 

injuries caused by, number of. . 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237, 241, 245 

See also Haulage accidents. 

London mine. Term., fire at, details of 33, 

254,257,258 
Lubricant for ropes, use of 125 

M. 

M. & B. mine. Mo., accident in, details of. . 272, 273 

Mace, Idaho, mine accident at 256 

Machinery, fatalities caused by, number of. . . 218, 
219,222-225,230,231 

rate of 220, 221, 226-229, 232, 233 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235,238,239,242,243 

rate of 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

inspection of. State law regarding 156 

MacNaughton, James, acknowledgments to.. 6 

Magazines for explosives, construction of 37 

regulations regarding 35 

dangers from 37 

definition of 34 

distance of, from buildings 3S 

lighting of 36, 37 

State laws regarding 137, 163 

Manning, Van. H., acknowledgments to 6 

Manways, cleaning of, rule regarding 65, 91 

protection of. State law regarding 151 

Maps, mine, making of, regulations regard- 
ing 30, 86 

State law regarding » 131, 147 

"Men employed," definition of 14 

Metal rrines, fatalities in 7 

rate of 8, 176, 177, 184 

reduction of 8 

See also various States and countries 
named. 
Miami mine, Ariz., accident in, details of.. 256,272 
Michigan, metal mine inspection in, cost of. . . 166, 

167, 172, 173 

details of 164-167, 172, 173 

mining law ia, digest of 144, 145 

selection of inspeclor in 109 

Michigan mines, accidents in, discu.<'sion of. . . 217 

fatalities in, causas of 222, 224 

number of 185, 222, 224 

rate of 179, 180, 187, 226, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199, 240, 241 

men employed in 203 

signals used in 125,127 

Mill accidents, fatalities caused by, number 

of 219, 224, 225, 231 

rate of 221, 228, 229, 233 

injuries caused by, number of 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237, 241, 245 

Mine, definition of 13 

opening of, notice of, State law regarding. 157 



292 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Mine foreman, definition of H 

Sec also Foreman, mine. 

Jline inspection, importance of 8 

State, recommendations for 8,9 

State appropriations for 8 

State laws for, digest of 129-163 

See also Inspection, mine. 
Mine inspector. Sec Inspector of mines. 

Miners, cooperation of 214 

duty of 214 

experience of, relation of, to accidents — 209 
inexperienced, employment of, dangers 

from :'...., 212 

requirements of, State law regarding. . . 155, 156 

responsibility of 1 , 212, 213 

Mineral, definition of * 13 

Mineral mines, fatalities in, number of 189 

rate of 189 

Sec also various States and coxmtries 
named. 
Mines, dangerous, notice of, regulations re- 
garding 22,84 

State laws regarding. . . 130, 131, 157, 162 
passageways between, State law regard- 
ing 155 

See also various States and countries 
named. 
Mining and Metalliu-gical Society of America, 

acknowledgments to 3,4,9 

Mining companies, inspection by, importance 

of 246 

Mining law, draft of 13-82 

posting of, regulation regarding 82, 95 

purpose of 13 

scope of 13, 14 

synopsis of 83-95 

violation of, penalties for 80, 81, 95 

Sec also various States named. 

Mining rules, code of, scope of 10-12 

value of 9, 10 

Minnesota, inspection of metal mines in, cost 

of 167, 172, 173 

details of 164, 165, 167, 172, 173 

mining law of, digest of 145, 146 

Minnesota mines, accidents in, discussion of. 216 

fatalities in, causes of 223, 224 

number of 185, 223, 224 

rate of 179, 180, 187, 227, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199, 240, 241 

men employed in 203 

signals used in 125, 127 

Misfires, regulations regarding 39, 87 

Missouri, metal-mine inspection in, cost of. . . 168, 

172,173 

details of 164, 167, 168, 172, 173 

mining law of 1 

digest of 146-149 

Missouri mines, accidents in, discussion of. 216, 217 

fatalities in, causes of 223, 224 

number of 185, 223, 224 

rate of 180, 187, 227, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199,240,241 

Missouri mines, men employed in 203 

signals used in 127 



Pa3e. 
Modoc mine, Mont., accident at, details of . . . 33, 

255, 262 
Montana, inspection of metal mines in, 

■ cost of 168, 172, 173 

details of 164, 165, 168, 172, 173 

mining laws in 1 

digest of ■. 149-151 

Montana ihincs, accidents in, discussion of. . . ■ 217 

fatalities in, causes of 223,224. 

number of 185, 223, 224 

rate of ISO, 187, 227, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199, 240, 241 

men employed fn 203 

signals used in 127 

Morris mine, Nov., accident in 256 

Motors. Sec Electric motors. 

Mount Morgan mine, Queensland, fire in 34 

Munroe, H. S., acknowledgments to 6 

Mysore mine, India, accident in 256 

N. 

Naphtha, storage of, regulation regarding.. 31,32,86 

Negaunee, Mich., mine accident at 255 

Nevada, metal-mine inspection in, cost of 168, 

172, 173 

details of 164, 165, 168, 172, 173 

mining law of, digest of 151-155 

Nevada mines, accidents in, discussion of 216 

fatalities in, causes of 223, 224 

number of 185, 223, 224 

rate of 187, 227, 228 

injuries in, causes of 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199, 240, 241 

men employed in 233 

signals used in 127 

Newfoundland, m ines in, fatalities in, number 

of 190 

rate of 191 

inen employed in 204 

New Jersey, mine inspection in 164 

New Mexico, mine inspection in 164 

New South Wales, mines in, fatalities in, 

causes of 230, 231 

number of 192, 230, 231 

rate of 194, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of 242, 243 

number of 201 , 242, 243 

rate of 202, 244, 245 

men employed in 205 

New York, metal-mine inspection in, cost of. 168, 

172, 173 

details of 164, 165, 168, 172, 173 

mining law of 1 

digest of 156-160 

New York mines, fatalities in, causes of — 223, 224 

number of 186,223,224 

rate of 179,187,227,229 

men employed in 203 

signals used in 128 

New Zealand, mines in, fatalities in, causes 

of : 230,231 

numbcrof 192,230,231 

rate of 194, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of 201, 242, 243 



INDEX. 



293 



Page. 

New Zealand, mines in, number of 201, 242, 243 

rate of 202, 244, 245 

men employed in 205 

Normanmine, Minn., accident at, details of. . 255, 

270, 271 
Norrie mine, Mich., accident in, details of.. 255, 272 

North Carolina, mine inspection in 164 

North Lake mine, Mich., accident in, details 

of 255, 269, 270 

North Lyell mine, Tasmania, accident in, 

details of 33, 255, 260-262 

Notices, serving of, designation for, regula- 
tions regarding 19-20, 84 

Nova Scotia, mines in, fatalities in, causes of. 230,231 

number of 190, 230, 231 

rate of 191, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of 242,243 

number of 200, 242, 243 

rate of 200, 244, 245 

men employed in 204 

" Number of men," definition of 14 

O. 

Oil, storage of, regulation regarding 31,32,86 

State law regarding 138, 142, 163 

Oklahoma, deputy inspectors in, selection of. 169 

mine inspection in 164 

Old Jordan mine, Utah, accident in 256 

Ontario, mines in, fatalities in, numbejr of 190, 

230, 231 

rate of ISl, 191, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of 200, 242, 243 

numberof 200,242,243 

rate of 200, 244, 245 

men employed in 204 

Open-pit mining, accidents in, classes of 97 

blasting in, precautions in 98 

Operator, definition of 13, 129 

duties of 18, 

19, 29-31, 51, 53, 57, 58, 65, 138, 147, 214 

liability of. State law regarding 145, 146, 148 

negligence of, prosecution for, regulations 

regarding 25, 26, 85 

responsibility of 210 

Ore, run of, fatalities caused by, number of. . 218, 
219,222-225,230,231 

rate of 220, 221, 220-229, 232 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 

235,238,239,242,243 

rate of 233, 230, 237, 240, 241, 244, 245 

Oregon, mining law of, digest of 160 

Oregon mines, inspection in 164 

signals used in 128 

Outlets, mine, discussion of 54, 55 

regulations regarding 53, 54, 56, 57, 89 

State laws regarding 132, 133, 156 

See also E,\it, mine. 
Overwinding, fatalities caused by, number 

of 222, 223 

rate of 226, 227 

safeguards against, regulations regarding. 44, S8 



Pachuca, Mexico, accident in mine at, details 

of 254, 27G 

Park City, Utah, accident in mine at, details 

of 2;5. 275 



Page. 

Patterson, R. U., acknowledgment to 6 

on first aid 29 

"Person," definition of 14 

Phosphate mines, death rate in 179 

Pillars in mines. State laws regarding 1 10, 153 

working of, regulations regarding GO, 90 

Pittsmont mine, Mont., accident in 253 

Portugal, mines in, fatalities in, number of. . 196 

rate of 197 

men employed in 207 

"Potential," definition of 73 

Potential of circuit, definition of 73 

Prussia, mines in, fatalities in, causes of. . . 218, 219 

number of 196, 218, 219 

rate of 197, 217, 220, 221 

men employed in 207 

Q. 

Quebec, mines in, fatalities in, number of 190 

rate of 191 

injuries in, number of 20O 

rate of 200 

men employed in 204 

Queensland, mines in, fatalities in, causesof . 230, 231 

number of 192, 2.30, 231 

rate of 194, 232, 233 

injuries in, causesof 201,242,243 

number of 201,242,243 

rate of 202, 244, 245 

men employed in 205 

R. 

Radersburg, Mont., mine accident near, de- 
tails of 265 

Raise. See Winze. 

Raymond, R. W., acknowledgments to 3,5 

Rice, G. S., acknowledgments to 6 

Richard mine, N. J., accident in, details of. . 267 

Richards, Frank, acknowledgment to 5 

Richmond mine, N. J., accident in 254 

Rock, falls of, accidents from, discussion of. 215, 217 

fatalities caused by, number of 219, 

224,225,231 

rate of 217, 221, 228, 229, 233 

injuries caused by, number of. 235,239,243 

rate of 217, 237, 241, 245 

Roof, falls of, fatalities caused by, number 

of 218,222,223,230 

figure showing 2I6 

rate of 220,226 227,232 

injiu-ies caused by, number of. 234,238,242 

rale of 236, 240, 244 

inspection of, regulations regarding. . . 59, GO, 00 

Rope, hoisting, breaks in, discussion of 117, 119 

dangers from 110,111 

deterioration of, causes of 116, 123 

permissible 115 

diameter of, ratio of, to sheave diam- 
eter Ill 

fastenings for 120, 122 

inspection of 110, 119, 120 

length of service of 50 

lubricant for 125 

method of uncoiling 123 

regulations regarduig 40,47,88 

requirements of 273 



294 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Eope, hoisting, resocketing of, need of 49, 122 

rules for 124 

rules for use of 124, 125 

safety factor for 44, 88, 112.-125 

determination of 111,112 

variations in 112 

standardization of 110, 111 

Stale law regarding 154 

storage of 123 

strength of, determination of 48, 49 

variations in Ill 

stress in, factors in 111,112 

tests of, discussion of. 117, 118 

results of 11" 

types of 116,124 

Russia, mines in, fatalities in, number of. .. 184, 196 

rate of 1"4, 184, 197 

men employed in 207 

S. 

Safety in mines, rule regarding 61,90 

Sanitat ion in mines, regulat ions regarding . 58, 59, 90 
Santa Gertrudis mine, Mexico, accident in, 

details of 254, 276 

Saunders, W. L., acknowledgment to 5 

Saxony, mines in, fatalities in, number of 196 

rate of 197 

men employed in 207 

Shaft, falling down, accidents from, discus- 
sion of 215,217 

fatalities caused by, number of 218, 

222,223,230 

figure showing 216 

rate of 217, 220, 226, 227, 232 

injuries caused by, number of.. 234,238,242 

rate of 217,236,240,244 

protection of, rules regarding 69, 70, 92 

State laws regarding. . . 143, 150, 151, 155, 158 
safety provisions for, State law regarding. 140 

signals for. State law regarding 143 

Shaft accidents, fatalities caused by, number 

of 218,222,223,230 

figure showing 216 

rate of 220,226,227,232 

injuries from, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

Shafts, abandoned. State laws regarding. . . 136, 140 

construction of , State law regarding 154,155 

escapement. State law regarding 150 

fencing of. State lavv regarding 161, 162 

operations on, rule regarding 64, 91 

Sheave for hoisting rope, diameter of 114 

rules for 125 

Sherman, Gerald, acknowledgments to 6 

Shock, electric, precautions against, rule re- 
garding 75, 93 

Shoshone, Wyo., mine accident at 255 

Shot firer, duties Of, regulations regarding. 39, 40, 87 
Shovels, steam. See Steam shovels. 

Signal codes, rules regarding 65, 91 

State laws regarding 135, 

136, 139, 143, 144, 150, 154, 160, 161, 163 

Signals, mine, in blasting, use of 99 

rules regarding 64, 75, 91 

State laws regarding 135, 

136, 139, 147, 15S, 160, 161, 163 



Page. 
Signals, mine, uniformity of, desirability of. . 125 
See also various States named. 

Signboards, mine, State law regarding 153 

Sirena mine , Mexico, accident in 254 

Skip, accident s caused by . Sec Hoisting acci- 
dents. 
Slides of bank , accidents from, prevention of. 97 
Smelting pfant accidents, fatalities in, num- 

berof 219,224,225,231 

rate of 221, 228, 229, 233 

injuries from, number of 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237', 241, 245 

method of making 121 

Socket fastening for rope , advantages of 120 

South Dakota, inspection of metal mines in, 

cost of 168, 169, 172, 173 

details of 164, 165, 168, 169, 172, 173 

mining law of, digest of 161 

South Dakota mines, fatalities in, causes of. 223, 224 

number of 186, 223, 224 

rate of 180, 188, 227, 229 

injuries in, causes of 198, 238, 239 

number of 198, 238, 239 

rate of 199,240,241 

men employed in 203 

signals us^ed in 128 

South Eureka mine, Cal., accident at 110 

Sprague, T. W., acknowledgments to 5 

Sprinklers, automatic, use of, in mines 55,103 

installation of, State law regarding 155 

"open," in mines, possible disadvantage 

of .... 104 

value of 103, 104 

Stables in mines, regulations regarding 59, 90 

Steam shovels, ac^'idents caused by .' 99 

fatalities caused by, number of 219, 224, 225 

rate of 221, 228, 229 

illumination of , safety precautions in. ^.. 101 

injuries caused by, number of 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237, 241, 245 

inspection of 99 

operation of, safety precautions in 99-101 

Steam-shovel mining, accidents from, classes 

of 97 

relative bayards of 96, 97 

Stemming, definition of 39 

Stoi)es, rule regarding 69, 92 

Stoping, near surface, danger from 104, 105 

See also Caving system. 
Strap rails, in inclined shafts, danger from 

use of 110 

Suffocation , fatalities caused by, number of. . 218, 

222,223,230 

rate of 220,226,227,232 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236,240,244 

Sumps, rule regarding 69, 92 

Superintendent, mine, appointment of, regu- 
lations regarding 27, 85 

cooperation of 214 

definition of U 

duties of 27,42,43,59,63,65,68,85,158,214 

responsibility-of 210, 211 

Surface accidents, fatalities from, number of. 216, 

219,224,225,231 
figure showing 216 



IXDEX. 



295 



Page. 

Surface accidents, fatalities from, rate of 221, 

228,229,233 

injuries from, number of 235, 239, 243 

rate of 237,241,245 

Switchboards in mines, rules regarding. . . 75, 76, 93 



Tamping, definition of 39 

regulations regarding 39 

Tamping bars, recommendations regarding. 278,279 
use of, State laws regarding. 139, 142, 152, 157, 1I33 

Telephones in mines, State law regarding 137 

Telluride, Colo. , mine accident at 256 

Teimessee, metal-mine inspection in, cost of. . 169 

details of 164,169 

Tennessee mines, accidents in, discussion of. . 217 

fatalities in, causes of 223, 225 

number of 186,223,225 

rate of 179,180,188 

men employed in 203 

"Thimble-and-clamp" fastening for ropes, 

disadvantages of 121 

merits of 121 

Timber, removal of, from mines 34 

regulations regarding 31, 86 

Stat« laws regarding 139, 146, 152 

Timbering in mines, rules regarding 65, 91 

State laws regarding 156, 158 

Toilets in mines. State law regarding 151 

Tonopah, Nev., mine accident at, details 

of 255, 259, 260 

Tools, fatalities caused by, number of 218, 

222, 223, 225, 230 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232 

injuries caused by, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

Transformer rooms in mines, rules regarding. . 76, 93 
Transmission lines, electric, rules regarding. . 76-78, 

94 
Transvaal, metal mining in, relative hazards 

of 174 

Transvaal commission on use of winding 

ropes 50 

Transvaal, mines in, fatalities in, number of. 184, 193 

rateof 181,184,195 

men employed in 206 

Tread well mines, Alaska, accident in 254 

inspection system at 252, 253 

Trolleys in mines, wires for, protection of, 

rules regarding 78, 94 

Tunnels in mines. State law regarding 140 



Underground, definition of 14 

Underground accidents, fatalities from, num- 
ber of 218,222,223,230 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 232 

injuries from, number of 234, 238, 242 

rate of 236, 240, 244 

figin-e showing 216 

Underground station, definition of 73 

rules regarding 76, 93 

United States, metal mining in, relative 

hazards of 174 



Page. 
United States, mines in, fatalitiec in, causes 

of 218,219 

figure showing 216 

number of 184,218,219 

rate of 174, 179, 184, 217, 220, 221 

causes of 175 

difiiculty of obtaining 178, 179 

injuries in, causes of 234, 235 

number of 234, 235 

rateof 182,183,217,236,237 

See also various States named. 

Utah, mining law of, digest of 161, 162 

Utah mines, inspection of 104 

signals used in 128 



Ventilation, mine, factors affecting 107, 108 

Inadequate, fatalities from 58 

methods used for 107, 108 

need of 10^,108 

recommendations regarding 279 

regulations regarding 58, 90 

State laws regarding. . . 134, 148, 151, 154, 156 
Victoria, mines in, fatalities in, causes of.. 230,231 

number of 192, 230, 231 

rate of 194, 232, 233 

injuries in, causes of 242, 243 

number of 201, 242, 243 

rate of 202, 244, 245 

men employed in 205 

Virginia, mine inspection in 164 

Virginia, Minn. , mine accident at 255 

Visitors to mines, State laws regarding 141, 163 

Voltage, definition of 73 

• rule regarding 74, 93 

See also Potential. 

W. 

Wages, payment of. State law regarding 154 

Wales, mining conditions in, investigation of. 277 
Walter, E. W., on accident in mine at Ely, 

Nev 273,274 

Wash room, maintenance of. State law re- 
garding 157 

rule regarding 71, 93 

Washington, mine inspection in 1G4 

mining law of, digest of 162 

Water, drinking, in mines, regulations re- 
garding 59, 90 

inrush of, accident resulting from 278 

fatalities caused by, number of 218, 

222, 223, 230 

rate of 220, 226, 227, 232 

injuries caused by, number of. . 234, 238, 242 

rateof 236,240,244 

protection against, rules regarding. 66, 67, 92 

State law regarding 134 

Webb City, Mo., mine accident near 255 

Whims, use of, rule regarding 64,91 

White, E . L. , work of, on mining law 4 

Williams-Luhman mine, Wyo., accident in. . 255 
Winding engines, standard specifications for. . 123 
Winze, underground, protection of, State law 

regarding i.'A 

rules regarding..' 69,92 



296 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Wisconsin, mine inspection in 1C4 

Wolflin, H. M., work of, on mining conditions 

in California : 164 

Women, employment of, in mines, regula- 
tions regarding 53,89 

State law regarding 157 

Workings, definition of 14 

disused, fencing of, rule regarding 65, 66, 91 

Workmen, committee of, for mine inspection, 

advantages of 25 1 



Page. 

Workmen's compensation laws, value of 246 

Wyoming, mining law of, digest of 162, 163 

Wyoming mines, inspection of 164 

signals used in 128 



Zinc and leaS mines, in U. S., fatalities in, 

number of 189 

rate of ISO, 1S9 



o